26 CFR § 1.6041-1 - Return of information as to payments of $600 or more.
(a) General rule -
(1) Information returns required -
(i) Payments required to be reported. Except as otherwise provided in §§ 1.6041-3 and 1.6041-4, every person engaged in a trade or business shall make an information return for each calendar year with respect to payments it makes during the calendar year in the course of its trade or business to another person of fixed or determinable income described in paragraph (a)(1)(i) (A) or (B) of this section. For purposes of the regulations under this section, the person described in this paragraph (a)(1)(i) is a payor.
(ii) Information returns required under other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. The payments described in paragraphs (a)(1)(i)(A) and (B) of this section shall not include any payments of amounts with respect to which an information return is required by, or may be required under authority of, section 6042(a) (relating to dividends), section 6043(a)(2) (relating to distributions in liquidation), section 6044(a) (relating to patronage dividends), section 6045 (relating to brokers' transactions with customers and certain other transactions), sections 6049(a)(1) and (2) (relating to interest), section 6050N(a) (relating to royalties), or section 6050P(a) or (b) (relating to cancellation of indebtedness). For information returns required under section 6045(f) (relating to payments to attorneys), see special rules in §§ 1.6041-1(a)(1)(iii) and 1.6045-5(c)(4). For payment card transactions (as described in § 1.6050W-1(b)) and third party network transactions (as defined in § 1.6050W-1(c)) required to be reported on information returns required under section 6050W (relating to payment card and third party network transactions), see special rules in § 1.6041-1(a)(1)(iv).
(iii) Information returns required under section 6045(f) on or after January 1, 2007. For payments made on or after January 1, 2007 to which section 6045(f) (relating to payments to attorneys) applies, the following rules apply. Not withstanding the provisions of paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section, payments to an attorney that are described in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section but which otherwise would be reportable under section 6045(f) are reported under section 6041 and this section and not section 6045(f). This exception applies only if the payments are reportable with respect to the same payee under both sections. Thus, a person who, in the course of a trade or business, pays $600 of taxable damages to a claimant by paying that amount to the claimant's attorney is required to file an information return under section 6041 with respect to the claimant, as well as another information return under section 6045(f) with respect to the claimant's attorney. For provisions relating to information reporting for payments to attorneys, see § 1.6045-5.
(iv) Information returns required under section 6050W for calendar years beginning after December 31, 2010. For payments made by payment card (as defined in § 1.6050W-1(b)(3)) or through a third party payment network (as defined in § 1.6050W-1(c)(3)) after December 31, 2010, that are required to be reported on an information return under section 6050W (relating to payment card and third party network transactions), the following rule applies. Transactions that are described in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section that otherwise would be subject to reporting under both sections 6041 and 6050W are reported under section 6050W and not section 6041. For provisions relating to information reporting for payment card and third party network transactions, see § 1.6050W-1. Solely for purposes of this paragraph, the de minimis threshold for third party network transactions in § 1.6050W-1(c)(4) is disregarded in determining whether the transaction is subject to reporting under section 6050W.
(v) Examples. The provisions of paragraph (a)(1)(iv) of this section are illustrated by the following examples:
(2) Prescribed form. The return required by subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall be made on Forms 1096 and 1099 except that (i) the return with respect to distributions to beneficiaries of a trust or of an estate shall be made on Form 1041, and (ii) the return with respect to certain payments of compensation to an employee by his employer shall be made on Forms W-3 and W-2 under the provisions of § 1.6041-2 (relating to return of information as to payments to employees). Where Form 1099 is required to be filed under this section, a separate Form 1099 shall be furnished for each person to whom payments described in subdivision (i), (ii), or (iii) of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph are made. For time and place for filing Forms 1096 and 1099, see § 1.6041-6. For the requirement to submit the information required by Form 1099 on magnetic media for payments after December 31, 1983, see section 6011(e) and § 301.6011-2 of this chapter (Procedure and Administration Regulations).
(b) Persons engaged in trade or business -
(1) In general. The term “all persons engaged in a trade or business”, as used in section 6041(a), includes not only those so engaged for gain or profit, but also organizations the activities of which are not for the purpose of gain or profit. Thus, the term includes the organizations referred to in section 401(a), 501(c), 501(d) and 521 and in paragraph (i) of this section. On the other hand, section 6041(a) applies only to payments in the course of trade or business; hence it does not apply to an amount paid by the proprietor of a business to a physician for medical services rendered by the physician to the proprietor's child.
(2) Special rule for REMICs. For purposes of chapter 1 subtitle F, chapter 61A, part IIIB, the terms “all persons engaged in a trade or business” and “any service-recipient engaged in a trade or business” includes a real estate mortgage investment conduit or REMIC (as defined in section 860D).
(c) Fixed or determinable income. Income is fixed when it is to be paid in amounts definitely predetermined. Income is determinable whenever there is a basis of calculation by which the amount to be paid may be ascertained. The income need not be paid annually or at regular intervals. The fact that the payments may be increased or decreased in accordance with the happening of an event does not for purposes of this section make the payments any the less determinable. A payment made jointly to two or more payees may be fixed and determinable income to one payee even though the payment is not fixed and determinable income to another payee. For example, property insurance proceeds paid jointly to the owner of damaged property and to a contractor that repairs the property may be fixed and determinable income to the contractor but not fixed and determinable income to the owner, and should be reported to the contractor. A salesman working by the month for a commission on sales which is paid or credited monthly receives determinable income.
(d) Payments specifically included -
(ii) Unless the payment is made by reason of the surrender prior to maturity or lapse of a policy, other than a policy which was purchased (a) by a trust described in section 401(a) which is exempt from tax under section 501(a), (b) as part of a plan described in section 403(a), or (c) by an employer described in section 403(b)(1)(A),
(2) Professional fees. Fees for professional services paid to attorneys, physicians, and members of other professions are required to be reported in returns of information if paid by persons engaged in a trade or business and paid in the course of such trade or business.
(3) Prizes and awards. Amounts paid as prizes and awards that are required to be included in gross income under section 74 and § 1.74-1 when paid in the course of a trade or business are required to be reported in returns of information under this section.
(5) Notional principal contracts. Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(5)(i) and (ii) of this section, amounts paid after December 31, 2000, with respect to notional principal contracts referred to in § 1.863-7 or 1.988-2(e) to persons who are not described in § 1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii) are required to be reported in returns of information under this section. The amount required to be reported under this paragraph (d)(5) is limited to the amount of cash paid from the notional principal contract as described in § 1.446-3(d). A non-periodic payment is reportable for the year in which an actual payment is made. Any amount of interest determined under the provisions of § 1.446-3(g)(4) (dealing with interest in the case of a significant non-periodic payment) is reportable under this paragraph (d)(5) and not under section 6049 (see § 1.6049-5(b)(15)). See § 1.6041-4(a)(4) for reporting exceptions regarding payments to foreign persons. See, however, § 1.1461-1(c)(1) for reporting amounts described under this paragraph (d)(5) that are paid to foreign persons. The provisions of § 1.6049-5(d) shall apply for determining whether a payment with respect to a notional principal contract is made to a foreign person. See § 1.6049-4(a) for a definition of payor. For purposes of this paragraph (d)(5), a payor includes a middleman defined in § 1.6049-4(f)(4).
(i) An amount paid with respect to a notional principal contract is not required to be reported if the amount is paid by a non-U.S. payor or a non-U.S. middleman and is paid and received outside the United States (as defined in § 1.6049-4(f)(16)).
(ii) An amount paid with respect to a notional principal contract is not required to be reported if the amount is paid by a payor that has no actual knowledge that the payee is a U.S. person and is paid and received outside the United States (as defined in § 1.6049-4(f)(16)), and the payor is -
(A) A U.S. payor or U.S. middleman that is not a U.S. person (such as a controlled foreign corporation defined in section 957(a) or certain foreign corporations or foreign partnerships engaged in a U.S. trade or business); or
(e) Payment made on behalf of another person -
(1) In general. A person that makes a payment in the course of its trade or business on behalf of another person is the payor that must make a return of information under this section with respect to that payment if the payment is described in paragraph (a) of this section and, under all the facts and circumstances, that person -
(i) Performs management or oversight functions in connection with the payment (this would exclude, for example, a person who performs mere administrative or ministerial functions such as writing checks at another's direction); or
(ii) Has a significant economic interest in the payment (i.e., an economic interest that would be compromised if the payment were not made, such as by creation of a mechanic's lien on property to which the payment relates, or a loss of collateral).
(2) Determination of payor obligated to report. If two or more persons meet the requirements for making a return of information with respect to a payment, as set forth in paragraph (e)(1) of this section, the person obligated to report the payment is the person closest in the chain to the payee, unless the parties agree in writing that one of the other parties meeting the requirements set forth in paragraph (e)(1) of this section will report the payment.
(3) Special rule for payment by employee to employer. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (e)(1) of this section, an employee acting in the course of his employment who makes a payment to his employer on behalf of another person is not required to make a return of information with respect to that payment.
(4) Optional method to report. A person that makes a payment on behalf of another person but is not required to make an information return under paragraph (e)(1) of this section may elect to do so pursuant to the procedures established by the Commissioner. See, e.g., Rev. Proc. 84-33 (1984-1 C.B. 502) (optional method for a paying agent to report and deposit amounts withheld for payors under the statutory provisions of backup withholding) (see § 601.601(d)(2) of this chapter).
(5) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph (e) are illustrated by the following examples:
(f) Amount to be reported when fees, expenses or commissions are deducted -
(1) In general. The amount to be reported as paid to a payee is the amount includible in the gross income of the payee (which in many cases will be the gross amount of the payment or payments before fees, commissions, expenses, or other amounts owed by the payee to another person have been deducted), whether the payment is made jointly or separately to the payee and another person. The Commissioner may, by guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin, illustrate the circumstances under which the gross amount or less than the gross amount may be reported.
(g) Payment made in medium other than cash. If any payment required to be reported on Form 1099 is made in property other than money, the fair market value of the property at the time of payment is the amount to be included on such form.
(h) When payment deemed made. For purposes of a return of information, an amount is deemed to have been paid when it is credited or set apart to a person without any substantial limitation or restriction as to the time or manner of payment or condition upon which payment is to be made, and is made available to him so that it may be drawn at any time, and its receipt brought within his own control and disposition.
(i) Payments made by the United States or a State. Information returns on:
(1) Forms 1096 and 1099 and
(2) Forms W-3 and W-2 (when made under the provisions of § 1.6041-2)
(j) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to payments made on or after January 6, 2017. (For payments made after June 30, 2014, and before January 6, 2017, see this section as in effect and contained in 26 CFR part 1, as revised April 1, 2016. For payments made after December 31, 2010, and before July 1, 2014, see this section as in effect and contained in 26 CFR part 1, as revised April 1, 2013.)