26 CFR 1.61-21 - Taxation of fringe benefits.

§ 1.61-21 Taxation of fringe benefits.

(a)Fringe benefits -

(1)In general. Section 61(a)(1) provides that, except as otherwise provided in subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, gross income includes compensation for services, including fees, commissions, fringe benefits, and similar items. For an outline of the regulations under this section relating to fringe benefits, see paragraph (a)(7) of this section. Examples of fringe benefits include: an employer-provided automobile, a flight on an employer-provided aircraft, an employer-provided free or discounted commercial airline flight, an employer-provided vacation, an employer-provided discount on property or services, an employer-provided membership in a country club or other social club, and an employer-provided ticket to an entertainment or sporting event.

(2)Fringe benefits excluded from income. To the extent that a particular fringe benefit is specifically excluded from gross income pursuant to another section of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, that section shall govern the treatment of that fringe benefit. Thus, if the requirements of the governing section are satisfied, the fringe benefits may be excludable from gross income. Examples of excludable fringe benefits include qualified tuition reductions provided to an employee (section 117(d)); meals or lodging furnished to an employee for the convenience of the employer (section 119); benefits provided under a dependent care assistance program (section 129); and no-additional-cost services, qualified employee discounts, working condition fringes, and de minimis fringes (section 132). Similarly, the value of the use by an employee of an employer-provided vehicle or a flight provided to an employee on an employer-provided aircraft may be excludable from income under section 105 (because, for example, the transportation is provided for medical reasons) if and to the extent that the requirements of that section are satisfied. Section 134 excludes from gross income “qualified military benefits.” An example of a benefit that is not a qualified military benefit is the personal use of an employer-provided vehicle. The fact that another section of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code addresses the taxation of a particular fringe benefit will not preclude section 61 and the regulations thereunder from applying, to the extent that they are not inconsistent with such other section. For example, many fringe benefits specifically addressed in other sections of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code are excluded from gross income only to the extent that they do not exceed specific dollar or percentage limits, or only if certain other requirements are met. If the limits are exceeded or the requirements are not met, some or all of the fringe benefit may be includible in gross income pursuant to section 61. See paragraph (b)(3) of this section.

(3)Compensation for services. A fringe benefit provided in connection with the performance of services shall be considered to have been provided as compensation for such services. Refraining from the performance of services (such as pursuant to a covenant not to compete) is deemed to be the performance of services for purposes of this section.

(4)Person to whom fringe benefit is taxable -

(i)In general. A taxable fringe benefit is included in the income of the person performing the services in connection with which the fringe benefit is furnished. Thus, a fringe benefit may be taxable to a person even though that person did not actually receive the fringe benefit. If a fringe benefit is furnished to someone other than the service provider such benefit is considered in this section as furnished to the service provider, and use by the other person is considered use by the service provider. For example, the provision of an automobile by an employer to an employee's spouse in connection with the performance of services by the employee is taxable to the employee. The automobile is considered available to the employee and use by the employee's spouse is considered use by the employee.

(ii)All persons to whom benefits are taxable referred to as employees. The person to whom a fringe benefit is taxable need not be an employee of the provider of the fringe benefit, but may be, for example, a partner, director, or an independent contractor. For convenience, the term “employee” includes any person performing services in connection with which a fringe benefit is furnished, unless otherwise specifically provided in this section.

(5)Provider of a fringe benefit referred to as an employer. The “provider” of a fringe benefit is that person for whom the services are performed, regardless of whether that person actually provides the fringe benefit to the recipient. The provider of a fringe benefit need not be the employer of the recipient of the fringe benefit, but may be, for example, a client or customer of the employer or of an independent contractor. For convenience, the term “employer” includes any provider of a fringe benefit in connection with payment for the performance of services, unless otherwise specifically provided in this section.

(6)Effective date. Except as otherwise provided, this section is effective as of January 1, 1989 with respect to fringe benefits provided after December 31, 1988. See § 1.61-2T for rules in effect from January 1, 1985, to December 31, 1988.

(7)Outline of this section. The following is an outline of the regulations in this section relating to fringe benefits:

§ 1.61-21 (a) Fringe benefits.

(1) In general.

(2) Fringe benefits excluded from income.

(3) Compensation for services.

(4) Person to whom fringe benefit is taxable.

(5) Provider of a fringe benefit referred to as an employer.

(6) Effective date.

(7) Outline of this section.

§ 1.61-21 (b) Valuation of fringe benefits

(1) In general.

(2) Fair market value.

(3) Exclusion from income based on cost.

(4) Fair market value of the availability of an employer-provided vehicle.

(5) Fair market value of chauffeur services.

(6) Fair market value of a flight on an employer-provided piloted aircraft.

(7) Fair market value of the use of an employer-provided aircraft for which the employer does not furnish a pilot.

§ 1.61-21 (c) Special valuation rules.

(1) In general.

(2) Use of the special valuation rules.

(3) Additional rules for using special valuation.

(4) Application of section 414 to employers.

(5) Valuation formulae contained in the special valuation rules.

(6) Modification of the special valuation rules.

(7) Special accounting rule.

§ 1.61-21 (d) Automobile lease valuation rule.

(1) In general.

(2) Calculation of Annual Lease Value.

(3) Services included in, or excluded from, the Annual Lease Value Table.

(4) Availability of an automobile for less than an entire calendar year.

(5) Fair market value.

(6) Special rules for continuous availability of certain automobiles.

(7) Consistency rules.

§ 1.61-21 (e)Vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule.

(1) In general.

(2) Definition of vehicle.

(3) Services included in, or excluded from, the cents-per-mile rate.

(4) Valuation of personal use only.

(5) Consistency rules.

§ 1.61-21 (f) Commuting valuation rule.

(1) In general.

(2) Special rules.

(3) Commuting value.

(4) Definition of vehicle.

(5) Control employee defined - Non-government employer.

(6) Control employee defined - Government employer.

(7) “Compensation” defined.

§ 1.61-21 (g) Non-commercial flight valuation rule.

(1) In general.

(2) Eligible flights and eligible aircraft.

(3) Definition of a flight.

(4) Personal and non-personal flights.

(5) Aircraft valuation formula.

(6) Discretion to provide new formula.

(7) Aircraft multiples.

(8) Control employee defined - Non-government employer.

(9) Control employee defined - Government employer.

(10) “Compensation” defined.

(11) Treatment of former employees.

(12) Seating capacity rule.

(13) Erroneous use of the non-commercial flight valuation rule.

(14) Consistency rules.

§ 1.61-21 (h) Commercial flight valuation rule.

(1) In general.

(2) Space-available flight.

(3) Commercial aircraft.

(4) Timing of inclusion.

(5) Consistency rules.

§ 1.61-21 (i) [Reserved]

§ 1.61-21 (j) Valuation of meals provided at an employer-operated eating facility for employees.

(1) In general.

(2) Valuation formula.

§ 1.61-21 (k) Commuting valuation rule for certain employees.

(1) In general.

(2) Trip-by-trip basis.

(3) Commuting value.

(4) Definition of employer-provided transportation.

(5) Unsafe conditions.

(6) Qualified employee defined.

(7) Examples.

(8) Effective date.

(b)Valuation of fringe benefits -

(1)In general. An employee must include in gross income the amount by which the fair market value of the fringe benefit exceeds the sum of -

(i) The amount, if any, paid for the benefit by or on behalf of the recipient, and

(ii) The amount, if any, specifically excluded from gross income by some other section of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

Therefore, for example, if the employee pays fair market value for what is received, no amount is includible in the gross income of the employee. In general, the determination of the fair market value of a fringe benefit must be made before subtracting out the amount, if any, paid for the benefit and the amount, if any, specifically excluded from gross income by another section of subtitle A. See paragraphs (d)(2)(ii) and (e)(1)(iii) of this section.

(2)Fair market value. In general, fair market value is determined on the basis of all the facts and circumstances. Specifically, the fair market value of a fringe benefit is the amount that an individual would have to pay for the particular fringe benefit in an arm's-length transaction. Thus, for example, the effect of any special relationship that may exist between the employer and the employee must be disregarded. Similarly, an employee's subjective perception of the value of a fringe benefit is not relevant to the determination of the fringe benefit's fair market value nor is the cost incurred by the employer determinative of its fair market value. For special rules relating to the valuation of certain fringe benefits, see paragraph (c) of this section.

(3)Exclusion from income based on cost. If a statutory exclusion phrased in terms of cost applies to the provision of a fringe benefit, section 61 does not require the inclusion in the recipient's gross income of the difference between the fair market value and the excludable cost of that fringe benefit. For example, section 129 provides an exclusion from an employee's gross income for amounts contributed by an employer to a dependent care assistance program for employees. Even if the fair market value of the dependent care assistance exceeds the employer's cost, the excess is not subject to inclusion under section 61 and this section. However, if the statutory cost exclusion is a limited amount, the fair market value of the fringe benefit attributable to any excess cost is subject to inclusion. This would be the case, for example, where an employer pays or incurs a cost of more than $5,000 to provide dependent care assistance to an employee.

(4)Fair market value of the availability of an employer-provided vehicle -

(i)In general. If the vehicle special valuation rules of paragraph (d), (e), or (f) of this section do not apply with respect to an employer-provided vehicle, the value of the availability of that vehicle is determined under the general valuation principles set forth in this section. In general, that value equals the amount that an individual would have to pay in an arm's-length transaction to lease the same or comparable vehicle on the same or comparable conditions in the geographic area in which the vehicle is available for use. An example of a comparable condition is the amount of time that the vehicle is available to the employee for use, e.g., a one-year period. Unless the employee can substantiate that the same or comparable vehicle could have been leased on a cents-per-mile basis, the value of the availability of the vehicle cannot be computed by applying a cents-per-mile rate to the number of miles the vehicle is driven.

(ii)Certain equipment excluded. The fair market value of a vehicle does not include the fair market value of any specialized equipment not susceptible to personal use or any telephone that is added to or carried in the vehicle, provided that the presence of that equipment or telephone is necessitated by, and attributable to, the business needs of the employer. However, the value of specialized equipment must be included, if the employee to whom the vehicle is available uses the specialized equipment in a trade or business of the employee other than the employee's trade or business of being an employee of the employer.

(5)Fair market value of chauffeur services -

(i)Determination of value -

(A)In general. The fair market value of chauffeur services provided to the employee by the employer is the amount that an individual would have to pay in an arm's-length transaction to obtain the same or comparable chauffeur services in the geographic area for the period in which the services are provided. In determining the applicable fair market value, the amount of time, if any, the chauffeur remains on-call to perform chauffeur services must be included. For example, assume that A, an employee of corporation M, needs a chauffeur to be on-call to provide services to A during a twenty-four hour period. If during that twenty-four hour period, the chauffeur actually drives A for only six hours, the fair market value of the chauffeur services would have to be the value of having a chauffeur on-call for a twenty-four hour period. The cost of taxi fare or limousine service for the six hours the chauffeur actually drove A would not be an accurate measure of the fair market value of chauffeur services provided to A. Moreover, all other aspects of the chauffeur's services (including any special qualifications of the chauffeur (e.g., training in evasive driving skills) or the ability of the employee to choose the particular chauffeur) must be taken into consideration.

(B)Alternative valuation with reference to compensation paid. Alternatively, the fair market value of the chauffeur services may be determined by reference to the compensation (as defined in paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section) received by the chauffeur from the employer.

(C)Separate valuation for chauffeur services. The value of chauffeur services is determined separately from the value of the availability of an employer-provided vehicle.

(ii)Definition of compensation -

(A)In general. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(5)(ii), the term “compensation” means compensation as defined in section 414(q)(7) and the fair market value of nontaxable lodging (if any) provided by the employer to the chauffeur in the current year.

(B)Adjustments to compensation - For purposes of this paragraph (b)(5)(ii), a chauffeur's compensation is reduced proportionately to reflect the amount of time during which the chauffeur performs substantial services for the employer other than as a chauffeur and is not on-call as a chauffeur. For example, assume a chauffeur is paid $25,000 a year for working a ten-hour day, five days a week and also receives $5,000 in nontaxable lodging. Further assume that during four hours of each day, the chauffeur is not on-call to perform services as a chauffeur because that individual is performing secretarial functions for the employer. Then, for purposes of determining the fair market value of this chauffeur's services, the employer may reduce the chauffeur's compensation by 4/10 or $12,000 (.4 × ($25,000 $5,000) = $12,000). Therefore, in this example, the fair market value of the chauffeur's services is $18,000 ($30,000 −$12,000). However, for purposes of this paragraph (b)(5)(ii), a chauffeur's compensation is not to be reduced by any amounts paid to the chauffeur for time spent “on-call,” even though the chauffeur actually performs other services for the employer during such time. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(5)(ii), a determination that a chauffeur is performing substantial services for the employer other than as a chauffeur is based upon the facts and circumstances of each situation. An employee will be deemed to be performing substantial services for the employer other than as a chauffeur if a certain portion of each working day is regularly spent performing other services for the employer.

(iii)Calculation of chauffeur services for personal purposes of the employee. The fair market value of chauffeur services provided to the employee for personal purposes may be determined by multiplying the fair market value of chauffeur services, as determined pursuant to paragraph (b)(5)(i) (A) or (B) of this section, by a fraction, the numerator of which is equal to the sum of the hours spent by the chauffeur actually providing personal driving services to the employee and the hours spent by the chauffeur in “personal on-call time,” and the denominator of which is equal to all hours the chauffeur spends in driving services of any kind paid for by the employer, including all hours that are “on-call.”

(iv)Definition of on-call time. For purposes of this paragraph, the term “on-call time” means the total amount of time that the chauffeur is not engaged in the actual performance of driving services, but during which time the chauffeur is available to perform such services. With respect to a round-trip, time spent by a chauffeur waiting for an employee to make a return trip is generally not treated as on-call time; rather such time is treated as part of the round-trip.

(v)Definition of personal on-call time. For purposes of this paragraph, the term “personal on-call time” means the amount of time outside the employee's normal working hours for the employer when the chauffeur is available to the employee to perform driving services.

(vi)Presumptions.

(A) An employee's normal working hours will be presumed to consist of a ten hour period during which the employee usually conducts business activities for that employer.

(B) It will be presumed that if the chauffeur is on-call to provide driving services to an employee during the employee's normal working hours, then that on-call time will be performed for business purposes.

(C) Similarly, if the chauffeur is on-call to perform driving services to an employee after normal working hours, then that on-call time will be presumed to be “personal on-call time.”

(D) The presumptions set out in paragraph (b)(5)(vi) (A), (B), and (C) of this section may be rebutted. For example, an employee may demonstrate by adequate substantiation that his or her normal working hours consist of more than ten hours. Furthermore, if the employee keeps adequate records and is able to substantiate that some portion of the driving services performed by the chauffeur after normal working hours is attributable to business purposes, then personal on-call time may be reduced by an amount equal to such personal on-call time multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is equal to the time spent by the chauffeur after normal working hours driving the employee for business purposes, and the denominator of which is equal to the total time spent by the chauffeur driving the employee after normal working hours for all purposes.

(vii)Examples. The rules of this paragraph (b)(5) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
An employer makes available to employee A an automobile and a full-time chauffeur B (who performs no other services for A's employer) for an entire calendar year. Assume that the automobile lease valuation rule of paragraph (d) of this section is used and that the Annual Lease Value of the automobile is $9,250. Assume further that B's compensation for the year is $12,000 (as defined in section 414(q)(7)) and that B is furnished lodging with a value of $3,000 that is excludable from B's gross income. The maximum amount subject to inclusion in A's gross income for use of the automobile and chauffeur is therefore $24,250 ($12,000 $3,000 $9,250). If 70 percent of the miles placed on the automobile during the year are for A's employer's business, then $6,475 is excludable from A's gross income with respect to the automobile as a working condition fringe ($9,250 × .70). Thus, $2,775 is includible in A's gross income with respect to the automobile ($9,250−$6,475). With respect to the chauffeur, if 20 percent of the chauffeur's time is spent actually driving A or being on-call to drive A for personal purposes; then $3,000 is includible in A's income (.20 × $15,000). Eighty percent of $15,000, or $12,000, is excluded from A's income as a working condition fringe.
Example 2.
Assume the same facts as in example (1) except that in addition to providing chauffeur services, B is responsible for performing substantial non-chauffeur-related duties (such as clerical or secretarial functions) during which time B is not “on-call” as a chauffeur. If B spends only 75 percent of the time performing chauffeur services, then the maximum amount subject to inclusion in A's gross income for use of the automobile and chauffeur is $20,500 (($15,000 × .75) $9,250). If B is actually driving A for personal purposes or is on-call to drive A for personal purposes for 20 percent of the time during which B is available to provide chauffeur services, then $2,250 is includible in A's gross income (.20 × $11,250). The income inclusion with respect to the automobile is the same as in example (1).
Example 3.
Assume the same facts as in example (2) except that while B is performing non-chauffeur-related duties, B is on call as A's chauffeur. No part of B's compensation is excluded when determining the value of the benefit provided to A. Thus, as in example (1), $3,000 is includible in A's gross income with respect to the chauffeur.

(6)Fair market value of a flight on an employer-provided piloted aircraft -

(i)In general. If the non-commercial flight special valuation rule of paragraph (g) of this section does not apply, the value of a flight on an employer-provided piloted aircraft is determined under the general valuation principles set forth in this paragraph.

(ii)Value of flight. If an employee takes a flight on an employer-provided piloted aircraft and that employee's flight is primarily personal (see § 1.162-2(b)(2)), the value of the flight is equal to the amount that an individual would have to pay in an arm's-length transaction to charter the same or a comparable piloted aircraft for that period for the same or a comparable flight. A flight taken under these circumstances may not be valued by reference to the cost of commercial airfare for the same or a comparable flight. The cost to charter the aircraft must be allocated among all employees on board the aircraft based on all the facts and circumstances unless one or more of the employees controlled the use of the aircraft. Where one or more employees control the use of the aircraft, the value of the flight shall be allocated solely among such controlling employees, unless a written agreement among all the employees on the flight otherwise allocates the value of such flight. Notwithstanding the allocation required by the preceding sentence, no additional amount shall be included in the income of any employee whose flight is properly valued under the special valuation rule of paragraph (g) of this section. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(6), “control” means the ability of the employee to determine the route, departure time and destination of the flight. The rules provided in paragraph (g)(3) of this section will be used for purposes of this section in defining a flight. Notwithstanding the allocation required by the preceding sentence, no additional amount shall be included in the income of an employee for that portion of any such flight which is excludible from income pursuant to section 132(d) or § 1.132-5 as a working condition fringe.

(iii)Examples. The rules of paragraph (b)(6) of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
An employer makes available to employees A and B a piloted aircraft in New York, New York. A wants to go to Los Angeles, California for personal purposes. B needs to go to Chicago, Illinois for business purposes, and then wants to go to Los Angeles, California for personal purposes. Therefore, the aircraft first flies to Chicago, and B deplanes and then boards the plane again. The aircraft then flies to Los Angeles, California where A and B deplane. The value of the flight to employee A will be no more than the amount that an individual would have to pay in an arm's length transaction to charter the same or a comparable piloted aircraft for the same or comparable flight from New York City to Los Angeles. No amount will be imputed to employee A for the stop at Chicago. As to employee B, the value of the personal flight will be no more than the value or the flight from Chicago to Los Angeles. Pursuant to the rules set forth in § 1.132-5(k), the flight from New York to Chicago will not be included in employee B's income since that flight was taken solely for business purposes. The charter cost must be allocated between A and B, since both employees controlled portions of the flight. Assume that the employer allocates according to the relative value of each employee's flight. If the charter value of A's flight from New York City to Los Angeles is $1,000 and the value of B's flight from Chicago to Los Angeles is $600 and the value of the actual flight from New York to Chicago to Los Angeles is $1,200, then the amount to be allocated to employee A is $750 ($1,000/($1,000 $600) × $1,200) and the amount to be allocated to employee B is $450 ($600/($1000 $600) × $1,200).
Example 2.
Assume the same facts as in example (1), except that employee A also deplanes at Chicago, Illinois, but for personal purposes. The value of the flight to employee A then becomes the value of a flight from New York to Chicago to Los Angeles, i.e., $1,200. Therefore, the amount to be allocated to employee A is $800 ($1,200/($1,200 $600) × $1,200) and the amount to be allocated to employee B is $400 ($600/($1,200 $600) × $1,200).

(7)Fair market value of the use of an employer-provided aircraft for which the employer does not furnish a pilot -

(i)In general. If the non-commercial flight special valuation rule of paragraph (g) of this section does not apply and if an employer provides an employee with the use of an aircraft without a pilot, the value of the use of the employer-provided aircraft is determined under the general valuation principles set forth in this paragraph (b)(7).

(ii)Value of flight. In general, if an employee takes a flight on an employer-provided aircraft for which the employer does not furnish a pilot, the value of that flight is equal to the amount that an individual would have to pay in an arm's-length transaction to lease the same or comparable aircraft on the same or comparable terms for the same period in the geographic area in which the aircraft is used. For example, if an employer makes its aircraft available to an employee who will pilot the aircraft for a two-hour flight, the value of the use of the aircraft is the amount that an individual would have to pay in an arm's-length transaction to rent a comparable aircraft for that period in the geographic area in which the aircraft is used. As another example, assume that an employee uses an employer-provided aircraft to commute between home and work. The value of the use of the aircraft is the amount that an individual would have to pay in an arm's-length transaction to rent a comparable aircraft for commuting in the geographic area in which the aircraft is used. If the availability of the flight is of benefit to more than one employee, then such value shall be allocated among such employees on the basis of the relevant facts and circumstances.

(c)Special valuation rules -

(1)In general. Paragraphs (d) through (k) of this section provide special valuation rules that may be used under certain circumstances for certain commonly provided fringe benefits. For general rules relating to the valuation of fringe benefits not eligible for valuation under the special valuation rules or fringe benefits with respect to which the special valuation rules are not used, see paragraph (b) of this section.

(2)Use of the special valuation rules -

(i)For benefits provided before January 1, 1993. The special valuation rules may be used for income tax, employment tax, and reporting purposes. The employer has the option to use any of the special valuation rules. However, an employee may only use a special valuation rule if the employer uses the rule. Moreover, an employee may only use the special rule that the employer uses to value the benefit provided; the employee may not use another special rule to value that benefit. The employee may always use general valuation rules based on facts and circumstances (see paragraph (b) of this section) even if the employer uses a special rule. If a special rule is used, it must be used for all purposes. If an employer properly uses a special rule and the employee uses the special rule, the employee must include in gross income the amount determined by the employer under the special rule reduced by the sum of -

(A) Any amount reimbursed by the employee to the employer, and

(B) Any amount excludable from income under another section of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986. If an employer properly uses a special rule and properly determines the amount of an employee's working condition fringe under section 132 and § 1.132-5 (under the general rule or under a special rule), and the employee uses the special valuation rule, the employee must include in gross income the amount determined by the employer less any amount reimbursed by the employee to the employer. The employer and employee may use the special rules to determine the amount of the reimbursement due the employer by the employee. Thus, if an employee reimburses an employer for the value of a benefit as determined under a special valuation rule, no amount is includable in the employee's gross income with respect to the benefit. The provisions of this paragraph are effective for benefits provided before January 1, 1993.

(ii)For benefits provided after December 31, 1992. The special valuation rules may be used for income tax, employment tax, and reporting purposes. The employer has the option to use any of the special valuation rules. An employee may use a special valuation rule only if the employer uses that rule or the employer does not meet the condition of paragraph (c)(3)(ii)(A) of this section, but one of the other conditions of paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section is met. The employee may always use general valuation rules based on facts and circumstances (see paragraph (b) of this section) even if the employer uses a special rule. If a special rule is used, it must be used for all purposes. If an employer properly uses a special rule and the employee uses the special rule, the employee must include in gross income the amount determined by the employer under the special rule reduced by the sum of -

(A) Any amount reimbursed by the employee to the employer; and

(B) Any amount excludable from income under another section of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986. If an employer properly uses a special rule and properly determines the amount of an employee's working condition fringe under section 132 and § 1.132-5 (under the general rule or under a special rule), and the employee uses the special valuation rule, the employee must include in gross income the amount determined by the employer less any amount reimbursed by the employee to the employer. The employer and employee may use the special rules to determine the amount of the reimbursement due the employer by the employee. Thus, if an employee reimburses an employer for the value of a benefit as determined under a special valuation rule, no amount is includible in the employee's gross income with respect to the benefit. The provisions of this paragraph are effective for benefits provided after December 31, 1992.

(iii)Vehicle special valuation rules -

(A)Vehicle by vehicle basis. Except as provided in paragraphs (d)(7)(v) and (e)(5)(v) of this section, the vehicle special valuation rules of paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section apply on a vehicle by vehicle basis. An employer need not use the same vehicle special valuation rule for all vehicles provided to all employees. For example, an employer may use the automobile lease valuation rule for automobiles provided to some employees, and the commuting and vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rules for automobiles provided to other employees. For purposes of valuing the use or availability of a vehicle, the consistency rules provided in paragraphs (d)(7) and (e)(5) of this section (relating to the automobile lease valuation rule and the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule, respectively) apply.

(B)Shared vehicle usage. If an employer provides a vehicle to employees for use by more than one employee at the same time, such as with an employer-sponsored vehicle commuting pool, the employer may use any of the special valuation rules that may be applicable to value the use of the vehicle by the employees. The employer must use the same special valuation rule to value the use of the vehicle by each employee who shares such use. The employer must allocate the value of the use of the vehicle based on the relevant facts and circumstances among the employees who share use of the vehicle. For example, assume that an employer provides an automobile to four of its employees and that the employees use the automobile in an employer-sponsored vehicle commuting pool. Assume further that the employer uses the automobile lease valuation rule of paragraph (d) of this section and that the Annual Lease Value of the automobile is $5,000.

The employer must treat $5,000 as the value of the availability of the automobile to the employees, and must apportion the $5,000 value among the employees who share the use of the automobile based on the relevant facts and circumstances. Each employee's share of the value of the availability of the automobile is then to be reduced by the amount, if any, of each employee's working condition fringe exclusion and the amount reimbursed by the employee to the employer.

(iv)Commercial and noncommercial flight valuation rules. Except as otherwise provided, if either the commercial flight valuation rule or the non-commercial flight valuation rule is used, that rule must be used by an employer to value all eligible flights taken by all employees in a calendar year. See paragraph (g)(14) of this section for the applicable consistency rules.

(3)Additional rules for using special valuation -

(i)Election to use special valuation rules for benefits provided before January 1, 1993. A particular special valuation rule is deemed to have been elected by the employer (and, if applicable, by the employee), if the employer (and, if applicable, the employee) determines the value of the fringe benefit provided by applying the special valuation rule and treats that value as the fair market value of the fringe benefit for income, employment tax, and reporting purposes. Neither the employer nor the employee must notify the Internal Revenue Service of the election. The provisions of this paragraph are effective for benefits provided before January 1, 1993.

(ii)Conditions on the use of special valuation rules for benefits provided after December 31, 1992. Neither the employer nor the employee may use a special valuation rule to value a benefit provided after December 31, 1992, unless one of the following conditions is satisfied -

(A) The employer treats the value of the benefit as wages for reporting purposes within the time for filing the returns for the taxable year (including extensions) in which the benefit is provided;

(B) The employee includes the value of the benefit in income within the time for filing the returns for the taxable year (including extensions) in which the benefit is provided;

(C) The employee is not a control employee as defined in paragraphs (f)(5) and (f)(6) of this section; or

(D) The employer demonstrates a good faith effort to treat the benefit correctly for reporting purposes.

(4)Application of section 414 to employers. For purposes of paragraphs (c) through (k) of this section, except as otherwise provided therein, the term “employer” includes all entities required to be treated as a single employer under section 414 (b), (c), (m), or (o).

(5)Valuation formulae contained in the special valuation rules. The valuation formula contained in the special valuation rules are provided only for use in connection with those rules. Thus, when a special valuation rule is properly applied to a fringe benefit, the Commissioner will accept the value calculated pursuant to the rule as the fair market value of that fringe benefit. However, when a special valuation rule is not properly applied to a fringe benefit (see, for example, paragraph (g)(13) of this section), or when a special valuation rule is used to value a fringe benefit by a taxpayer not entitled to use the rule, the fair market value of that fringe benefit may not be determined by reference to any value calculated under any special valuation rule. Under the circumstances described in the preceding sentence, the fair market value of the fringe benefit must be determined pursuant to the general valuation rules of paragraph (b) of this section.

(6)Modification of the special valuation rules. The Commissioner may, to the extent necessary for tax administration, add, delete, or modify any special valuation rule, including the valuation formulae contained herein, on a prospective basis by regulation, revenue ruling or revenue procedure.

(7)Special accounting rule. If the employer is using the special accounting rule provided in Announcement 85-113 (1985-31 I.R.B. 31, August 5, 1985) (see § 601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter) (relating to the reporting of and withholding on the value of noncash fringe benefits), benefits which are deemed provided in a subsequent calendar year pursuant to that rule are considered as provided in that subsequent calendar year for purposes of the special valuation rules. Thus, if a particular special valuation rule is in effect for a calendar year, it applies to benefits deemed provided during that calendar year under the special accounting rule.

(d)Automobile lease valuation rule -

(1)In general -

(i)Annual Lease Value. Under the special valuation rule of this paragraph (d), if an employer provides an employee with an automobile that is available to the employee for an entire calendar year, the value of the benefit provided is the Annual Lease Value (determined under paragraph (d)(2) of this section) of that automobile. Except as otherwise provided, for an automobile that is available to an employee for less than an entire calendar year, the value of the benefit provided is either a pro-rated Annual Lease Value or the Daily Lease Value (both as defined in paragraph (d)(4) of this section), whichever is applicable. Absent any statutory exclusion relating to the employer-provided automobile (see, for example, section 132(a)(3) and § 1.132-5(b)), the amount of the Annual Lease Value (or a pro-rated Annual Lease Value or the Daily Lease Value, as applicable) is included in the gross income of the employee.

(ii)Definition of automobile. For purposes of this paragraph (d), the term “automobile” means any four-wheeled vehicle manufactured primarily for use on public streets, roads, and highways.

(2)Calculation of Annual Lease Value -

(i)In general. The Annual Lease Value of a particular automobile is calculated as follows:

(A) Determine the fair market value of the automobile as of the first date on which the automobile is made available to any employee of the employer for personal use. For an automobile first made available to any employee for personal use prior to January 1, 1985, determine the fair market value as of January l of the first year the special valuation rule of this paragraph (d) is used with respect to the automobile. For rules relating to determination of the fair market value of an automobile for purposes of this paragraph (d), see paragraph (d)(5) of this section.

(B) Select the dollar range in column 1 of the Annual Lease Value Table, set forth in paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section corresponding to the fair market value of the automobile. Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (d)(2) (iv) and (v) of this section, the Annual Lease Value for each year of availability of the automobile is the corresponding amount in column 2 of the Table.

(ii)Calculation of Annual Lease Value of automobile owned or leased by both an employer and an employee -

(A)Purchased automobiles. Notwithstanding anything in this section to the contrary, if an employee contributes an amount toward the purchase price of an automobile in return for a percentage ownership interest in the automobile, the Annual Lease Value or the Daily Lease Value, whichever is applicable, is determined by reducing the fair market value of the employer-provided automobile by the lesser of -

(1) The amount contributed, or

(2) An amount equal to the employee's percentage ownership interest multiplied by the unreduced fair market value of the automobile.

If the automobile is subsequently revalued, the revalued amount (determined without regard to this paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A)) is reduced by an amount which is equal to the employee's percentage ownership interest in the vehicle). If the employee does not receive an ownership interest in the employer-provided automobile, then the Annual Lease Value or the Daily Lease Value, whichever is applicable, is determined without regard to any amount contributed. For purposes of this paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A), an employee's ownership interest in an automobile will not be recognized unless it is reflected in the title of the automobile. An ownership interest reflected in the title of an automobile will not be recognized if under the facts and circumstances the title does not reflect the benefits and burdens of ownership.

(B)Leased automobiles. Notwithstanding anything in this section to the contrary, if an employee contributes an amount toward the cost to lease an automobile in return for a percentage interest in the automobile lease, the Annual Lease Value or the Daily Lease Value, whichever is applicable, is determined by reducing the fair market value of the employer-provided automobile by the amount specified in the following sentence. The amount specified in this sentence is the unreduced fair market value of a vehicle multiplied by the lesser of -

(1) The employee's percentage interest in the lease, or

(2) A fraction, the numerator of which is the amount contributed and the denominator of which is the entire lease cost.

If the automobile is subsequently revalued, the revalued amount (determined without regard to this paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(B)) is reduced by an amount which is equal to the employee's percentage interest in the lease) multiplied by the revalued amount. If the employee does not receive an interest in the automobile lease, then the Annual Lease Value or the Daily Lease Value, whichever is applicable, is determined without regard to any amount contributed. For purposes of this paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(B), an employee's interest in an automobile lease will not be recognized unless the employee is a named co-lessee on the lease. An interest in a lease will not be recognized if under the facts and circumstances the lease does not reflect the true obligations of the lessees.

(C)Example. The rules of paragraph (d)(2)(ii) (A) and (B) of this section are illustrated by the following example:

Example.
Assume that an employer pays $15,000 and an employee pays $5,000 toward the purchase of an automobile. Assume further that the employee receives a 25 percent interest in the automobile and is named as a co-owner on the title to the automobile. Under the rule of paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section, the Annual Lease Value of the automobile is determined by reducing the fair market value of the automobile ($20,000) by the $5,000 employee contribution. Thus, the Annual Lease Value of the automobile under the table in paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section is $4,350. If the employee in this example does not receive an ownership interest in the automobile and is provided the use of the automobile for two years, the Annual Lease Value would be determined without regard to the $5,000 employee contribution. Thus, the Annual Lease Value would be $5,600. The $5,000 employee contribution would reduce the amount includible in the employee's income after taking into account the amount, if any, excluded from income under another provision of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code, such as the working condition fringe exclusion. Thus, if the employee places 50 percent of the mileage on the automobile for the employer's business each year, then the amount includible in the employee's income in the first year would be ($5,600-2,800-2,800), or $0, the amount includible in the employee's income in the second year would be ($5,600-2,800-2,200 ($5,000-2,800)) or $600 and the amount includible in the third year would be ($5,600-2,800) or $2,800 since the employee's contribution has been completely used in the first two years.

(iii)Annual Lease Value Table.

Automobile fair market value Annual lease value
(1) (2)
$0 to 999 $600
1,000 to 1,999 850
2,000 to 2,999 1,100
3,000 to 3,999 1,350
4,000 to 4,999 1,600
5,000 to 5,999 1,850
6,000 to 6,999 2,100
7,000 to 7,999 2,350
8,000 to 8,999 2,600
9,000 to 9,999 2,850
10,000 to 10,999 3,100
11,000 to 11,999 3,350
12,000 to 12,999 3,600
13,000 to 13,999 3,850
14,000 to 14,999 4,100
15,000 to 15,999 4,350
16,000 to 16,999 4,600
17,000 to 17,999 4,850
18,000 to 18,999 5,100
19,000 to 19,999 5,350
20,000 to 20,999 5,600
21,000 to 21,999 5,850
22,000 to 22,999 6,100
23,000 to 23,999 6,350
24,000 to 24,999 6,600
25,000 to 25,999 6,850
26,000 to 27,999 7,250
28,000 to 29,999 7,750
30,000 to 31,999 8,250
32,000 to 33,999 8,750
34,000 to 35,999 9,250
36,000 to 37,999 9,750
38,000 to 39,999 10,250
40,000 to 41,999 10,750
42,000 to 43,999 11,250
44,000 to 45,999 11,750
46,000 to 47,999 12,250
48,000 to 49,999 12,750
50,000 to 51,999 13,250
52,000 to 53,999 13,750
54,000 to 55,999 14,250
56,000 to 57,999 14,750
58,000 to 59,999 15,250
For vehicles having a fair market value in excess of $59,999, the Annual Lease Value is equal to: (.25 × the fair market value of the automobile) $500.

(iv)Recalculation of Annual Lease Value. The Annual Lease Values determined under the rules of this paragraph (d) are based on four-year lease terms. Therefore, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(2)(v) of this section, the Annual Lease Value calculated by applying paragraph (d)(2) (i) or (ii) of this section shall remain in effect for the period that begins with the first date the special valuation rule of paragraph (d) of this section is applied by the employer to the automobile and ends on December 31 of the fourth full calendar year following that date. The Annual Lease Value for each subsequent four-year period is calculated by determining the fair market value of the automobile as of the first January 1 following the period described in the previous sentence and selecting the amount in column 2 of the Annual Lease Value Table corresponding to the appropriate dollar range in column 1 of the Table. If, however, the employer is using the special accounting rule provided in Announcement 85-113 (1985-31 I.R.B. 31, August 5, 1985) (relating to the reporting of and withholding on the value of noncash fringe benefits), the employer may calculate the Annual Lease Value for each subsequent four-year period as of the beginning of the special accounting period that begins immediately prior to the January 1 described in the previous sentence. For example, assume that pursuant to Announcement 85-113, an employer uses the special accounting rule. Assume further that beginning on November 1, 1988, the special accounting period is November 1 to October 31 and that the employer elects to use the special valuation rule of this paragraph (d) as of January 1, 1989. The employer may recalculate the Annual Lease Value as of November 1, 1992, rather than as of January 1, 1993.

(v)Transfer of the automobile to another employee. Unless the primary purpose of the transfer is to reduce Federal taxes, if an employer transfers the use of an automobile from one employee to another employee, the employer may recalculate the Annual Lease Value based on the fair market value of the automobile as of January 1 of the calendar year of transfer. If, however, the employer is using the special accounting rule provided in Announcement 85-113 (1985-31 I.R.B. 31, August 5, 1985) (relating to the reporting of and withholding on the value of noncash fringe benefits), the employer may recalculate the Annual Lease Value based on the fair market value of the automobile as of the beginning of the special accounting period in which the transfer occurs. If the employer does not recalculate the Annual Lease Value, and the employee to whom the automobile is transferred uses the special valuation rule, the employee may not recalculate the Annual Lease Value.

(3)Services included in, or excluded from, the Annual Lease Value Table -

(i)Maintenance and insurance included. The Annual Lease Values contained in the Annual Lease Value Table include the fair market value of maintenance of, and insurance for, the automobile. Neither an employer nor an employee may reduce the Annual Lease Value by the fair market value of any service included in the Annual Lease Value that is not provided by the employer, such as reducing the Annual Lease Value by the fair market value of a maintenance service contract or insurance. An employer or employee who wishes to take into account only the services actually provided with respect to an automobile may value the availability of the automobile under the general valuation rules of paragraph (b) of this section.

(ii)Fuel excluded -

(A)In general. The Annual Lease Values do not include the fair market value of fuel provided by the employer, whether fuel is provided in kind or its cost is reimbursed by or charged to the employer. Thus, if an employer provides fuel, the fuel must be valued separately for inclusion in income.

(B)Valuation of fuel provided in kind. The provision of fuel in kind may be valued at fair market value based on all the facts and circumstances or, in the alternative, it may be valued at 5.5 cents per mile for all miles driven by the employee. However, the provision of fuel in kind may not be valued at 5.5 cents per mile for miles driven outside the United States, Canada or Mexico. For purposes of this section, the United States includes the United States, its possessions and its territories.

(C)Valuation of fuel where cost reimbursed by or charged to an employer. The fair market value of fuel, the cost of which is reimbursed by or charged to an employer, is generally the amount of the actual reimbursement or the amount charged, provided the purchase of the fuel is at arm's-length.

(D)Fleet-average cents-per-mile fuel cost. If an employer with a fleet of at least 20 automobiles that meets the requirements of paragraph (d)(5)(v)(D) of this section reimburses employees for the cost of fuel or allows employees to charge the employer for the cost of fuel, the fair market value of fuel provided to those automobiles may be determined by reference to the employer's fleet-average cents-per-mile fuel cost. The fleet-average cents-per-mile fuel cost is equal to the fleet-average per-gallon fuel cost divided by the fleet-average miles-per-gallon rate. The averages described in the preceding sentence must be determined by averaging the per-gallon fuel costs and miles-per-gallon rates of a representative sample of the automobiles in the fleet equal to the greater of ten percent of the automobiles in the fleet or 20 automobiles for a representative period, such as a two-month period. In lieu of determining the fleet-average cents-per-mile fuel cost, if an employer is using the fleet-average valuation rule of paragraph (d)(5)(v) of this section and if determining the amount of the actual reimbursement or the amount charged for the purchase of fuel would impose unreasonable administrative burdens on the employer, the provision of fuel may be valued under the rule provided in paragraph (d)(3)(ii)(B) of this section.

(iii)Treatment of other services. The fair market value of any service not specifically identified in paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section that is provided by the employer with respect to an automobile (other than the services of a chauffeur) must be added to the Annual Lease Value of the automobile in determining the fair market value of the benefit provided. See paragraph (b) (5) of this section for rules relating to the valuation of chauffeur services.

(4)Availability of an automobile for less than an entire calendar year -

(i)Pro-rated Annual Lease Value used for continuous availability of at least 30 days -

(A)In general. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(4)(iv) of this section, for periods of continuous availability of at least 30 days, but less than an entire calendar year, the value of the availability of an automobile provided by an employer electing to use the automobile lease valuation rule of this paragraph (d) is the pro-rated Annual Lease Value. The pro-rated Annual Lease Value is calculated by multiplying the applicable Annual Lease Value by a fraction, the numerator of which is the number of days of availability and the denominator of which is 365.

(B)Special rule for continuous availability of at least 30 days that straddles two reporting years. If an employee is provided with the continuous availability of an automobile for at least 30 days, but the continuous period straddles two calendar years (or two special accounting periods if the special accounting rule of Announcement 85-113 (1985-31 I.R.B. 31, August 5, 1985) (relating to the reporting of and withholding on noncash fringe benefits) is used), the pro-rated Annual Lease Value, rather than the Daily Lease Value, may be applied with respect to such period of continuous availability.

(ii)Daily Lease Value used for continuous availability of less than 30 days. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(4)(iii) of this section, for periods of continuous availability of one or more but less than 30 days, the value of the availability of the employer-provided automobile is the Daily Lease Value. The Daily Lease Value is calculated by multiplying the applicable Annual Lease Value by a fraction, the numerator of which is four times the number of days of availability and the denominator of which is 365.

(iii)Election to treat all periods as periods of at least 30 days. The value of the availability of an employer-provided automobile for a period of continuous availability of less than 30 days may be determined by applying the pro-rated Annual Lease Value by treating the automobile as if it had been available for 30 days, if doing so would result in a lower valuation than applying the Daily Lease Value to the shorter period of actual availability.

(iv)Periods of unavailability -

(A)General rule. In general, a pro-rated Annual Lease Value (as provided in paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section) is used to value the availability of an employer-provided automobile when the automobile is available to an employee for a continuous period of at least 30 days but less than the entire calendar year. Neither an employer nor an employee, however, may use a pro-rated Annual Lease Value when the reduction of Federal taxes is the primary reason the automobile is unavailable to an employee at certain times during the calendar year.

(B)Unavailability for personal reasons of the employee. If an automobile is unavailable to an employee because of personal reasons of the employee, such as while the employee is on vacation, a pro-rated Annual Lease Value, if used, must not take into account such periods of unavailability. For example, assume that an automobile is available to an employee during the first five months of the year and during the last five months of the year. Assume further that the period of unavailability occurs because the employee is on vacation. The Annual Lease Value, if it is applied, must be applied with respect to the entire 12-month period. The Annual Lease Value may not be pro-rated to take into account the two-month period of unavailability.

(5)Fair market value -

(i)In general. For purposes of determining the Annual Lease Value of an automobile under the Annual Lease Value Table, the fair market value of an automobile is the amount that an individual would have to pay in an arm's-length transaction to purchase the particular automobile in the jurisdiction in which the vehicle is purchased or leased. That amount includes all amounts attributable to the purchase of an automobile such as sales tax and title fees as well as the purchase price of the automobile. Any special relationship that may exist between the employee and the employer must be disregarded. Also, the employee's subjective perception of the value of the automobile is not relevant to the determination of the automobile's fair market value, and, except as provided in paragraph (d)(5)(ii) of this section, the cost incurred by the employer in connection with the purchase or lease of the automobile is not determinative of the fair market value of the automobile.

(ii)Safe-harbor valuation rule -

(A)General rule. For purposes of calculating the Annual Lease Value of an automobile under this paragraph (d), the safe-harbor value of the automobile may be used as the fair market value of the automobile.

(B)Automobiles owned by the employer. For an automobile owned by the employer, the safe-harbor value of the automobile is the employer's cost of purchasing the automobile (including sales tax, title, and other expenses attributable to such purchase), provided the purchase is made at arm's-length. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, the safe-harbor value of this paragraph (d)(5)(ii)(B) is not available with respect to an automobile manufactured by the employer. Thus, for example, if one entity manufactures an automobile and sells it to an entity with which it is aggregated pursuant to paragraph (c)(4) of this section, this paragraph (d)(5)(ii)(B) does not apply to value the automobile by the aggregated employer. In this case, value must be determined under paragraph (d)(5)(i) of this section.

(C)Automobiles leased by the employer. For an automobile leased but not manufactured by the employer, the safe-harbor value of the automobile is either the manufacturer's suggested retail price of the automobile less eight percent (including sales tax, title, and other expenses attributable to such purchase), or the value determined under paragraph (d)(5)(iii) of this section.

(iii)Use of nationally recognized pricing sources. The fair market value of an automobile that is -

(A) Provided to an employee prior to January 1, 1985,

(B) Being revalued pursuant to paragraph (d)(2) (iv) or (v) of this section, or

(C) A leased automobile being valued pursuant to paragraph (d)(5)(ii) of this section, may be determined by reference to the retail value of such automobile as reported by a nationally recognized pricing source that regularly reports new or used automobile retail values, whichever is applicable. That retail value must be reasonable with respect to the automobile being valued. Pricing sources consist of publications and electronic data bases.

(iv)Fair market value of special equipment. When determining the fair market value of an automobile, the employer may exclude the fair market value of any specialized equipment or telephone that is added to or carried in the automobile provided that the presence of that equipment or telephone is necessitated by, and attributable to, the business needs of the employer. The value of the specialized equipment must be included if the employee to whom the automobile is available uses the specialized equipment in a trade or business of the employee other than the employee's trade or business of being an employee of the employer.

(v)Fleet-average valuation rule -

(A)In general. An employer with a fleet of 20 or more automobiles meeting the requirements of this paragraph (d)(5)(v) (including the business-use and fair market value conditions of paragraph (d)(5)(v)(D) of this section) may use a fleet-average value for purposes of calculating the Annual Lease Values of the automobiles in the fleet. The fleet-average value is the average of the fair market values of all automobiles in the fleet. The fair market value of each automobile in the fleet shall be determined, pursuant to the rules of paragraphs (d)(5) (i) through (iv) of this section, as of the date described in paragraph (d)(2)(i)(A) of this section.

(B)Period for use of rule. The fleet-average valuation rule of this paragraph (d)(5)(v) may be used by an employer as of January 1 of any calendar year following the calendar year in which the employer acquires a sufficient number of automobiles to total a fleet of 20 or more automobiles. The Annual Lease Value calculated for the automobiles in the fleet, based on the fleet-average value, shall remain in effect for the period that begins with the first January 1 the fleet-average valuation ru1e of this paragraph (d)(5)(v) is applied by the employer to the automobiles in the fleet and ends on December 31 of the subsequent calendar year. The Annual Lease Value for each subsequent two-year period is calculated by determining the fleet-average value of the automobiles in the fleet as of the first January 1 of such period. An employer may cease using the fleet-average valuation rule as of any January 1. If, however, the employer is using the special accounting rule provided in Announcement 85-113 (1985-31 I.R.B. 31, August 5, 1985) (relating to the reporting of and withholding on noncash fringe benefits), the employer may apply the rules of this paragraph (d)(5)(v)(B) on the basis of the special accounting period rather than the calendar year. (This is accomplished by substituting (1) the beginning of the special accounting period that begins immediately prior to the January 1 described in this paragraph (d)(5)(v)(B) for January 1 wherever it appears in this paragraph (d)(5)(v) (B) and (2) the end of such accounting period for December 31.) If the number of qualifying automobiles in the employer's fleet declines to fewer than 20 for more than 50 percent of the days in a year, then the fleet-average valuation rule does not apply as of January 1 of such year. In this case, the Annual Lease Value must be determined separately for each remaining automobile. The revaluation rules of paragraphs (d)(2) (iv) and (v) of this section do not apply to automobiles valued under this paragraph (d)(5)(v).

(C)Automobiles included in the fleet. An employer may include in a fleet any automobile that meets the requirements of this paragraph (d)(5)(v) and is available to any employee of the employer for personal use. An employer may include in the fleet only automobiles the availability of which is valued under the automobile lease valuation rule of this paragraph (d). An employer need not include in the fleet all automobiles valued under the automobile lease valuation rule. An employer may have more than one fleet for purposes of the fleet-average rule of this paragraph (d)(5)(v). For example, an employer may group automobiles in a fleet according to their physical type or use.

(D)Limitations on use of fleet-average rule. The rule provided in this paragraph (d)(5)(v) may not be used for any automobile the fair market value of which (determined pursuant to paragraphs (d)(5) (i) through (iv) of this section as of either the first date on which the automobile is made available to any employee of the employer for personal use or, if later, January 1, 1985) exceeds $16,500. The fair market value limitation of $16,500 shall be adjusted pursuant to section 280F(d)(7) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986. The first such adjustment shall be for calendar year 1989 (substitute October 1986 for October 1987 in applying the formula). In addition, the rule provided in this paragraph (d)(5)(v) may only be used for automobiles that the employer reasonably expects will regularly be used in the employer's trade or business. For rules concerning when an automobile is regularly used in the employer's business, see paragraph (e)(1)(iv) of this section.

(E)Additional automobiles added to the fleet. The fleet-average value in effect at the time an automobile is added to a fleet is treated as the fair market value of the additional automobile for purposes of determining the Annual Lease Value of the automobile until the fleet-average value changes pursuant to paragraph (d)(5)(v)(B) of this section.

(F)Use of the fleet-average rule by employees. An employee may only use the fleet-average rule if it is used by the employer. If an employer uses the fleet-average rule, and the employee uses the special valuation rule of paragraph (d) of this section, the employee must use the fleet-average value determined by the employer.

(6)Special rules for continuous availability of certain automobiles -

(i)Fleet automobiles. If an employer is using the fleet-average valuation ru1e of paragraph (d)(5)(v) of this section and the employer provides an employee with the continuous availability of an automobile from the same fleet during a period (though not necessarily the same fleet automobile for the entire period), the employee is treated as having the use of a single fleet automobile for the entire period, e.g., an entire calendar year. Thus, when applying the automobile lease valuation rule of this paragraph (d), the employer may treat the fleet-average value as the fair market value of the automobile deemed available to the employee for the period for purposes of calculating the Annual Lease Value, (or pro-rated Annual Lease Value or Daily Lease Value whichever is applicable) of the automobile. If an employer provides an employee with the continuous availability of more than one fleet automobile during a period, the employer may treat the fleet-average value as the fair market value of each automobile provided to the employee provided that the rules of paragraph (d)(5)(v)(D) of this section are satisfied.

(ii)Demonstration automobiles -

(A)In general. If an automobile dealership provides an employee with the continuous availability of a demonstration automobile (as defined in § 1.132-5(o)(3)) during a period (though not necessarily the same demonstration automobile for the entire period), the employee is treated as having the use of a single demonstration automobile for the entire period, e.g., an entire calendar year. If an employer provides an employee with the continuous availability of more than one demonstration automobile during a period, the employer may treat the value determined under paragraph (d)(6)(ii)(B) of this section as the fair market value of each automobile provided to the employee. For rules relating to the treatment as a working condition fringe of the qualified automobile demonstration use of a demonstration automobile by a full-time automobile salesman, see § 1.132-5(o).

(B)Determining the fair market value of a demonstration automobile. When applying the automobile lease valuation rule of this paragraph (d), the employer may treat the average of the fair market values of the demonstration automobiles which are available to an employee and held in the dealership's inventory during the calendar year as the fair market value of the demonstration automobile deemed available to the employee for the period for purposes of calculating the Annual Lease Value of the automobile. If under the facts and circumstances it is inappropriate to take into account, with respect to an employee, certain models of demonstration automobiles, the value of the benefit is determined without reference to the fair market values of such models. For example, assume that an employee has the continuous availability for an entire calendar year of one demonstration automobile, although not the same one for the entire year. Assume further that the fair market values of the automobiles in the dealership inventory during the year range from $8,000 to $20,000. If there is not a substantial period (such as three months) during the year when the employee uses demonstration automobiles valued at less than $16,000, then those automobiles are not considered in determining the value of the benefit provided to the employee. In this case, the average of the fair market values of the demonstration automobiles in the dealership's inventory valued at $16,000 or more is treated as the fair market value of the automobile deemed available to the employee for the calendar year for purposes of calculating the Annual Lease Value of the automobile.

(7)Consistency rules -

(i)Use of the automobile lease valuation rule by an employer. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(5)(v)(B) of this section, an employer may adopt the automobile lease valuation rule of this paragraph (d) for an automobile only if the rule is adopted to take effect by the later of -

(A) January 1, 1989, or

(B) The first day on which the automobile is made available to an employee of the employer for personal use (or, if the commuting valuation rule of paragraph (f) of this section is used when the automobile is first made available to an employee of the employer for personal use, the first day on which the commuting valuation rule is not used).

(ii)An employer must use the automobile lease valuation rule for all subsequent years. Once the automobile lease valuation rule has been adopted for an automobile by an employer, the rule must be used by the employer for all subsequent years in which the employer makes the automobile available to any employee except that the employer may, for any year during which (or for any employee for whom) use of the automobile qualifies for the commuting valuation rule of paragraph (f) of this section, use the commuting valuation rule with respect to the automobile.

(iii)Use of the automobile lease valuation rule by an employee. An employee may adopt the automobile lease valuation rule for an automobile only if the rule is adopted -

(A) By the employer, and

(B) Beginning with the first day on which the automobile for which the employer (consistent with paragraph (d)(7)(i) of this section) adopted the rule is made available to that employee for personal use (or, if the commuting valuation rule of paragraph (f) of this section is used when the automobile is first made available to that employee for personal use, the first day on which the commuting valuation rule is not used).

(iv)An employee must use the automobile lease valuation rule for all subsequent years. Once the automobile lease valuation rule has been adopted for an automobile by an employee, the rule must be used by the employee for all subsequent years in which the automobile for which the rule is used is available to the employee. However, the employee may, for any year during which use of the automobile qualifies for use of the commuting valuation rule of paragraph (f) of this section and for which the employer uses such rule, use the commuting valuation rule with respect to the automobile.

(v)Replacement automobiles. Notwithstanding anything in this paragraph (d)(7) to the contrary, if the automobile lease valuation rule is used by an employer, or by an employer and an employee, with respect to a particular automobile, and a replacement automobile is provided to the employee for the primary purpose of reducing Federal taxes, then the employer, or the employer and the employee, using the rule must continue to use the rule with respect to the replacement automobile.

(e)Vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule -

(1)In general -

(i)General rule. Under the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule of this paragraph (e), if an employer provides an employee with the use of a vehicle that -

(A) The employer reasonably expects will be regularly used in the employer's trade or business throughout the calendar year (or such shorter period as the vehicle may be owned or leased by the employer), or

(B) Satisfies the requirements of paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section, the value of the benefit provided in the calendar year is the standard mileage rate provided in the applicable Revenue Ruling or Revenue Procedure (“cents-per-mile rate”) multiplied by the total number of miles the vehicle is driven by the employee for personal purposes. The cents-per-mile rate is to be applied prospectively from the first day of the taxable year following the date of publication of the applicable Revenue Ruling or Revenue Procedure. An employee who uses an employer-provided vehicle, in whole or in part, for a trade or business other than the employer's trade or business, may take a deduction for such business use based upon the vehicle cents-per-mile rule as long as such deduction is at the same standard mileage rate as that used in calculating the employee's income inclusion. The standard mileage rate must be applied to personal miles independent of business miles. Thus, for example, if the standard mileage rate were 24 cents per mile for the first 15,000 miles and 11 cents per mile for all miles over 15,000 and an employee drives 20,000 personal miles and 45,000 business miles in a year, the value of the personal use of the vehicle is $4,150 ((15,000 × $.24) (5,000 × $.11)). For purposes of this section, the use of a vehicle for personal purposes is any use of the vehicle other than use in the employee's trade or business of being an employee of the employer.

(ii)Mileage rule. A vehicle satisfies the requirements of this paragraph (e)(1)(ii) for a calendar year if -

(A) It is actually driven at least 10,000 miles in that year; and

(B) Use of the vehicle during the year is primarily by employees. For example, if a vehicle is used by only one employee during the calendar year and that employee drives the vehicle at least 10,000 miles during the year, the vehicle satisfies the requirements of this paragraph (e)(1)(ii) even if all miles driven by the employee are personal. A vehicle is considered used during the year primarily by employees in accordance with the requirement of paragraph (e)(1)(ii)(B) of this section if employees use the vehicle on a consistent basis for commuting. If the employer does not own or lease the vehicle during a portion of the year, the 10,000 mile threshold is to be reduced proportionately to reflect the periods when the employer did not own or lease the vehicle. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(1)(ii), use of the vehicle by an individual (other than the employee) whose use would be taxed to the employee is not considered use by the employee.

(iii)Limitation on use of the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule -

(A)In general. Except as otherwise provided in the last sentence of this paragraph (e)(1)(iii)(A), the value of the use of an automobile (as defined in paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section) may not be determined under the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule of this paragraph (e) for a calendar year if the fair market value of the automobile (determined pursuant to paragraphs (d)(5) (i) through (iv) of this section as of the later of January 1, 1985, or the first date on which the automobile is made available to any employee of the employer for personal use) exceeds the sum of the maximum recovery deductions allowable under section 280F(a)(2) for a five-year period for an automobile first placed in service during that calendar year (whether or not the automobile is actually placed in service during that year) as adjusted by section 280F(d)(7). With respect to a vehicle placed in service prior to January 1, 1989, the limitation on value will be not less than $12,800. With respect to a vehicle placed in service in or after 1989, the limitation on value is $12,800 as adjusted by section 280F(d)(7).

(B)Application of limitation with respect to a vehicle owned by both an employer and an employee. If an employee contributes an amount towards the purchase price of a vehicle in return for a percentage ownership interest in the vehicle, for purposes of determining whether the limitation of this paragraph (e)(1)(iii) applies, the fair market value of the vehicle is reduced by the lesser of -

(1) The amount contributed, or

(2) An amount equal to the employee's percentage ownership interest multiplied by the unreduced fair market value of the vehicle. If the employee does not receive an ownership interest in the employer-provided vehicle, then the fair market value of the vehicle is determined without regard to any amount contributed. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(1)(iii)(B), an employee's ownership interest in a vehicle will not be recognized unless it is reflected in the title of the vehicle. An ownership interest reflected in the title of a vehicle will not be recognized if under the facts and circumstances the title does not reflect the benefits and burdens of ownership.

(C)Application of limitation with respect to a vehicle leased by both an employer and employee. If an employee contributes an amount toward the cost to lease a vehicle in return for a percentage interest in the vehicle lease, for purposes of determining whether the limitation of this paragraph (e)(1)(iii) applies, the fair market value of the vehicle is reduced by the amount specified in the following sentence. The amount specified in this sentence is the unreduced fair market value of a vehicle multiplied by the lesser of -

(1) The employee's percentage interest in the lease, or

(2) A fraction, the numerator of which is the amount contributed and the denominator of which is the entire lease cost. If the employee does not receive an interest in the vehicle lease, then the fair market value is determined without regard to any amount contributed. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(1)(iii)(C), an employee's interest in a vehicle lease will not be recognized unless the employee is a named co-lessee on the lease. An interest in a lease will not be recognized if under the facts and circumstances, the lease does not reflect the true obligations of the lessees.

(iv)Regular use in an employer's trade or business. Whether a vehicle is regularly used in an employer's trade or business is determined on the basis of all facts and circumstances. A vehicle is considered regularly used in an employer's trade or business for purposes of paragraph (e)(1)(i)(A) of this section if one of the following safe harbor conditions is satisfied:

(A) At least 50 percent of the vehicle's total annual mileage is for the employer's business; or

(B) The vehicle is generally used each workday to transport at least three employees of the employer to and from work in an employer-sponsored commuting vehicle pool. Infrequent business use of the vehicle, such as for occasional trips to the airport or between the employer's multiple business premises, does not constitute regular use of the vehicle in the employer's trade or business.

(v)Application of rule to shared usage. If an employer regularly provides a vehicle to employees for use by more than one employee at the same time, such as with an employer-sponsored vehicle commuting pool, the employer may use the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule to value the use of the vehicle by each employee who shares such use. See § 1.61-21(c)(2)(ii)(B) for provisions relating to the allocation of the value of an automobile to more than one employee.

(2)Definition of vehicle. For purposes of this paragraph (e), the term “vehicle” means any motorized wheeled vehicle manufactured primarily for use on public streets, roads, and highways. The term “vehicle” includes an automobile as defined in paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section.

(3)Services included in, or excluded from, the cents-per-mile rate -

(i)Maintenance and insurance included. The cents-per-mile rate includes the fair market value of maintenance of, and insurance for, the vehicle. The cents-per-mile rate may not be reduced by the fair market value of any service included in the cents-per-mile rate but not provided by the employer. An employer or employee who wishes to take into account only the particular services provided with respect to a vehicle may value the availability of the vehicle under the general valuation rules of paragraph (b) of this section.

(ii)Fuel provided by the employer -

(A)Miles driven in the United States, Canada, or Mexico. With respect to miles driven in the United States, Canada, or Mexico, the cents-per-mile rate includes the fair market value of fuel provided by the employer. If fuel is not provided by the employer, the cents-per-mile rate may be reduced by no more than 5.5 cents or the amount specified in any applicable Revenue Ruling or Revenue Procedure. For purposes of this section, the United States includes the United States, its possessions and its territories.

(B)Miles driven outside the United States, Canada, or Mexico. With respect to miles driven outside the United States, Canada, or Mexico, the fair market value of fuel provided by the employer is not reflected in the cents-per-mile rate. Accordingly, the cents-per-mile rate may be reduced but by no more than 5.5 cents or the amount specified in any applicable Revenue Ruling or Revenue Procedure. If the employer provides the fuel in kind, it must be valued based on all the facts and circumstances. If the employer reimburses the employee for the cost of fuel or allows the employee to charge the employer for the cost of fuel, the fair market value of the fuel is generally the amount of the actual reimbursement or the amount charged, provided the purchase of fuel is at arm's length.

(iii)Treatment of other services. The fair market value of any service not specifically identified in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section that is provided by the employer with respect to a vehicle is not reflected in the cents-per-mile rate. See paragraph (b)(5) of this section for rules relating to valuation of chauffeur services.

(4)Valuation of personal use only. The vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule of this paragraph (e) may only be used to value the miles driven for personal purposes. Thus, the employer must include an amount in an employee's income with respect to the use of a vehicle that is equal to the product of the number of personal miles driven by the employee and the appropriate cents-per-mile rate. The term “personal miles” means all miles for which the employee used the automobile except miles driven in the employee's trade or business of being an employee of the employer. Unless additional services are provided with respect to the vehicle (see paragraph (e)(3)(iii) of this section), the employer may not include in income a greater amount; for example, the employer may not include in income 100 percent (all business and personal miles) of the value of the use of the vehicle.

(5)Consistency rules -

(i)Use of the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule by an employer. An employer must adopt the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule of this paragraph (e) for a vehicle to take effect by the later of -

(A) January 1, 1989, or

(B) The first day on which the vehicle is used by an employee of the employer for personal use (or, if the commuting valuation rule of paragraph (f) of this section is used when the vehicle is first used by an employee of the employer for personal use, the first day on which the commuting valuation rule is not used).

(ii)An employer must use the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule for all subsequent years. Once the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule has been adopted for a vehicle by an employer, the rule must be used by the employer for all subsequent years in which the vehicle qualifies for use of the rule, except that the employer may, for any year during which use of the vehicle qualifies for the commuting valuation rule of paragraph (f) of this section, use the commuting valuation rule with respect to the vehicle. If the vehicle fails to qualify for use of the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule during a subsequent year, the employer may adopt for such subsequent year and thereafter any other special valuation rule for which the vehicle then qualifies. If the employer elects to use the automobile lease valuation rule of paragraph (d) of this section for a period in which the automobile does not qualify for use of the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule, then the employer must comply with the requirements of paragraph (d)(7) of this section. For purposes of paragraph (d)(7) of this section, the first day on which the automobile with respect to which the vehicle cents-per-mile rule had been used fails to qualify for use of the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule may be deemed to be the first day on which the automobile is available to an employee of the employer for personal use.

(iii)Use of the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule by an employee. An employee may adopt the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule for a vehicle only if the rule is adopted -

(A) By the employer, and

(B) Beginning with respect to the first day on which the vehicle for which the employer (consistent with paragraph (e)(5)(i) of this section) adopted the rule is available to that employee for personal use (or, if the commuting valuation rule of paragraph (f) of this section is used when the vehicle is first used by an employee for personal use, the first day on which the commuting valuation rule is not used).

(iv)An employee must use the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule for all subsequent years. Once the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule has been adopted for a vehicle by an employee, the rule must be used by the employee for all subsequent years of personal use of the vehicle by the employee for which the rule is used by the employer. However, see paragraph (f) of this section for rules relating to the use of the commuting valuation rule for a subsequent year.

(v)Replacement vehicles. Notwithstanding anything in this paragraph (e)(5) to the contrary, if the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule is used by an employer, or by an employer and an employee, with respect to a particular vehicle. and a replacement vehicle is provided to the employee for the primary purpose of reducing Federal taxes, then the employer, or the employer and the employee, using the rule must continue to use the rule with respect to the replacement vehicle if the replacement vehicle qualifies for use of the rule.

(f)Commuting valuation rule -

(1)In general. Under the commuting valuation rule of this paragraph (f), the value of the commuting use of an employer-provided vehicle may be determined pursuant to paragraph (f)(3) of this section if the following criteria are met by the employer and employees with respect to the vehicle:

(i) The vehicle is owned or leased by the employer and is provided to one or more employees for use in connection with the employer's trade or business and is used in the employer's trade or business;

(ii) For bona fide noncompensatory business reasons, the employer requires the employee to commute to and/or from work in the vehicle;

(iii) The employer has established a written policy under which neither the employee, nor any individual whose use would be taxable to the employee, may use the vehicle for personal purposes, other than for commuting or de minimis personal use (such as a stop for a personal errand on the way between a business delivery and the employee's home);

(iv) Except for de minimis personal use, the employee does not use the vehicle for any personal purpose other than commuting; and

(v) The employee required to use the vehicle for commuting is not a control employee of the employer (as defined in paragraphs (f) (5) and (6) of this section).

Personal use of a vehicle is all use of the vehicle by an employee that is not used in the employee's trade or business of being an employee of the employer. An employer-provided vehicle that is generally used each workday to transport at least three employees of the employer to and from work in an employer-sponsored commuting vehicle pool is deemed to meet the requirements of paragraphs (f)(1) (i) and (ii) of this section.

(2)Special rules. Notwithstanding anything in paragraph (f)(1) of this section to the contrary, the following special rules apply -

(i)Chauffeur-driven vehicles. If a vehicle is chauffeur-driven, the commuting valuation rule of this paragraph (f) may not be used to value the commuting use of any person (other than the chauffeur) who rides in the vehicle. (See paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section for other vehicle special valuation rules.) The special rule of this paragraph (f) may be used to value the commuting-only use of the vehicle by the chauffeur if the conditions of paragraph (f)(1) of this section are satisfied. For purposes of this paragraph (f)(2), an individual will not be considered a chauffeur if he or she performs non-driving services for the employer, is not available to perform driving services while performing such other services and whose only driving services consist of driving a vehicle used for commuting by other employees of the employer.

(ii)Control employee exception. If the vehicle in which the employee is required to commute is not an automobile as defined in paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section, the restriction of paragraph (f)(1)(v) of this section (relating to control employees) does not apply.

(3)Commuting value -

(i)$1.50 per one-way commute. If the requirements of this paragraph (f) are satisfied, the value of the commuting use of an employer-provided vehicle is $1.50 per one-way commute (e.g., from home to work or from work to home). The value provided in this paragraph (f)(3) includes the value of any goods or services directly related to the vehicle (e.g., fuel).

(ii)Value per employee. If there is more than one employee who commutes in the vehicle, such as in the case of an employer-sponsored commuting vehicle pool, the amount includible in the income of each employee is $1.50 per one-way commute. Thus, the amount includible for each round-trip commute is $3.00 per employee. See paragraphs (d)(7)(vi) and (e)(5)(vi) of this section for use of the automobile lease valuation and vehicle cents-per-mile valuation special rules for valuing the use or availability of the vehicle in the case of an employer-sponsored vehicle or automobile commuting pool.

(4)Definition of vehicle. For purposes of this paragraph (f), the term “vehicle” means any motorized wheeled vehicle manufactured primarily for use on public streets, roads, and highways. The term “vehicle” includes an automobile as defined in paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section.

(5)Control employee defined - Non-government employer. For purposes of this paragraph (f), a control employee of a non-government employer is any employee -

(i) Who is a Board- or shareholder-appointed, confirmed, or elected officer of the employer whose compensation equals or exceeds $50,000,

(ii) Who is a director of the employer,

(iii) Whose compensation equals or exceeds $100,000, or

(iv) Who owns a one-percent or greater equity, capital, or profits interest in the employer.

For purposes of determining who is a one-percent owner under paragraph (f)(5)(iv) of this section, any individual who owns (or is considered as owning under section 318(a) or principles similar to section 318(a) for entities other than corporations) one percent or more of the fair market value of an entity (the “owned entity”) is considered a one-percent owner of all entities which would be aggregated with the owned entity under the rules of section 414 (b), (c), (m), or (o). For purposes of determining who is an officer or director with respect to an employer under this paragraph (f)(5), notwithstanding anything in this section to the contrary, if an entity would be aggregated with other entities under the rules of section 414 (b), (c), (m), or (o), the officer definition (but not the compensation requirement) and the director definition apply to each such separate entity rather tha to the aggregated employer. An employee who is an officer or a director of an entity (the “first entity”) shall be treated as an officer or a director of all entities aggregated with the first entity under the rules of section 414 (b), (c), (m), or (o). Instead of applying the control employee definition of this paragraph (f)(5), an employer may treat all, and only, employees who are “highly compensated” employees (as defined in § 1.132-8(g)) as control employees for purposes of this paragraph (f).

(6)Control employee defined - Government employer. For purposes of this paragraph (f), a control employee of a government employer is any -

(i) Elected official, or

(ii) Employee whose compensation equals or exceeds the compensation paid to a Federal Government employee holding a position at Executive Level V, determined under Chapter 11 of title 2, United States Code, as adjusted by section 5318 of title 5 United States Code.

For purposes of this paragraph (f), the term “government” includes any Federal, state or local governmental unit, and any agency or instrumentality thereof. Instead of applying the control employee definition of paragraph (f)(6), an employer may treat all and only employees who are “highly compensated” employees (as defined in § 1.132-8(f)) as control employees for purposes of this paragraph (f).

(7)“Compensation” defined. For purposes of this paragraph (f), the term “compensation” has the same meaning as in section 414(q)(7). Compensation includes all amounts received from all entities treated as a single employer under section 414 (b), (c), (m), or (o). Levels of compensation shall be adjusted at the same time and in the same manner as provided in section 415(d). The first such adjustment shall be for calendar year 1988.

(g)Non-commercial flight valuation rule -

(1)In general. Under the non-commercial flight valuation rule of this paragraph (g), except as provided in paragraph (g)(12) of this section, if an employee is provided with a flight on an employer-provided aircraft, the value of the flight is calculated using the aircraft valuation formula of paragraph (g)(5) of this section. For purposes of this paragraph (g), the value of a flight on an employer-provided aircraft by an individual who is less than two years old is deemed to be zero. See paragraph (b)(1) of this section for rules relating to the amount includible in income when an employee reimburses the employee's employer for all or part of the fair market value of the benefit provided.

(2)Eligible flights and eligible aircraft. The valuation rule of this paragraph (g) may be used to value flights on all employer-provided aircraft, including helicopters. The valuation rule of this paragraph (g) may be used to value international as well as domestic flights. The valuation rule of this paragraph (g) may not be used to value a flight on any commercial aircraft on which air transportation is sold to the public on a per-seat basis. For a special valuation rule relating to certain flights on commercial aircraft, see paragraph (h) of this section.

(3)Definition of a flight -

(i)General rule. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (g)(3)(iii) of this section (relating to intermediate stops), for purposes of this paragraph (g), a flight is the distance (in statute miles, i.e., 5,280 feet per statute mile) between the place at which the individual boards the aircraft and the place at which the individual deplanes.

(ii)Valuation of each flight. Under the valuation rule of this paragraph (g), value is determined separately for each flight. Thus, a round-trip is comprised of at least two flights. For example, an employee who takes a personal trip on an employer-provided aircraft from New York City to Denver, then Denver to Los Angeles, and finally Los Angeles to New York City has taken three flights and must apply the aircraft valuation formula separately to each flight. The value of a flight must be determined on a passenger-by-passenger basis. For example, if an individual accompanies an employee and the flight taken by the individual would be taxed to the employee, the employee would be taxed on the special rule value of the flight by the employee and the flight by the individual.

(iii)Intermediate stop. If a landing is necessitated by weather conditions, by an emergency, for purposes of refueling or obtaining other services relating to the aircraft or for any other purpose unrelated to the personal purposes of the employee whose flight is being valued, that landing is an intermediate stop. Additional mileage attributable to an intermediate stop is not considered when determining the distance of an employee's flight.

(iv)Examples. The rules of paragraph (g)(3)(iii) of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
Assume that an employee's trip originates in St. Louis, Missouri, with Seattle, Washington as its destination, but, because of weather conditions, the aircraft lands in Denver, Colorado, and the employee stays in Denver overnight. Assume further that the next day the aircraft flies to Seattle where the employee deplanes. The employee's flight is the distance between the airport in St. Louis and the airport in Seattle.
Example 2.
Assume that a trip originates in New York, New York, with five passengers and that the aircraft makes a stop in Chicago, Illinois, so that one of the passengers can deplane for a purpose unrelated to the personal purposes of the other passengers whose flights are being valued. The aircraft then goes on to Los Angeles, California, where the other four passengers will deplane. The flight of the passenger who deplaned in Chicago is the distance between the airport in New York and the airport in Chicago. The stop in Chicago is disregarded as an intermediate stop, however, when measuring the flights taken by each of the other four passengers. Their flights would be the distance between the airport in New York and the airport in Los Angeles.

(4)Personal and non-personal flights - (i) In general. The valuation rule of this paragraph (g) applies to personal flights on employer-provided aircraft. A personal flight is one the value of which is not excludable under another section of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, such as under section 132(d) (relating to a working condition fringe). However, solely for purposes of paragraphs (g)(4)(ii) and (g)(4)(iii) of this section, references to personal flights do not include flights a portion of which would not be excludable from income by reason of section 274(c).

(ii)Trip primarily for employer's business. If an employee combines, in one trip, personal and business flights on an employer-provided aircraft and the employee's trip is primarily for the employer's business (see § 1.162-2(b)(2)), the employee must include in income the excess of the value of all the flights that comprise the trip over the value of the flights that would have been taken had there been no personal flights but only business flights. For example, assume that an employee flies on an employer-provided aircraft from Chicago, Illinois, to Miami, Florida, for the employer's business and that from Miami the employee flies on the employer-provided aircraft to Orlando, Florida, for personal purposes and then flies back to Chicago. Assume further that the primary purpose of the trip is for the employer's business. The amount includible in income is the excess of the value of the three flights (Chicago to Miami, Miami to Orlando, and Orlando to Chicago), over the value of the flights that would have been taken had there been no personal flights but only business flights (Chicago to Miami and Miami to Chicago).

(iii)Primarily personal trip. If an employee combines, in one trip, personal and business flights on an employer-provided aircraft and the employee's trip is primarily personal (see § 1.162-2(b)(2)), the amount includible in the employee's income is the value of the personal flights that would have been taken had there been no business flights but only personal flights. For example, assume that an employee flies on an employer-provided aircraft from San Francisco, California, to Los Angeles, California, for the employer's business and that from Los Angeles the employee flies on an employer-provided aircraft to Palm Springs, California, primarily for personal reasons and then flies back to San Francisco. Assume further that the primary purpose of the trip is personal. The amount includible in the employee's income is the value of personal flights that would have been taken had there been no business flights but only personal flights (San Francisco to Palm Springs and Palm Springs to San Francisco).

(iv)Application of section 274(c). The value of employer- provided travel outside the United States away from home may not be excluded from the employee's gross income as a working condition fringe, by either the employer or the employee, to the extent not deductible by reason of section 274(c). The valuation rule of this paragraph (g) applies to that portion of the value any flight not excludable by reason of section 274(c). Such value is includible in income in addition to the amounts determined under paragraphs (g)(4)(ii) and (g)(4)(iii) of this section.

(v)Flights by individuals who are not personal guests. If an individual who is not an employee of the employer providing the aircraft is on a flight, and the individual is not the personal guest of any employee of the employer, the flight by the individual is not taxable to any employee of the employer providing the aircraft. The rule in the preceding sentence applies where the individual is provided the flight by the employer for noncompensatory business reasons of the employer. For example, assume that G, an employee of company Y, accompanies A, an employee of company X, on company X's aircraft for the purpose of inspecting land under consideration for purchase by company X from company Y. The flight by G is not taxable to A. No inference may be drawn from this paragraph (g)(4)(v) concerning the taxation of a flight provided to an individual who is neither an employee of the employer nor a personal guest of any employee of the employer.

(5)Aircraft valuation formula. Under the valuation rule of this paragraph (g), the value of a flight is determined under the base aircraft valuation formula (also known as the Standard Industry Fare Level formula or SIFL) by multiplying the SIFL cents-per-mile rates applicable for the period during which the flight was taken by the appropriate aircraft multiple (as provided in paragraph (g)(7) of this section) and then adding the applicable terminal charge. The SIFL cents-per-mile rates in the formula and the terminal charge are calculated by the Department of Transportation and are revised semi-annually. The base aircraft valuation formula in effect from January 1, 1989 through June 30, 1989, is as follows: a terminal charge of $26.48 plus ($.1449 per mile for the first 500 miles, $.1105 per mile for miles between 501 and 1500, and $.1062 per mile for miles over 1500). For example, if a flight taken on January 15, 1989, by a non-control employee on an employer-provided aircraft with a maximum certified takeoff weight of 26,000 lbs. is 2,000 miles long, the value of the flight determined under this paragraph (g)(5) is: $100.36 ((.313 × (($.1449 × 500) ($.1105 × 1,000) ($.1062 × 500))) $26.48). The aircraft valuation formula applies separately to each flight being valued under this paragraph (g). Therefore, the number of miles an employee has flown on employer-provided aircraft flights prior to the flight being valued does not affect the determination of the value of the flight.

(6)Discretion to provide new formula. The Commissioner may prescribe a different base aircraft valuation formula by regulation, Revenue Ruling or Revenue Procedure in the event that the calculation of the Standard Industry Fare Level is discontinued.

(7)Aircraft multiples -

(i)In general. The aircraft multiples are based on the maximum certified takeoff weight of the aircraft. When applying the aircraft valuation formula to a flight, the appropriate aircraft multiple is multiplied by the product of the applicable SIFL cents-per-mile rates multiplied by the number of miles in the flight and then the terminal charge is added to the product. For purposes of applying the aircraft valuation formula described in paragraph (g)(5) of this section, the aircraft multiples are as follows:

Maximum certified take-off weight of the aircraft Aircraft multiple for a control employee (percent) Aircraft multiple for a non-control employee (percent)
6,000 lbs. or less 62.5 15.6
6,001-10,000 lbs. 125 23.4
10,001-25,000 lbs. 300 31.3
25,001 lbs. or more 400 31.3

(ii)Flights treated as provided to a control employee. Except as provided in paragraph (g)(12) of this section, any fIight provided to an individual whose flight would be taxable to a control employee (as defined in paragraphs (g) (8) and (9) of this section) as the recipient shall be valued as if such flight had been provided to that control employee. For example, assume that the chief executive officer of an employer, his spouse, and his two children fly on an employer-provided aircraft for personal purposes. Assume further that the maximum certified takeoff weight of the aircraft is 12,000 lbs. The amount includible in the employee's income is 4 × ((300 percent × the applicable SIFL cents-per-mile rates provided in paragraph (g)(5) of this section multiplied by the number of miles in the flight) plus the applicable terminal charge).

(8)Control employee defined - Non-government employer -

(i)Definition. For purposes of this paragraph (g), a control employee of a non-government employer is any employee -

(A) Who is a Board- or shareholder-appointed, confirmed, or elected officer of the employer, limited to the lesser of -

(1) One percent of all employees (increased to the next highest integer, if not an integer) or

(2) Ten employees;

(B) Who is among the top one percent most highly-paid employees of the employer (increased to the next highest integer, if not an integer) limited to a maximum of 50;

(C) Who owns a five-percent or greater equity, capital, or profits interest in the employer; or

(D) Who is a director of the employer.

(ii)Special rules for control employee definition -

(A)In general. For purposes of this paragraph (g), any employee who is a family member (within the meaning of section 267(c)(4)) of a control employee is also a control employee. For purposes of paragraph (g)(8)(i)(B) of this section, the term “employee” does not include any individual unless such individual is a common-law employee, partner, or one-percent or greater shareholder of the employer. Pursuant to this paragraph (g)(8), an employee may be a control employee under more than one of the requirements listed in paragraphs (g)(8)(i) (A) through (D) of this section. For example, an employee may be both an officer under paragraph (g)(8)(i)(A) of this section and a highly-paid employee under paragraph (g)(8)(i)(B) of this section. In this case, for purposes of the officer limitation rule of paragraph (g)(8)(i)(A) of this section and the highly-paid employee limitation rule of paragraph (g)(8)(i)(B) of this section, the employee would be counted in applying both limitations. For purposes of determining the one-percent limitation under paragraphs (g)(8)(i) (A) and (B) of this section, an employer shall exclude from consideration employees described in § 1.132-8(b)(3). Instead of applying the control employee definition of this paragraph (g)(8), an employer may treat all (and only) employees who are “highly compensated” employees (as defined in § 1.132-8(f)) as control employees for purposes of this paragraph (g).

(B)Special rules for officers, owners, and highly-paid control employees. In no event shall an employee whose compensation is less than $50,000 be a control employee under paragraph (g)(8)(i) (A) or (B) of this section. For purposes of determining who is a five-percent (or one-percent) owner under this paragraph (g)(8), any individual who owns (or is considered as owning under section 318(a) or principles similar to section 318(a) for entities other than corporations) five percent (or one-percent) or more of the fair market value of an entity (the “owned entity”) is considered a five-percent (or one-percent) owner of all entities which would be aggregated with the owned entity under the rules of section 414(b), (c), (m), or (o). For purposes of determining who is an officer or director with respect to an employer under this paragraph (g)(8), notwithstanding anything in this section to the contrary, if the employer would be aggregated with other employers under the rules of section 414 (b), (c), (m), or (o), the officer definition and the limitations and the director definition are applied to each such separate employer rather than to the aggregated employer. An employee who is an officer or director of one employer (the “first employer”) shall not be counted as an officer or a director of any other employer aggregated with the first employer under the rules of section 414 (b), (c), or (m). If applicable, the officer limitations rule of paragraph (g)(8)(i)(A) of this section is applied to employees in descending order of their compensation. Thus, if an employer has 11 board-appointed officers and the limit imposed under paragraph (g)(8)(i)(A) of this section is 10 officers, the employee with the least compensation of those officers would not be a control employee under paragraph (g)(8)(i)(A) of this section.

(9)Control employee defined - Government employer. For purposes of this paragraph (g), a control employee of a government employer is any -

(i) Elected official, or

(ii) Employee whose compensation equals or exceeds the compensation paid to a Federal Government employee holding a position at Executive Level V, determined under Chapter 11 of title 2, United States Code, as adjusted by section 5318 of title 5 United States Code.

For purposes of paragraph (f), the term “government” includes any Federal, state or local governmental unit, and any agency or instrumentality thereof. lnstead of applying the control employee definition of paragraph (f)(6), an employer may treat all and only employees who are “highly compensated” employees (as defined in § 1.132-8(f)) as control employees for purposes of this paragraph (f).

(10)“Compensation” defined. For purposes of this paragraph (g), the term “compensation” has the same meaning as in section 414(q)(7). Compensation includes all amounts received from all entities treated as a single employer under section 414 (b), (c), (m), or (o). Levels of compensation shall be adjusted at the same time and in the same manner as provided in section 415(d). The first such adjustment was for calendar year 1988.

(11)Treatment of former employees. For purposes of this paragraph (g), an employee who was a control employee of the employer (as defined in this paragraph (g)) at any time after reaching age 55, or within three years of separation from the service of the employer, is a control employee with respect to flights taken after separation from the service of the employer. An individual who is treated as a control employee under this paragraph (g)(11) is not counted when determining the limitation of paragraph (g)(8)(i) (A) and (B) of this section. Thus, the total number of individuals treated as control employees under such paragraphs may exceed the limitations of such paragraphs to the extent that this paragraph (g)(11) applies.

(12)Seating capacity rule -

(i)In general -

(A)General rule. Where 50 percent or more of the regular passenger seating capacity of an aircraft (as used by the employer) is occupied by individuals whose flights are primarily for the employer's business (and whose flights are excludable from income under section 132(d)), the value of a flight on that aircraft by any employee who is not flying primarily for the employer's business (or who is flying primarily for the employer's business but the value of whose flight is not excludable under section 132(d) by reason of section 274(c)) is deemed to be zero. See § 1.132-5 which limits the working condition fringe exclusion under section 132(d) to situations where the employee receives the flight in connection with the performance of services for the employer providing the aircraft.

(B)Special rules -

(1)Definition of “employee.” For purposes of this paragraph (g)(12), the term “employee” includes only employees of the employer, including a partner of a partnership, providing the aircraft and does not include independent contractors and directors of the employer. A flight taken by an individual other than an “employee” as defined in the preceding sentence is considered a flight taken by an employee for purposes of this paragraph (g)(12) only if that individual is treated as an employee pursuant to section 132(f)(1) or that individual's flight is treated as a flight taken by an employee pursuant to section 132(f)(2). If -

(i) A flight by an individual is not considered a flight taken by an employee (as defined in this paragraph (g)(12)(i)),

(ii) The value of that individual's flight is not excludable under section 132(d), and

(iii) The seating capacity rule of this paragraph (g) (12) otherwise applies, then the value of the flight provided to such an individual is the value of a flight provided to a non-control employee pursuant to paragraph (g)(5) of this section (even if the individual who would be taxed on the value of the flight is a control employee).

(2)Example. The special rules of paragraph (g)(12)(i)(B)(1) of this section are illustrated by the following example:

Example.
Assume that 60 percent of the regular passenger seating capacity of an employer's aircraft is occupied by individuals whose flights are primarily for the employer's business and are excludable from income under section 132(d). If a control employee, his spouse, and his dependent child fly on the employer's aircraft for primarily personal reasons, the value of the three flights is deemed to be zero. If, however, the control employee's cousin were provided a flight on the employer's aircraft, the value of the flight taken by the cousin is determined by applying the aircraft valuation formula of paragraph (g)(5) of this section (including the terminal charge) and the non-control employee aircraft multiples of paragraph (g)(7) of this section.

(ii)Application of 50-percent test to multiple flights. The seating capacity rule of this paragraph (g)(12) must be met both at the time the individual whose flight is being valued boards the aircraft and at the time the individual deplanes. For example, assume that employee A boards an employer-provided aircraft for personal purposes in New York, New York, and that at that time 80 percent of the regular passenger seating capacity of the aircraft is occupied by individuals whose flights are primarily for the employer's business (and whose flights are excludable from income under section 132(d)) (“the business passengers”). If the aircraft flies directly to Hartford, Connecticut where all of the passengers, including A, deplane, the requirements of the seating capacity rule of this paragraph (g)(12) have been satisfied. If instead, some of the passengers, including A, remain on the aircraft in Hartford and the aircraft continues on to Boston, Massachusetts, where they all deplane, the requirements of the seating capacity rule of this paragraph (g)(12) will not be satisfied with respect to A's flight from New York to Boston unless at least 50 percent of the seats comprising the aircraft's regular passenger seating capacity were occupied by the business passengers at the time A deplanes in Boston.

(iii)Regular passenger seating capacity.

(A)General rule. Except as otherwise provided, the regular passenger seating capacity of an aircraft is the maximum number of seats that have at any time on or prior to the date of the flight been on the aircraft (while owned or leased by the employer). Except to the extent excluded pursuant to paragraph (g)(12)(v) of this section, regular seating capacity includes all seats which may be occupied by members of the flight crew. It is irrelevant that, on a particular flight, less than the maximum number of seats are available for use because, for example, some of the seats are removed.

(B)Special rules. When determining the maximum number of seats that have at any time on or prior to the date of the flight been on the aircraft (while owned or leased by the employer), seats that could not at any time be legally used during takeoff and have not at any time been used during takeoff are not counted. As of the date an employer permanently reduces the seating capacity of an aircraft, the regular passenger seating capacity is the reduced number of seats on the aircraft. The previous sentence shall not apply if at any time within 24 months after such reduction any seats are added in the aircraft. Unless the conditions of this paragraph (g)(12)(iii)(B) are satisfied, jumpseats and removable seats used solely for purposes of flight crew training are counted for purposes of the seating capacity rule of this paragraph (g)(12).

(iv)Examples. The rules of paragraph (g)(12)(iii) of this section are illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
Employer A and employer B order the same aircraft, except that A orders it with 10 seats and B orders it with eight seats. A always uses its aircraft as a 10-seat aircraft; B always uses its aircraft as an eight-seat aircraft. The regular passenger seating capacity of A's aircraft is 10 and of B's aircraft is eight.
Example 2.
Assume the same facts as in example (1), except that whenever A's chief executive officer and spouse use the aircraft eight seats are removed. Even if substantially all of the use of the aircraft is by the chief executive officer and spouse, the regular passenger seating capacity of the aircraft is 10.
Example 3.
Assume the same facts as in example (1), except that whenever more than eight people want to fly in B's aircraft, two extra seats are added. Even if substantially all of the use of the aircraft occurs with eight seats, the regular passenger seating capacity of the aircraft is 10.
Example 4.
Employer C purchases an aircraft with 12 seats. Three months later C remodels the interior of the aircraft and permanently removes four of the seats. Upon completion of the remodeling, the regular passenger seating capacity of the aircraft is eight. If, however, any seats are added within 24 months after the remodeling, the regular seating capacity of the aircraft is treated as 12 throughout the entire period.

(v)Seats occupied by flight crew. When determining the regular passenger seating capacity of an aircraft, any seat occupied by a member of the flight crew (whether or not such individual is an employee of the employer providing the aircraft) shall not be counted, unless the purpose of the flight by such individual is not primarily to serve as a member of the flight crew. If the seat occupied by a member of the flight crew is not counted as a passenger seat pursuant to the previous sentence, such member of the flight crew is disregarded in applying the 50-percent test described in the first sentence of paragraph (g)(12)(i) of this section. For example, assume that prior to application of this paragraph (g)(12)(v) the regular passenger seating capacity of an aircraft is one. Assume further that an employee pilots the aircraft and that the employee's flight is nor primarily for the employer's business. If the employee's spouse occupies the other seat for personal purposes, the seating capacity rule is not met and the value of both flights must be included in the employee's income. If, however, the employee's flight were primarily for the employer's business (unrelated to serving as a member of the flight crew), then the seating capacity rule is met and the value of the flight for the employee's spouse is deemed to be zero. If the employee's flight were primarily to serve as a member of the flight crew, then the seating capacity rule is not met and the value of a flight by any passenger for primarily personal reasons is not deemed to be zero.

(13)Erroneous use of the non-commercial flight valuation rule -

(i)Certain errors in the case of a flight by a control employee. If -

(A) The non-commercial flight valuation rule of this paragraph (g) is applied by an employer or a control employee, as the case may be, on a return as originally filed or on an amended return on the grounds that either -

(1) The control employee is not in fact a control employee, or

(2) The aircraft is within a specific weight classification, and

(B) Either position is subsequently determined to be erroneous, the valuation rule of this paragraph (g) is not available to value the flight taken by that control employee by the person or persons taking the erroneous position. With respect to the weight classifications, the previous sentence does not apply if the position taken is that the weight of the aircraft is greater than it is subsequently determined to be. If, with respect to a flight by a control employee, the seating capacity rule of paragraph (g)(12) of this section is used by an employer or the control employee, as the case may be, on a return as originally filed or on an amended return, the valuation rule of this paragraph (g) is not available to value the flight taken by that control employee by the person or persons taking the erroneous position.

(ii)Value of flight excluded as a working condition fringe. If either an employer or an employee, on a return as originally filed or on an amended return, excludes from the employee's income or wages all or any part of the value of a flight on the grounds that the flight was excludable as a working condition fringe under section 132, and that position is subsequently determined to be erroneous, the valuation rule of this paragraph (g) is not available to value the flight taken by that employee by the person or persons taking the erroneous position. Instead, the general valuation rules of paragraphs (b) (5) and (6) of this section apply.

(14)Consistency rules -

(i)Use by employer. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (g)(13) or paragraph (g)(14)(iii) of this section or in § 1.132-5(m)(4), if the non-commercial flight valuation rule of this paragraph (g) is used by an employer to value any flight provided in a calendar year, the rule must be used to value all flights provided to all employees in the calendar year.

(ii)Use by employee. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (g)(13) or (g)(14)(iii) of this section or in § 1.132-5(m)(4), if the non-commercial flight valuation rule of this paragraph (g) is used by an employee to value a flight provided by an employer in a calendar year, the rule must be used to value all flights provided to the employee by that employer in the calendar year.

(iii)Exception for entertainment flights provided to specified individuals after October 22, 2004. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (g)(14)(i) of this section, an employer may use the general valuation rules of paragraph (b) of this section to value the entertainment use of an aircraft provided after October 22, 2004, to a specified individual. An employer who uses the general valuation rules of paragraph (b) of this section to value any entertainment use of an aircraft by a specified individual in a calendar year must use the general valuation rules of paragraph (b) of this section to value all entertainment use of aircraft provided to all specified individuals during that calendar year.

(A)Specified individuals defined. For purposes of paragraph (g)(14)(iii) of this section, specified individual is defined in section 274(e)(2)(B) and § 1.274-9(b).

(B)Entertainment defined. For purposes of paragraph (g)(14)(iii) of this section, entertainment is defined in § 1.274-2(b)(1).

(h)Commercial flight valuation rule -

(1)In general. Under the commercial flight valuation rule of this paragraph (h), the value of a space-available flight (as defined in paragraph (h) (2) of this section) on a commercial aircraft is 25 percent of the actual carrier's highest unrestricted coach fare in effect for the particular flight taken. The rule of this paragraph (h) is available only to an individual described in § 1.132-1(b)(1).

(2)Space-available flight. The commercial flight valuation rule of this paragraph (h) is available to value a space-available flight. The term “space-available flight” means a flight on a commercial aircraft -

(i) Which is subject to the same types of restrictions customarily associated with flying on an employee “stand-by” or “space-available” basis, and

(ii) Which meets the definition of a no-additional-cost service under section 132(b), except that the flight is provided to an individual other than the employee or an individual treated as the employee under section 132(f). Thus, a flight is not a space-available flight if the employer guarantees the employee a seat on the flight or if the nondiscrimination requirements of section 132(h)(1) and § 1.132-8 are not satisfied. A flight may be a space-available flight even if the airline that is the actual carrier is not the employer of the employee.

(3)Commercial aircraft. If the actual carrier does not offer, in the ordinary course of its business, air transportation to customers on a per-seat basis, the commercial flight valuation rule of this paragraph (h) is not available. Thus, if, in the ordinary course of its line of business, the employer only offers air transportation to customers on a charter basis, the commercial flight valuation rule of this paragraph (h) may not be used to value a space-available flight on the employer's aircraft. If the commercial flight valuation rule is not available, the flight may be valued under the non-commercial flight valuation rule of paragraph (g) of this section.

(4)Timing of inclusion. The date that the flight is taken is the relevant date for purposes of applying section 61(a)(1) and this section to a space-available flight on a commercial aircraft. The date of purchase or issuance of a pass or ticket is not relevant. Thus, this section applies to a flight taken on or after January 1, 1989, regardless of the date on which the pass or ticket for the flight was purchased or issued.

(5)Consistency rules -

(i)Use by employer. If the commercial flight valuation rule of this paragraph (h) is used by an employer to value any flight provided in a calendar year, the rule must be used to value all flights eligible for use of the rule provided in the calendar year.

(ii)Use by employee. If the commercial flight valuation rule of this paragraph (h) is used by an employee to value a flight provided by an employer in a calendar year, the rule must be used to value all flights provided by that employer eligible for use of the rule taken by such employee in the calendar year.

(i) [Reserved]

(j)Valuation of meals provided at an employer-operated eating facility for employees -

(1)In general. The valuation rule of this paragraph (j) may be used to value a meal provided at an employer-operated eating facility for employees (as defined in § 1.132-7). For rules relating to an exclusion for the value of meals provided at an employer-operated eating facility for employees, see section 132(e)(2) and § 1.132-7.

(2)Valuation formula -

(i)In general. The value of all meals provided at an employer-operated eating facility for employees during a calendar year (“total meal value”) is 150 percent of the direct operating costs of the eating facility determined separately with respect to such eating facility whether or not the direct operating costs test is applied separately to such eating facility under § 1.132-7(b)(2). For purposes of this paragraph (j), the definition of direct operating costs provided in § 1.132-7(b) and the adjustments specified in § 1.132-7(a)(2) apply. The taxable value of meals provided at an eating facility may be determined in two ways. The “individual meal subsidy” may be treated as the taxable value of a meal provided at the eating facility (see paragraph (j)(2)(ii) of this section) to a particular employee. Alternatively, the employer may allocate the “total meal subsidy” among employees (see paragraph (j)(2)(iii) of this section).

(ii)“Individual meal subsidy” defined. The “individual meal subsidy” is determined by multiplying the amount paid by the employee for a particular meal by a fraction, the numerator of which is the total meal value and the denominator of which is the gross receipts of the eating facility for the calendar year and then subtracting the amount paid by the employee for the meal. The taxable value of meals provided to a particular employee during a calendar year, therefore, is the sum of the individual meal subsidies provided to the employee during the calendar year. This rule is available only if there is a charge for each meal selection and if each employee is charged the same price for any given meal selection.

(iii)Allocation of “total meal subsidy.” Instead of using the individual meal subsidy method provided in paragraph (j)(2)(ii) of this section, the employer may allocate the “total meal subsidy” (total meal value less the gross receipts of the facility) among employees in any manner reasonable under the circumstances. It will be presumed reasonable for an employer to allocate the total meal subsidy on a per-employee basis if the employer has information that would substantiate to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that each employee was provided approximately the same number of meals at the facility.

(k)Commuting valuation rule for certain employees -

(1)In general. Under the rule of this paragraph (k), the value of the commuting use of employer-provided transportation may be determined under paragraph (k)(3) of this section if the following criteria are met by the employer and employee with respect to the transportation:

(i) The transportation is provided, solely because of unsafe conditions, to an employee who would ordinarily walk or use public transportation for commuting to or from work;

(ii) The employer has established a written policy (e.g., in the employer's personnel manual) under which the transportation is not provided for the employee's personal purposes other than for commuting due to unsafe conditions and the employer's practice in fact corresponds with the policy;

(iii) The transportation is not used for personal purposes other than commuting due to unsafe conditions; and

(iv) The employee receiving the employer-provided transportation is a qualified employee of the employer (as defined in paragraph (k)(6) of this section).

(2)Trip-by-trip basis. The special valuation rule of this paragraph (k) applies on a trip-by-trip basis. If an employer and employee fail to meet the criteria of paragraph (k)(1) of this section with respect to any trip, the value of the transportation for that trip is not determined under paragraph (k)(3) of this section and the amount includible in the employee's income is determined by reference to the fair market value of the transportation.

(3)Commuting value -

(i)$1.50 per one-way commute. If the requirements of this paragraph (k) are satisfied, the value of the commuting use of the employer-provided transportation is $1.50 per one-way commute (i.e., from home to work or from work to home).

(ii)Value per employee. If transportation is provided to more than one qualified employee at the same time, the amount includible in the income of each employee is $1.50 per one-way commute.

(4)Definition of employer-provided transportation. For purposes of this paragraph (k), “employer-provided transportation” means transportation by vehicle (as defined in paragraph (f)(4) of this section) that is purchased by the employer (or that is purchased by the employee and reimbursed by the employer) from a party that is not related to the employer for the purpose of transporting a qualified employee to or from work. Reimbursements made by an employer to an employee to cover the cost of purchasing transportation (e.g., hiring cabs) must be made under a bona fide reimbursement arrangement.

(5)Unsafe conditions. Unsafe conditions exist if a reasonable person would, under the facts and circumstances, consider it unsafe for the employee to walk to or from home, or to walk to or use public transportation at the time of day the employee must commute. One of the factors indicating whether it is unsafe is the history of crime in the geographic area surrounding the employee's workplace or residence at the time of day the employee must commute.

(6)Qualified employee defined -

(i)In general. For purposes of this paragraph (k), a qualified employee is one who meets the following requirements with respect to the employer:

(A) The employee performs services during the current year, is paid on an hourly basis, is not claimed under section 213(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (as amended), 29 U.S.C. 201- 219 (FLSA), to be exempt from the minimum wage and maximum hour provisions of the FLSA, and is within a classification with respect to which the employer actually pays, or has specified in writing that it will pay, compensation for overtime equal to or exceeding one and one-half times the regular rate as provided by section 207 of the FLSA; and

(B) The employee does not receive compensation from the employer in excess of the amount permitted by section 414(q)(1)(C) of the Code.

(ii)“Compensation” and “paid on an hourly basis” defined. For purposes of this paragraph (k), “compensation” has the same meaning as in section 414(q)(7). Compensation includes all amounts received from all entities treated as a single employer under section 414 (b), (c), (m), or (o). Levels of compensation shall be adjusted at the same time and in the same manner as provided in section 415(d). If an employee's compensation is stated on an annual basis, the employee is treated as “paid on an hourly basis” for purposes of this paragraph (k) as long as the employee is not claimed to be exempt from the minimum wage and maximum hour provisions of the FLSA and is paid overtime wages either equal to or exceeding one and one-half the employee's regular hourly rate of pay.

(iii)FLSA compliance required. An employee will not be considered a qualified employee for purposes of this paragraph (k), unless the employer is in compliance with the recordkeeping requirements concerning that employee's wages, hours, and other conditions and practices of employment as provided in section 211(c) of the FLSA and 29 CFR part 516.

(iv)Issues arising under the FLSA. If questions arise concerning an employee's classification under the FLSA, the pronouncements and rulings of the Administrator of the Wage and Hour Division, Department of Labor are determinative.

(v)Non-qualified employees. If an employee is not a qualified employee within the meaning of this paragraph (k)(6), no portion of the value of the commuting use of employer-provided transportation is excluded under this paragraph (k).

(7)Examples. This paragraph (k) is illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
A and B are word-processing clerks employed by Y, an accounting firm in a large metropolitan area, and both are qualified employees under paragraph (k)(6) of this section. The normal working hours for A and B are from 11:00 p.m. until 7:00 a.m. and public transportation, the only means of transportation available to A or B, would be considered unsafe by a reasonable person at the time they are required to commute from home to work. In response, Y hires a car service to pick up A and B at their homes each evening for purposes of transporting them to work. The amount includible in the income of both A and B is $1.50 for the one-way commute from home to work.
Example 2.
Assume the same facts as in Example 1, except that Y also hires a car service to return A and B to their homes each morning at the conclusion of their shifts and public transportation would not be considered unsafe by a reasonable person at the time of day A and B commute to their homes. The value of the commute from work to home is includible in the income of both A and B by reference to fair market value since unsafe conditions do not exist for that trip.
Example 3.
C is an associate for Z, a law firm in a metropolitan area. The normal working hours for C's law firm are from 9 a.m. until 6 p.m., but C's ordinary office hours are from 10 a.m. until 8 p.m. Public transportation, the only means of transportation available to C at the time C commutes from work to home during the evening, would be considered unsafe by a reasonable person. In response, Z hires a car service to take C home each evening. C does not receive annual compensation from Z in excess of the amount permitted by section 414(q)(1)(C) of the Code. However, C is treated as an employee exempt from the provisions of the FLSA and, accordingly, is not paid overtime wages. Therefore, C is not a qualified employee within the meaning of paragraph (k)(6) of this section. The value of the commute from work to home is includible in C's income by reference to fair market value.

(8)Effective date. This paragraph (k) applies to employer-provided transportation provided to a qualified employee on or after July 1, 1991.

[T.D. 8256, 54 FR 28582, July 6, 1989, as amended by T.D. 8389, 57 FR 1870, Jan. 16, 1992; T.D. 8457, 57 FR 62195, Dec. 30, 1992; T.D. 9597, 77 FR 45483, Aug. 1, 2012]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 16-Jun-2017 03:58

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR Part 1 after this date.

  • 2017-06-30; vol. 82 # 125 - Friday, June 30, 2017
    1. 82 FR 29719 - Regulations Regarding Withholding of Tax on Certain U.S. Source Income Paid to Foreign Persons, Information Reporting and Backup Withholding on Payments Made to Certain U.S. Persons, and Portfolio Interest Treatment; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendment.
        Effective Date: These corrections are effective June 30, 2017. Applicability Date: The corrections to §§ 1.1441-0; 1.1441-1(b)(7)(ii)(B), (e)(3)(iv)(B) and (C), (e)(4)(ii)(B)( 11 ), (e)(4)(ix)(D), (e)(5)(ii) through (e)(5)(ii)(B), (e)(5)(ii)(D) through (e)(5)(v)(B)( 3 ), (e)(5)(v)(B)( 5 ) through (e)(5)(v)(D), and (f) through (f)(4); 1.1441-1T; 1.1441-3(d)(1); 1.1441-4; 1.6045-1(m)(2)(ii) and (n)(12)(ii); and 1.6049-5(c)(1) through (c)(4) are applicable on January 6, 2017.
      26 CFR Part 1