26 CFR 1.61-2T - Taxation of fringe benefits - 1985 through 1988 (temporary).

§ 1.61-2T Taxation of fringe benefits - 1985 through 1988 (temporary).

(a)Fringe benefits -

(1)In general. Section 61(a)(1) provides that, except as otherwise provided in subtitle A, gross income includes compensation for services, including fees, commissions, fringe benefits, and similar items. Examples of fringe benefits include: an employer-provided automobile, a flight on an employer-provided aircraft, an employer-provided free or discounted commercial airline flight, an employer-provided vacation, and employer-provided discount on property or services, and emkployer-provided membership in a country club or other social club, and an employer-provided ticket to an entertainment or sporting event.

(2)Fringe benefits excluded from income. To the extent that a particular fringe benefit is specifically excluded from gross income pursuant to another section of subtitle A, that section shall govern the treatment of the fringe benefit. Thus, if the requirements of the governing section are satisfied, the fringe benefits may be excludable from gross income. Examples of excludable fringe benefits are qualified tuition reductions provided to an employee (section 177(d)); meals and lodging furnished to an employee for the convenience of the employer (section 119); and benefits provided under a dependent care assistance program (section 129). Similarly, the value of the use by an employee of an employer-provided vehicle or a flight provided to an employee on an employer-provided aircraft may be excludable from income under section 105 (because, for example, the trnsportation is provided for medical reasons) if and to the extent that the requirements of that section are satisfied. Section 61 and the regulations thereunder shall apply, however, to the extent that they are not inconsistent with such other section. For example, many fringe benefits specifically addressed in other sections of subtitle A are excluded from gross income only to the extent that they do not exceed specific dollar or percentage limits, or only if certain other requirements are met. If the limits are exceeded or the requirements are not met, some or all of the fringe benefit may be includible in gross income. See paragraph (b)(3) of this section.

(3)Compensation for services. A fringe benefit provided in connection with the performance of services shall be considered to have been provided as compensation for servcies. Refraining from the performance of services (such as pursuant to a covenant not to compete) is deemed to be the performance of services for purposes of this section.

(4)Recipient of a fringe benefit -

(i)Definition. A fringe benefit is included in the income of the “recipient” of the fringe benefit. The recipient of a fringe benefit is the person performing the services in connection with which the fringe benefit is provided. Thus, a person may be considered to be a recipient, even though that person did not actually receive the fringe benefit. For example, a fringe benefit provided to any person is connection with the performance of services by another person is considered to have been provided to the person who performs the services and not the person who receives the fringe benefit. In addition, if a fringe benefit is provided to a person, but taxable to a second person as the recipient, such benefit is referred to as provided to the second person and use by the first person is considered use by the second person. For example, provision of an automobile to an employee's spouse by the employer is taxable to the employee as the recipient. The automobile is referred to as available to the employee and use by the employee's spouse is considered use by the employee.

(ii)Recipient may be other than an employee. The recipient of a fringe benefit need not be an employee of the provider of the fringe benefit, but may be a partner, director, or an independent contractor. For convenience, the term “employee” includes a reference to any recipient of a fringe benefit, unless otherwise specifically provided in this section.

(5)Provider of a fringe benefit. The “provider” of a fringe benefit is that person for whom the services are performed, regardless of whether that person actually provides the fringe benefit to the recipient. The provider of a fringe benefit need not be the employer of the recipient of the fringe benefit, but may be, for example, a client or customer of an independent contractor. For convenience, the term “employer” includes a reference to any provider of a fringe benefit, unless otherwise specifically provided in this section.

(6)Effective date. This section is effective from January 1, 1985, to December 31, 1988, with respect to fringe benefits furnished before January 1, 1989. No inference may be drawn from the promulgation or terms of this section concerning the application of law in effect prior to January 1, 1985.

(b)Valuation of fringe benefits -

(1)In general. An employee must include in gross income the amount by which the fair market value of the fringe benefit exceeds the sum of (i) the amount, if any, paid for the benefit, and (ii) the amount, if any, specifically excluded from gross income by some other section of subtitle A. Therefore, for example, if the employee pays fair market value for what is received, no amount is includible in the gross income of the employee.

(2)Fair market value. In general, fair market value is determined on the basis of all the facts and circumstances. Specifically, the fair market value of a fringe benefit is that amount a (hypothetical person would have to pay a hypothetical third party to obtain (i.e., purchase or lease) the particular fringe benefit. Thus, for example, the effect of any special relationship that may exist between the employer and the employee must be disregarded. This also means that an employee's subjective perception of the value of a fringe benefit is not relevant to the determination of a fringe benefit's fair market value. In addition, the cost incurred by the employer is not determinative of the fair market value of the fringe benefit. For special rules relating to the valuation of certain fringe benefits, see paragraph (c) of this section.

(3)Exclusion from income based on cost. If a statutory exclusion phrased in terms of cost applies to the provision of a fringe benefit, section 61 does not require the inclusion in the recipient's gross income of the difference between the fair market value and the excludable cost of that fringe benefit. For example, section 129 provides an exclusion from an employee's gross income for amounts paid or incurred by an employer to provide dependent care assistance to employees. Even if the fair market value of the dependent care assistance exceeds the employer's cost, the excess is not subject to inclusion under section 61 and this section. If the statutory cost exclusion is a limited amount, however, then the fair market value of the fringe benefit attributable to any excess cost is subject to inclusion.

(4)Fair market value of the availability of an employer-provided vehicle. If the vehicle special valuation rules of paragraph (d), (e), or (f) of this section are not used by a taxpayer entitled to use such rules, the value of the availability of an employer-provided vehicle is determined under the general valuation principles set forth in this section. In general, such valuation must be determined by reference to the cost to a hypothetical person of leasing from a hypothetical third party the same or comparable vehicle on the same or comparable terms in the geographic area in which the vehicle is available for use. Unless the employee can substantiate that the same or comparable vehicle could have been leased on a cents-per-mile basis, the value of the availability of the vehicle cannot be determined by reference to a cents-per-mile rate applied to the number of miles the vehicle is driven. An example of a comparable lease term is the amount of time that the vehicle is available to the employee for use, e.g., a one-year period.

(5)Fair market value of a flight on an employer-provided aircraft. If the non-commercial flight special valuation rule of paragraph (g) of this section is not used (or is not properly used) by a taxpayer entitled to use such rule, the value of a flight on an employer-provided aircraft is determined under the general valuation principles set forth in this section. An example of how the general valuation principles would apply is that if an employee whose flight is primarily personal controls the use of an aircraft with respect to such flight, such flight is valued by reference to how much it would cost a hypothetical person to charter the same or comparable aircraft for the same or comparable flight. The cost to charter the aircraft must be allocated among all employees on board the aircraft based on all the facts and circumstances, including which employees controlled the use of the aircraft. Notwithstanding the allocation required by the preceding sentence, no additional amount shall be included in the income of any employee whose flight is properly valued under the special valuation rule of paragraph (g) of this section.

(c)Special valuation rules -

(1)In general. Paragraphs (d) through (j) of this section provide special valuation rules that may be used under certain circumstances for certain commonly provided fringe benefits. Paragraph (d) provides a lease valuation rule relating to employer-provided automobiles. Paragraph (e) provides a cents-per-mile valuation rule relating to employer-provided vehicles. Paragraph (f) provides a commuting valuation rule relating to employer-provided vehicles. Paragraph (g) provides a flight valuation rule relating to flights on employer-provided aircraft. Paragraph (h) provides a flight valuation rule relating to flights on commercial airlines. Paragraph (i) is reserved. Paragraph (j) provides a meal valuation rule relating to employer-operated eating facilities for employees. For general rules relating to the valuation of fringe benefits not eligible for valuation under the special valuation rules, see paragraph (d) of this section.

(2)Use of the special valuation rules -

(i)In general. The Special valuation rules may be used for income, employment tax, and reporting purposes. Use of any of the special valuation rules is optional. An employer need not use the same vehicle special valuation rule for all vehicles provided to all employees. For example, an employer may use the automobile lease valuation rule for automobiles provided to some employees, and the commuting and vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rules for automobiles provided to other employees. Except as otherwise provided, however, if either the commercial flight valuation rule or the noncommercial flight valuation rule is used, such rule must be used by an employer to value all flights taken by employees in a calendar year. Effective January 1, 1986, if an employer uses one of the special rules to value the benefit provided to an employee, the employee may not use another special rule to value that benefit. The employee may, however, use general valuation rules based on facts and circumstances (see paragraph (b) of this section). Effective January 1, 1986, an employee may only use a special valuation rule if the employer uses the rule. If a special rule is used, it must be used for all purposes. If an employer properly uses a special rule and the employee uses the special rule, the employee must include in gross income the amount determined by the employer under the special rule less any amount reimbursed by the employee to the employer. The employer and the employee may use the special rules to determine the amount of the reimbursement due the employer by the employee. If an employer properly uses a special rule and properly determines the amount of an employee's working condition fringe under section 132 and § 1.132-1T (under the general rule or under a special rule), and the employee uses the special valuation rule, the employee must include in gross income the amount determined by the employer less any amount reimbursed by the employee to the employer.

(ii)Transitional rules -

(A)Use of vehicle special valuation rules for 1985 and 1986. For purposes of valuing the use or availability of a vehicle, the consistency rules provided in paragraphs (d)(6) and (e)(5) of this section (relating to the automobile lease valuation rule and the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule, respectively) apply for 1987 and thereafter. Therefore, for 1985 and 1986 an employer (and employee, subject to paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section) may use any applicable special valuation rule (or no special valuation rule) to value the use or availability of a vehicle, subject to paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(B) of this section.

(B)Consistency Rules for 1985 and 1986. If an employer uses the automobile lease valuation rule of paragraph (d) of this section in 1985 or 1986 with respect to an automobile, such rule must be used for the entire calendar year with respect to the automobile except for any period during which the commuting valuation rule of paragraph (f) of this section is properly used. If an employer uses the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule of pararaph (e) of this section in 1985 or 1986 with respect to a vehicle, such rule must be used for the entire calendar year with respect to the vehicle except for any period during which the commuting valuation rule of paragraph (f) of this section is properly used. The rules of this paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(B) also apply to employees using the special valuation rules of paragraphs (d) or (e) of this section.

(C)Employee's use of special valuation rules for 1985. An employee may use a special valuation rule (other than the rule in paragraph (e) of this section relating to the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule) during 1985 even if the employer does not use the same special valuation rule during 1985. An employee's use of a special valuation rule in 1986 and thereafter must be consistent with his employer's use of the rule as required under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section.

(D)Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section:

Example 1.
Assume that an employer properly uses the automobile lease valuation rule in 1985. The employer may use the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule in 1986 if the requirements of the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule are satisfied.
Example 2.
Assume that an employer does not use a special valuation rule to value the availability of an automobile in 1985. The employer may use any of the special valuation rules in 1986 if the requirements of the rule chosen are satisfied. The same applies for 1987.
Example 3.
Assume that an employer properly uses the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule in 1985. The employer may continue to use to the rule or use any of the other special valuation rules to value the benefit provided in 1986 if the requirements of the rule chosen are satisfied. Alternatively, the employer may use none of the special valuation rules in 1986 but use any of the rules in 1987 if the requirements of the rule chosen are satisfied.
Example 4.
Assume that an employee properly uses the automobile lease valuation rule in 1985. In 1986 and thereafter the employee may use a special valuation rule only if the employee's employer uses the same special valuation rule. The employee may use general valuation principles to value the benefit provided in 1986 and thereafter.

(3)Election to use the special valuation rules - A particular special valuation rule is deemed to have been elected by the employer (and, if applicable, by the employee), if the employer (and, if applicable, the employee) determines the value of the fringe benefit provided by applying the special valuation rule and treats such value as the fair market value of the fringe benefit for income, employment tax, and reporting purposes. Neither the employer nor the employee is required to notify the Internal Revenue Service of the election.

(4)Application of section 414 to employers. For purposes of paragraphs (c) through (j) of this section, except as otherwise provided therein, the term “employer” includes all entities required to be treated as a single employer under section 414 (b), (c), or (m).

(5)Valuation formulas contained in the special valuation rules. The valuation formulas contained in the special valuation rules are provided only for use in connection with such rules. Thus, when a special valuation rule is properly applied to a fringe benefit, the Commissioner will accept the value calculated pursuant to the rule as the fair market value of that fringe benefit. However, when a special valuation rule is not properly applied to a fringe benefit (see, for example, paragraph (g)(11) of this section), or when a special valuation rule is not used to value a fringe benefit by a taxpayer entitled to use the rule, the fair market value of that fringe benefit may not be determined by reference to any value calculated under any special valuation rule. Under the circumstances described in the preceding sentence, the fair market value of the fringe benefit must be determined pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section.

(6)Modification of the special valuation rules. The Commissioner may, if he deems it necessary, add, delete, or modify the special valuation rules, including the valuation formulas contained herein, on a prospective basis.

(7)Special Accounting Period. If the employer is using the special accounting rule provided in Announcement 85-113 (1985-31 I.R.B., August 5, 1985) (relating to the reporting of and withholding on the value of noncash fringe benefits), benefits which are deemed provided in a subsequent calendar year pursuant to such rule are considered as provided in such subsequent calendar year for purposes of the special valuation rules. Thus, if a particular special valuation rule is in effect for a calendar year, it applies to benefits deemed provided during such calendar year under the special accounting rule.

(d)Automobile lease valuation rule -

(1)In general -

(i)Annual Lease Value. Under the special valuation rule of this paragraph (d), if an employer provides an employee with an automobile that is available to the employee for an entire calendar year, the value of the benefit provided in the Annual Lease Value (determined under paragraph (d)(2) of this section) of that automobile. Except as otherwise provided, for an automobile that is available to an employee for less than an entire calendar year, the value of the benefit provided is either a pro-rated Annual Lease Value or the Daily Lease Value (as defined in paragraph (d)(4) of this section), whichever is applicable. Absent any statutory exclusion relating to the employer-provided automobile (see, for example, section 132(a)(3) and § 1.132-5T(b)), the amount of the Annual Lease Value (or a pro-rated Annual Lease Value or the Daily Lease Value, as applicable) is included in the gross income of the employee.

(ii)Definition of automobile. For purposes of this paragraph (d), the term “automobile” means any four-wheeled vehicle manufactured primarily for use on public streets, roads, and highways.

(2)Calculation of Annual Lease Value -

(i)In general. The Annual Lease Value of a particular automobile is calculated as follows:

(A) Determine the fair market value of the automobile as of the first date on which the automobile is made available to any employee of the employer for personal use. For an automobile first made available to any employee for personal use prior to January 1, 1985, determine the fair market value as of January 1, 1985. For rules relating to determination of the fair market value of an automobile for purposes of this paragraph (d), see paragraph (d)(5) of this section.

(B) Select the dollar range in column 1 of the Annual Lease Value Table, set forth in paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section, corresponding to the fair market value of the automobile. Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (d)(2) (iv) and (v) of this section, the Annual Lease Value for each year of availability of the automobile is the corresponding amount in column 2 of the Table.

(ii)Use by employee only in 1985. If the employee, but not the employer, is using the special rule of this paragraph (d), the employee may calculate the Annual Lease Value in the same manner as described in paragraph (d)(2)(i)(A) of this section, except that the fair market value of the automobile is determined as of the first date on which the automobile is made available to the employee for personal use or, for an automobile made available to the employee for personal use prior to January 1, 1985, by determining the fair market value as of January 1, 1985. If the employer is also using the special rule of this paragraph (d), however, then the employee to whom the automobile is made available must use the special rule, if at all, by using the Annual Lease Value calculated by the employer. The rules of this paragraph (d)(2)(ii) apply only for 1985.

(iii)Annual Lease Value Table.

Automobile fair market value Annual lease value
(1) (2)
$0 to $999 $600
$1,000 to $1,999 850
$2,000 to $2,999 1,100
$3,000 to $3,999 1,350
$4,000 to $4,999 1,600
$5,000 to $5,999 1,850
$6,000 to $6,999 2,100
$7,000 to $7,999 2,350
$8,000 to $8,999 2,600
$9,000 to $9,999 2,850
$10,000 to $10,999 3,100
$11,000 to $11,999 3,350
$12,000 to $12,999 3,600
$13,000 to $13,999 3,850
$14,000 to $14,999 4,100
$15,000 to $15,999 4,350
$16,000 to $16,999 4,600
$17,000 to $17,999 4,850
$18,000 to $18,999 5,100
$19,000 to $19,999 5,350
$20,000 to $20,999 5,600
$21,000 to $21,999 5,580
$22,000 to $22,999 6,100
$23,000 to $23,999 6,350
$24,000 to $24,999 6,600
$25,000 to $25,999 6,850
$26,000 to $27,999 7,250
$28,000 to $29,999 7,750
$30,000 to $31,999 8,250
$32,000 to $33,999 8,750
$34,000 to $35,999 9,250
$36,000 to $37,999 9,750
$38,000 to $39,999 10,250
$40,000 to $41,999 10,750
$42,000 to $43,999 11,250
$44,000 to $45,999 11,750
$46,000 to $47,999 12,250
$48,000 to $49,999 12,750
$50,000 to $51,999 13,250
$52,000 to $53,999 13,750
$54,000 to $55,999 14,250
$56,000 to $57,999 14,750
$58,000 to $59,999 15,250
For vehicles having a fair market value in excess of $59,999, the Annual Lease Value is equal to: (.25 × the fair market value of the automobile) $500.

(iv)Recalculation of annual lease value. The Annual Lease Values determined under the rules of this paragraph (d) are based on a four-year lease term. Therefore, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(2)(v) of this section, the Annual Lease Value calculated by applying paragraph (d)(2) (i) or (ii) of this section shall remain in effect for the period that begins with the first date the special valuation rule of paragraph (d) of this section is applied by the employer to the automobile and ends on December 31 of the fourth full calendar year following that date. The Annual Lease Value for each subsequent four-year period is calculated by determining the fair market value of the automobile as of the January 1 following the period described in the previous sentence and selecting the amount in column 2 of the Annual Lease Value Table corresponding to the appropriate dollar range in column 1 of the Table. If, however, the employer is using the special accounting rule provided in Announcement 85-113 (1985-31 I.R.B., August 5, 1985) (relating to the reporting of and withholding on the value of noncash fringe benefits), the employer may calculate the Annual Lease Value for each subsequent four-year period as of the beginning of the special accounting period that begins immediately prior to the January 1 described in the previous sentence. For example, assume that pursuant to Announcement 85-113, an employer uses the special accounting rule. Assume further that beginning on November 1, 1985, the special accounting period is November 1 to October 31 and that the employer elects to use the special valuation rule of this paragraph (d) as of January 1, 1985. The employer may recalculate the Annual Lease Value as of November 1, 1988, rather than as of January 1, 1989.

(v)Transfer of the automobile to another employee. Unless the primary purpose of the transfer is to reduce Federal taxes, if an employer transfers an automobile from one employee to another employee, the employer may recalculate the Annual Lease Value based on the fair market value of the automobile as of January 1 of the year of transfer. If, however, the employer is using the special accounting rule provided in Announcement 85-113 (1985-31 I.R.B., August 5, 1985) (relating to the reporting of and withholding on the value of noncash fringe benefits), the employer may recalculate the Annual Lease Value based on the fair market value of the automobile as of the beginning of the special accounting period in which the transfer occurs. If the employer does not recalculate the Annual Lease Value, and the employee to whom the automobile is transferred uses the special valuation rule, the employee may not recalculate the Annual Lease Value.

(3)Services included in, or excluded from, the Annual Lease Value Table -

(i)Maintenance and insurance included. The Annual Lease Values contained in the Annual Lease Value Table include the fair market value of maintenance of, and insurance for, the automobile. Neither an employer nor an employee may reduce the Annual Lease Value by the fair market value of any service included in the Annual Lease Value that is not provided by the employer, such as reducing the Annual Lease Value by the fair market value of a maintenance service contract or insurance. An employer or employee may take into account the services actually provided with respect to the automobile by valuing the availability of the automobile under the general valuation rules of paragraph (b) of this section.

(ii)Fuel excluded -

(A)In general. The Annual Lease Values do not include the fair market value of fuel provided by the employer, regardless of whether fuel is provided in kind or its cost is reimbursed by or charged to the employer.

(B)Valuation of fuel provided in kind. The provision of fuel in kind may be valued at fair market value based on all the facts and circumstances or, in the alternative, it may be valued at 5.5 cents per mile for all miles driven by the employee. However, the provision of fuel in kind may not be valued at 5.5 cents per mile for miles driven outside the United States, Canada, and Mexico. For purposes of this section, the United States includes the United States and its territories.

(C)Valuation of fuel where cost reimbursed by or charged to employer. The fair market value of fuel, the cost of which is reimbursed by or charged to an employer, is generally the amount of the actual reimbursement or the amount charged, provided the purchase of the fuel is at arm's length. If an employer with a fleet of at least 20 automobiles that meet the requirements of paragraph (d)(5)(v)(C) of this section reimburses employees for the cost of fuel or allows employees to charge the employer for the cost of the fuel, however, the fair market value of fuel provided to those automobiles may be determined by reference to the employer's fleet-average cents-per-mile fuel cost. The fleet-average cents-per-mile fuel cost in equal to the fleet-average per-gallon fuel cost divided by the fleet-average miles-per-gallon rate. The averages described in the preceding sentence must be determined by averaging the per-gallon fuel costs and miles-per-gallon rates of a representative sample of the automobiles in the fleet equal to the greater of ten percent of the automobiles in the fleet or 20 automobiles for a representative period, such as a two month period.

(iii)All other services excluded. The fair market value of any service not specifically identified in paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section that is provided by the employer with respect to an automobile (such as the services of a chauffeur) must be added to the Annual Lease Value of the automobile in determining the fair market value of the benefit provided.

(4)Availability of an automobile for less than an entire calendar year -

(i)Pro-rated Annual Lease Value used for continuous availability of 30 or more days. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(4)(iv) of this section, for periods of continuous availability of 30 or more days, but less than an entire calendar year, the value of the availability of the employer-provided automobile is the pro-rated Annual Lease Value. The pro-rated Annual Lease Value is calculated by multiplying the applicable Annual Lease Value by a fraction, the numerator of which is the number of days of availability and the denominator of which is 365.

(ii)Daily Lease Value used for continuous availability of less than 30 days. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(4)(iii) of this section, for periods of continuous availability of one or more but less than 30 days, the value of the availability of the employer-provided automobile is the Daily Lease Value. The Daily Lease Value is calculated by multiplying the applicable Annual Lease Value by a fraction, the numerator of which is four times the number of days of availability and the denominator of which is 365.

(iii)Election to treat all periods as periods of at least 30 days. A pro-rated Annual Lease Value may be applied with respect to a period of continuous availability of less than 30 days, by treating the automobile as if it had been available for 30 days, if to do so would result in a lower valuation than applying the Daily Lease Value to the shorter period of actual availability.

(iv)Periods of unavailability -

(A)General rule. In general, a pro-rated Annual Lease Value (as provided in paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section) is used to value the availability of an employer-provided automobile when the automobile is available to an employee for a period of continuous availability of at least 30 days but less than the entire calendar year. Neither an employer nor an employee may use a pro-rated Annual Lease Value when the reduction of Federal taxes is the primary reason the automobile is unavailable to an employee during the calendar year.

(B)Unavailability for personal reasons of the employee. If an automobile is unavailable to an employee because of personal reasons of the employee, such as while the employee is on vacation, a pro-rated Annual Lease Value may not be used. For example, assume an automobile is available to an employee during the first five months of the year and during the last five months of the year. Assume further that the period of unavailability occurs because the employee is on vacation. The Annual Lease Value, if it is applied, must be applied with respect to the entire 12 month period. The Annual Lease Value may not be pro-rated to take into account the two-month period of unavailability.

(5)Fair market value -

(i)In general. For purposes of determining the Annual Lease Value of an automobile under the Annual Lease Value Table, the fair market value of an automobile is that amount a hypothetical person would have to pay a hypothetical third party to purchase the particular automobile provided. Thus, for example, any special relationship that may exist between the employee and the employer must be disregarded. Also, the employee's subjective perception of the value of the automobile is not relevant to the determination of the automobile's fair market value. In addition, except as provided in paragraph (d)(5) (ii) of this section, the cost incurred by the employer of either purchasing of leasing the automobile is not determinative of the fair market value of the automobile.

(ii)Safe-harbor valuation rule. For purposes of calculating the Annual Lease Value of an automobile under this paragraph (d), the safe-harbor value of the automobile may be used as the fair market value of the automobile For an automobile owned by the employer, the safe-harbor value of the automobile is the employer's cost of purchasing the automobile, provided the purchase is made at arm's length. For an automobile leased by the employer, the safe-harbor value of the automobile is the value determined under paragraph (d)(5)(iii) of this section.

(iii)Use of nationally recognized pricing guides. The fair market value of an automobile that is (A) provided to an employee prior to January 1, 1985, (B) being revalued pursuant to paragraphs (d)(2) (iv) or (v) of this section, or (C) is a leased automobile being valued pursuant to paragraph (d)(5)(ii) of this section, may be determined by using the retail value of such automobile as reported in a nationally recognized publication that regularly reports new or used automobile retail values, whichever is applicable. The values contained in (and obtained from) the publication must be reasonable with respect to the automobile being valued.

(iv)Fair market value of special equipment -

(A)Certain equipment excluded. The fair market value of an automobile does not include the fair market value of any telephone or any specialized equipment that is added to or carried in the automobile if the presence of such equipment is necessitated by, and attributable to, the business needs of the employer.

(B)Use of specialized equipment outside of employer's business. The value of specialized equipment must be included, however, if the employee to whom the automobile is available uses the specialized equipment in a trade of business of the employee other than the employee's trade or business of being an employee of the employer.

(C)Equipment susceptible to personal use. The exclusion rule provided in this paragraph (d)(5)(iv) does not apply to specialized equipment susceptible to personal use.

(v)Fleet-average valuation rule -

(A)In general. An employer with a fleet of 20 or more automobiles may use a fleet-average value for purposes of calculating the Annual Lease Values of the automobiles in the fleet. The fleet-average value is the average of the fair market values of each automobile in the fleet. The fair market value of each automobile in the fleet shall be determined, pursuant to the rules of paragraphs (d)(5) (i) through (iv) of this section, as of the later of January 1, 1985, or the first date on which the automobile is made available to any employee of the employer for personal use.

(B)Period for use of rule. The fleet-average valuation rule of this paragraph (d)(5)(v) may be used by an employer as of January 1 of any calendar year following the calendar year in which the employer acquires a fleet of 20 or more automobiles. The Annual Lease Value calculated for the automobiles in the fleet, based on the fleet-average value, shall remain in effect for the period that begins with the first January 1 the fleet-average valuation rule of this paragraph (d)(5)(v) is applied by the employer to the automobiles in the fleet and ends on December 31 of the subsequent calendar year. The Annual Lease Value for each subsequent two year period is calculated by determining the fleet-average value of the automobiles in the fleet as of the first January 1 of such period. An employer may cease using the fleet-average valuation rule as of any January 1. The fleet-average valuation rule does not apply as of January 1 of the year in which the number of automobiles in the employer's fleet declines to fewer than 20. If, however, the employer is using the special accounting rule provided in Announcement 85-113 (I.R.B. No. 31, August 5, 1985), the employer may apply the rules of this paragraph (d)(5)(v)(B) on the basis of the special accounting period rather than the calendar year. (This is accomplished by substituting (1) the beginning of the special accounting period that begins immediately prior to the January 1 described in this paragraph (d)(5)(v)(B) for January 1 wherever it appears in this paragraph (d)(5)(v)(B) and (2) the end of such accounting period for December 31.) The revaluation rules of paragraph (d)(2) (iv) and (v) of this section do not apply to automobiles valued under this paragraph (d)(5)(v).

(C)Limitations on use of fleet-average rule. The rule provided in this paragraph (d)(5)(v) may not be used for any automobile whose fair market value (determined pursuant to paragraphs (d)(5) (i) through (iv) of this section as of either the first date on which the automobile is made available to any employee of the employer for personal use or, if later, January 1, 1985) exceeds $16,500. In addition, the rule provided in this paragraph (d)(5)(v) may only be used for automobiles that the employer reasonably expects will regularly be used in the employer's trade or business. Infrequent use of the vehicle, such as for trips to the airport or between the employer's multiple business premises, does not constitute regular use of the vehicle in the employer's trade or business.

(D)Additional automobiles added to the fleet. If the rule provided in this paragraph (d)(5)(v) is used by an employer, it must be used for every automobile included in or added to the fleet that meets the requirements of paragraph (d)(5)(v)(C) of this section. The fleet-average value in effect at the time an automobile is added to the fleet is treated as the fair market value of the automobile for purposes of determining the Annual Lease Value of the automobile until the fleet-average value changes pursuant to paragraph (d)(5)(v)(B) of this section.

(E)Use of the fleet-average rule by employees. An employee can only use the fleet-average value if it is used by the employer. If an employer uses the fleet-average value, and the employee uses the special valuation rule of paragraph (d) of this section, the employee must use the fleet-average value.

(6)Consistency rules -

(i)Use of the automobile lease valuation rule by an employer. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(5) (v)(B) of this section, an employer may adopt the automobile lease valuation rule of this paragraph (d) for an automobile only if the rule is adopted with respect to the later of the period that begins on January 1, 1987, or the first period in which the automobile is made available to an employee of the employer for personal use or, if the commuting valuation rule of paragraph (f) of this section is used when the automobile is first made available to an employee of the employer for personal use, the first period in which the commuting valuation rule is not used.

(ii)An employer must use the automobile lease valuation rule for all subsequent periods. Once the automobile lease valuation rule has been adopted for an automobile by an employer, the rule must be used by the employer for all subsequent periods in which the employer makes the automobile available to any employee, except that the employer may, for any period during which use of the automobile qualifies for the commuting valuation rule of paragraph (f) of this section, use the commuting valuation rule with respect to the automobile.

(iii)Use of the automobile lease valuation rule by an employee. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(C) of this section, an employee may adopt the automobile lease valuation rule for an automobile only if the rule is adopted (A) by the employer and (B) with respect to the first period in which the automobile for which the employer (consistent with paragraph (d)(6)(i) of this section) adopted the rule is made available to that employee for personal use, or, if the commuting valuation rule of paragraph (f) of this section is used when the automobile is first made available to that employee for personal use, the first period in which the commuting valuation rule is not used.

(iv)An employee must use the automobile lease valuation rule for all subsequent periods. Once the automobile lease valuation rule has been adopted for an automobile by an employee, the rule must be used by the employee for all subsequent periods in which the automobile for which the rule is used is available to the employee, except that the employee may, for any period during which use of the automobile qualifies for use of the commuting valuation rule of paragraph (f) of this section and for which the employer uses the rule, use the commuting valuation rule with respect to the automobile.

(v)Replacement automobiles. Notwithstanding anything in this paragraph (D)(6) to the contrary, if the automobile lease valuation rule is used by an employer, or by an employer and an employee, with respect to a particular automobile, and a replacement automobile is provided to the employee for the primary purpose of reducing Federal taxes, then the employer, or the employer and the employee, using the rule must continue to use the rule with respect to the replacement automobile.

(e)Vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule -

(1)In general -

(i)General rule. Under the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule of this paragraph (e), if an employer provides an employee with the use of a vehicle that (A) the employer reasonably expects will be regularly used in the employer's trade or business throughout the calendar year (or such shorter period as the vehicle may be owned or leased by the employer) or (B) satisfies the requirements of paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section, the value of the benefit provided in the calendar year is the standard mileage rate provided in the applicable Revenue Ruling or Revenue Procedure (“cents-per-mile rate”) multiplied by the total number of miles the vehicle is driven by the employee for personal purposes. For 1985, the standard mileage rate is 21 cents per mile for the first 15,000 miles and 11 cents per mile for all miles over 15,000. See Rev. Proc. 85-49. The standard mileage rate must be applied to personal miles independent of business miles. Thus, for example, if an employee drives 20,000 personal miles and 35,000 business miles in 1985, the value of the personal use of the vehicle is $3,700 (15,000 × $.21 5,000 × $.11). For purposes of this section, the use of a vehicle for personal purposes is any use of the vehicle other than use in the employee's trade or business of being an employee of the employer. Infrequent use of the vehicle, such as for trips to the airport or between the employer's multiple business premises, does not constitute regular use of the vehicle in the employer's trade or business.

(ii)Mileage rule. A vehicle satisfies the requirements of this paragraph (e)(1)(ii) in a calendar year if (A) it is actually driven at least 10,000 miles in the year, and (B) use of the vehicle during the year is primarily by employees. For example, if a vehicle is used by only one employee during the year and that employee drives a vehicle at least 10,000 miles in a calendar year, such vehicle satisfies the requirements of this paragraph (e)(1)(ii) even if all miles driven by the employee are personal. The requirements of this paragraph (e)(1)(ii), however, will not be satisfied if during the year the vehicle is transferred among employees in such a way which enables an employee whose use was at a rate significantly less that 10,000 miles per year to meet the 10,000 mile threshold. Assume that an employee uses a vehicle for the first six months of the year and drives 2,000 miles, and that vehicle is then used by other employees who drive the vehicle 8,000 miles in the last six months of the year. Because the rate at which miles were driven in the first six months of the year would result in only 4,000 miles being driven in the year, and because the first employee did not use the vehicle during the last six months of the year, the requirements of this paragraph (e)(1)(ii) are not satisfied. The requirement of paragraph (e)(1)(ii)(B) of this section is deemed satisfied if employees use the vehicle on a consistent basis for commuting. If the employer does not own or lease the vehicle during a portion of the year, the 10,000 mile threshold is to be reduced proportionately to reflect the periods when the employer owned or leased the vehicle. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(1)(ii), use of the vehicle by an individual (other than the employee) whose use would be taxed to the employee is not considered use by the employee.

(iii)Limitation on use of the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule. The value of the use of an automobile (as defined in paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section) may not be determined under the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule of this paragraph (e) if the fair market value of the automobile (determined pursuant to paragraphs (d)(5) (i) through (iv) of this section as of the later of January 1, 1985, or the first date on which the automobile is made available to any employee of the employer for personal use) exceeds $12,800. No inference may be drawn from the promulgation or terms of this section concerning the application of law in effect prior to January 1, 1985.

(2)Definition of vehicle. For purposes of this paragraph (e), the term “vehicle” means any motorized wheeled vehicle manufactured primarily for use on public streets, roads, and highways. The term “vehicle” includes an automobile as defined in paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section.

(3)Services included in, or excluded from, the cents-per-mile rate -

(i)Maintenance and insurance included. The cents-per-mile rate includes the fair market value of maintenance of, and insurance for, the vehicle. An employer may not reduce the cents-per-mile rate by the fair market value of any service included in the cents-per-mile rate but not provided by the employer. An employer or employee may take into account the services provided with respect to the automobile by valuing the availability of the automobile under the general valuation rules of paragraph (b) of this section.

(ii)Fuel provided by the employer -

(A)Miles driven in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. With respect to miles driven in the United States, Canada, and Mexico, the cents-per-mile rate includes the fair market value of fuel provided by the employer. If fuel is not provided by the employer, the cents-per-mile rate may be reduced by no more than 5.5 cents or the amount specified in any applicable Revenue Ruling or Revenue Procedure. For purposes of this section, the United States includes the United States and its territories.

(B)Miles driven outside the United States, Canada, and Mexico. With respect to miles driven outside the United States, Canada, and Mexico, the fair market value of fuel provided by the employer is not reflected in the cents-per-mile rate. Accordingly, the cents-per-mile rate may be reduced but by no more than 5.5 cents or the amount specified in any applicable Revenue Ruling or Revenue Procedure. If the employer provides the fuel in kind, it must be valued based on all the facts and circumstances. If the employer reimburses the employee for the cost of fuel or allows the employee to charge the employer for the cost of fuel, the fair market value of the fuel is generally the amount of the actual reimbursement or the amount charged, provided the purchase of fuel is at arm's length.

(4)Valuation of personal use only. The vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule of this paragraph (e) may only be used to value the miles driven for personal purposes. Thus, the employer must include an amount in an employee's income with respect to the use of a vehicle that is equal to the product of the number of personal miles driven by the employee and the appropriate cents-per-mile rate. The employer may not include in income a greater or lesser amount; for example, the employer may not include in income 100 percent (all business and personal miles) of the value of the use of the vehicle. The term “personal miles” means all miles driven by the employee except miles driven by the employee is the employee's trade or business of being an employee of the employer.

(5)Consistency rules -

(i)Use of the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule by an employer. An employer must adopt the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule of this paragraph (e) for a vehicle by the later of the period that begins on January 1, 1987, or the first period in which the vehicle is used by an employee of the employer for personal use or, if the commuting valuation rule of paragraph (f) of this section is used when the vehicle is first used by an employee of the employer for personal use, the first period in which the commuting valuation rule is not used.

(ii)An employer must use the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule for all subsequent periods. Once the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule has been adopted for a vehicle by an employer, the rule must be used by the employer for all subsequent periods in which the vehicle qualifies for use of the rule, except that (A) the employer may, for any period during which use of the vehicle qualifies for the commuting valuation rule of paragraph (f) of this section, use the commuting valuation rule with respect to the vehicle, and (B) if the employer elects to use the automobile lease valuation rule of paragraph (d) of this section for a period in which the vehicle does not qualify for use of the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule, then the employer must comply with the requirements of paragraph (d)(6) of this section. If the vehicle fails to qualify for use of the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule during a subsequent period, the employer may adopt for such subsequent period and thereafter any other special valuation rule for which the vehicle then qualifies. For purposes of paragraph (d)(6) of this section, the first day on which an automobile with respect to which the vehicle cents-per-mile rule had been used fails to qualify for use of the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule may be deemed to be the first day on which the automobile is available to an employee of the employer for personal use.

(iii)Use of the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule by an employee. An employee may adopt the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule for a vehicle only if the rule is adopted (A) by the employer and (B) with respect to the first period in which the vehicle for which the employer (consistent with paragraph (e)(5)(i) of this section) adopted the rule is available to that employee for personal use or, if the commuting valuation rule of paragraph (f) of this section is used by both the employer and the employee when the vehicle is first used by an employee for personal use, the first period in which the commuting valuation rule is not used.

(iv)An employee must use the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule for all subsequent periods. Once the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule has been adopted for a vehicle by an employee, the rule must be used by the employee for all subsequent periods of personal use of the vehicle by the employee for which the rule is used by the employer, except that the employee may, for any period during which use of the vehicle qualifies for use of the commuting valuation rule of paragraph (f) of this section and for which such rule is used by the employer, use the commuting valuation rule with respect to the vehicle.

(v)Replacement vehicles. Notwithstanding anything in this paragraph (e)(5) to the contrary, if the vehicle cents-per-mile valuation rule is used by an employer, or by an employer and an employee, with respect to a particular vehicle, and a replacement vehicle is provided to the employee for the primary purpose of reducing Federal taxes, then the employer, or the employer and the employee, using the rule must continue to use the rule with respect to the replacement vehicle if the replacement vehicle qualifies for use of the rule.

(f)Commuting valuation rule -

(1)In general. Under the commuting valuation rule of this paragraph (f), the value of the commuting use of an employer-provided vehicle may be determined pursuant to paragraph (f)(3) of this section if the following criteria are met by the employer and employees with respect to the vehicle:

(i) The vehicle is owned or leased by the employer and is provided to one or more employees for use in connection with the employer's trade or business and is used in the employer's trade or business;

(ii) For bona fide noncompensatory business reasons, the employer requires the employee to commute to and/or from work in the vehicle;

(iii) The employer has established a written policy under which the employee may not use the vehicle for personal purposes, other than for commuting or de minimis personal use (such as a stop for a personal errand on the way between a business delivery and the employee's home);

(iv) Except for de minimis personal use, the employee does not use the vehicle for any personal purpose other than commuting; and

(v) The employee required to use the vehicle for commuting is not a control employee of the employer (as defined in paragraphs (f) (5) and (6) of this section).

If the vehicle is a chauffeur-driven vehicle, the commuting valuation rule of this paragraph (f) may not be used to value the commuting use of any passenger who commutes in the vehicle. The rule may be used, however, to value the commuting use of the chauffeur. Personal use of a vehicle is all use of the vehicle by the employee that is not used in the employee's trade or business of being an employee of the employer.

(2)Special rules. Notwithstanding anything in paragraph (f)(1) of this section to the contrary, the following special rules apply -

(i)Written policy not required in 1985. The policy described in paragraph (f)(1)(iii) of this section prohibiting personal use need not be written with respect to the commuting use which occurs prior to January 1, 1986;

(ii)Commuting use during 1985. For commuting use that occurs after December 31, 1984, but before January 1, 1986, the restrictions of paragraph (f)(1)(v) of this section shall be applied by substituting “an employee who is an officer or a five-percent owner of the employer” in lieu of “a control employee”. For purposes of determining who is a five-percent owner, any individual who owns (or is considered as owning) five or more percent of the fair market value of an entity (the “owned entity”) is considered a five-percent owner of all entities that would be aggregated with the owned entity under the rules of section 414 (b), (c), or (m). An employee who is an officer of an employer shall be treated as an officer of all entities treated as a single employer pursuant to section 414 (b), (c), or (m). The definitions provided in paragraphs (f)(5)(i) and (f)(6) of this section may be used to define an officer; and

(iii)Control employee exception. If the vehicle in which the employee is required to commute is not an automobile as defined in paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section, the restrictions of paragraph (f)(1)(v) of this section do not apply.

(3)Commuting value -

(i)$1.50 per one-way commute. If the requirements of this paragraph (f) are satisfied, the value of the commuting use of an employer-provided vehicle is $1.50 per one-way commute (e.g., from home to work or from work to home).

(ii)Value per employee. If there is more than one employee who commutes in the vehicle, such as in the case of an employer-sponsored car pool, the amount includible in the income of each employee is $1.50 per one-way commute. Thus, the amount includible for each round-trip commute is $3.00 per employee.

(4)Definition of vehicle. For purposes of this paragraph (f), the term “vehicle” means any motorized wheeled vehicle manufactured primarily for use on public streets, roads, and highways. The term “vehicle” includes an automobile as defined in paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section.

(5)Control employee defined - Non-government employer. For purposes of this paragraph (f), a control employee of a non-government employer is any employee -

(i) Who is a Board- or shareholder-appointed, confirmed, or elected officer of the employer,

(ii) Who is a director of the employer, or

(iii) Who owns a one-percent or greater equity, capital, or profits interest in the employer.

For purposes of determining who is a one-percent owner under paragraph (f)(5)(iii) of this section, any individual who owns (or is considered as owning under section 318(a) or principles similar to section 318(a) for entities other than corporations) one percent or more of the fair market value of an entity (the “owned entity”) is considered a one-percent owner of all entities which would be aggregated with the owned entity under the rules of section 414 (b), (c), or (m). An employee who is an officer of an employer shall be treated as an officer of all entities treated as a single employer pursuant to section 414 (b), (c) or (m).

(6)Control employee defined - Government employer. For purposes of this paragraph (f), a control employee of a government employer if any -

(i) Elected official,

(ii) Federal employee who is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. In the case of commissioned officers of the United States Armed Forces, an officer is any individual with the rank of brigadier general or above or the rank of rear admiral (lower half) or above; or

(iii) State or local executive officer comparable to the individuals described in paragraph (f)(6) (i) and (ii) of this section.

For purposes of this paragraph (f), the term “government” includes any Federal, state, or local governmental unit, and any agency or instrumentality thereof.

(g)Non-commercial flight valuation rule -

(1)In general. Under the non-commercial flight valuation rule of this paragraph (g), if an employee is provided with a flight on an employer-provided aircraft, the value of the flight is calculated using the aircraft valuation formula provided in paragraph (g)(5) of this section. Except as otherwise provided, for purposes of this paragraph (g), a flight provided to a person whose flight would be taxable to an employee as the recipient is referred to as provided to the employee, and a flight taken by such person is considered a flight taken by the employee.

(2)Eligible flights and eligible aircraft. The valuation rule of this paragraph (g) may be used to value flights on all employer-provided aircraft, including helicopters. The valuation rule of this paragraph (g) may be used to value international as well as domestic flights. The valuation rule of this paragraph (g) may not be used to value a flight on any commercial aircraft on which air transportation is sold to the public on a per-seat basis. For a special valuation rule relating to certain flights on commercial aircraft, see paragraph (h) of this section.

(3)Definition of a flight -

(i)General rule. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (g)(3)(iii) of this section (relating to intermediate stops), for purposes of this paragraph (g), an individual's flight is the distance (in statute miles) between the place at which the individual boards the aircraft and the place at which the individual deplanes.

(ii)Valuation of each flight. Under the valuation rule of this paragraph (g), value is determined separately for each flight. Thus, a round-trip is comprised of at least two flights. For example, an employee who takes a personal trip on an employer-provided aircraft from New York, New York to Denver, Colorado, Denver to Los Angeles, California, and Los Angeles to New York has taken three flights and must apply the aircraft valuation formula separately to each flight. The value of a flight must be determined on a passenger-by-passenger basis. For example, if an individual accompanies an employee and the flight taken by the individual would be taxed to the employee, the employee would be taxed on the special rule value of the flight by the employee and by the individual.

(iii)Intermediate stop. If the primary purpose of a landing is necessitated by weather conditions, by an emergency, for purposes of refueling or obtaining other services relating to the aircraft, or for purposes of the employer's business unrelated to the employee whose flight is being valued (“an intermediate stop”), the distance between the place at which the trip originates and the place at which the intermediate stop occurs is not considered a flight. For example, assume that an employee's trip originates in St. Louis, Missouri, on route to Seattle, Washington, but, because of weather conditions, the aircraft lands in Denver, Colorado, and the employee stays in Denver overnight. Assume further that the next day the aircraft flies to Seattle where the employee deplanes. The employee's flight is the distance between the airport in St. Louis and the airport in Seattle. Assume that a trip originates in New York, New York, with five passengers and makes an intermediate stop in Chicago, Illinois, before going on to Los Angeles, California. If one of the five passengers deplanes in Chicago, the distance of that passenger's flight would be the distance between the airport in New York and the airport in Chicago. The intermediate stop is disregarded when measuring the flights taken by each of the other passengers. Their flights would be the distance between the airport in New York and the airport in Los Angeles.

(4)Personal and non-personal flights -

(i)In general. The valuation rule of this paragraph (g) applies to personal flights on employer-provided aircraft. A personal flight is one the value of which is not excludable under another section of subtitle A, such as under section 132(d) (relating to a working condition fringe). However, solely for purposes of paragraphs (g)(4)(ii) and (g)(4)(iii) of this section, references to personal flights do not include flights a portion of which would not be excludable by reason of section 274.(c).

(ii)Trip primarily for employer's business. If an employee combines, in one trip, personal and business flights on an employer-provided aircraft and the employee's trip is primarily for the employer's business (see § 1.162-2(b)(2)), the employee must include in income the excess of the value of all the flights that comprise the trip over the value of the flights that would have been taken had there been no personal flights but only business flights. For example, assume that an employee flies on an employer-provided aircraft from Chicago, Illinois to Miami, Florida, for the employer's business and that from Miami the employee flies on the employer-provided aircraft to Orlando, Florida, for personal purposes and then flies back to Chicago. Assume further that the primary purpose of the trip is for the employer's business. The amount includible in income is the excess of the value of the three flights (Chicago to Miami, Miami to Orlando, and Orlando to Chicago), over the value of the flights that would have been taken had there been no personal flights but only business flights (Chicago to Miami and Miami to Chicago).

(iii)Primarily personal trip. In an employee combines, in one trip, personal and business flights on an employer-provided aircraft and the aircraft's trip is primarily personal (see § 1.162-2(b)(2)), the amount includible in the employee's income is the value of the personal flights that would have been taken had there been no business flights but only personal flights. For example, assume that an employee flies on an employer-provided aircraft from San Francisco, California, to Los Angeles, California, for the employer's business and that from Los Angeles the employee flies on an employer-provided aircraft to Palm Springs, California, primarily for personal reasons and then flies back to San Francisco. Assume further that the primary purpose of the trip is personal. The amount includible in the employee's income is the value of personal flights that would have been taken had there been no business flights but only personal flights (San Francisco to Palm Springs and Palm Springs to San Francisco).

(iv)Application of section 274(c). The value of employer-provided travel outside the United States away from home may not be excluded from the employee's gross income as a working condition fringe, by either the employer or the employee, to the extent not deductible by reason of section 274(c). The valuation rule of this paragraph (g) applies to that portion of the value of any flight not excludable by reason of section 274(c). Such value must be included in income in addition to the amounts determined under paragraphs (g)(4)(ii) and (g)(4)(iii) of this section.

(v)Flight by individuals who are not personal guests. If an individual who is not an employee of the employer providing the aircraft is on a flight, and the individual is not the personal guest of any employee, the flight by the individual is not taxable to any employee of the employer providing the aircraft. The rule in the preceding sentence applies where the individual is provided the flight by the employer for noncompensatory business reasons of the employer. For example, assume that G, and employee of company Y, accompanies A, an employee of company X, on company X's aircraft for the purpose of inspecting land under consideration for purchase by company X from company Y. The flight by G is not taxable to A.

(5)Aircraft valuation formula. Under the valuation rule of this paragraph (g), the value of a flight is determined by multiplying the base aircraft valuation formula for the period during which the flight was taken by the appropriate aircraft multiple (as provided in paragraph (g)(7) of this section) and then adding the applicable terminal charge. The base aircraft valuation formula (also known as the Standard Industry Fare Level formula or SIFL) in effect on June 30, 1985, is as follows: ($.1402 per mile for the first 500 miles, $.1069 per mile for miles between 501 and 1500, and $.1028 per mile for miles over 1500). The terminal charge in effect on June 30, 1985, is $25.62. The SIFL cents-per-mile rates in the formula and the terminal charge are calculated by the Department of Transportation and are revised semi-annually.

(6)SIFL formula in effect for a particular flight. For purposes of this paragraph (g), in determining the value of a particular flight during the first six months of a calendar year, the SIFL formula (and terminal charge) in effect on December 31 of the preceding year applies, and in determining the value of a particular flight during the last six months of a calendar year, the SIFL formula (and terminal charge) in effect on June 30 of that year applies. The following is the SIFL formula in effect on December 31, 1984: ($.1480 per mile for the first 500 miles, $.1128 per mile for miles between 501 and 1500, and $.1085 per mile for miles over 1500). The terminal charge in effect on December 31, 1984, is $27.05.

(7)Aircraft multiples -

(i)In general. The aircraft multiples are based on the maximum certified takeoff weight of the aircraft. For purposes of applying the aircraft valuation formula described in paragraph (g)(5) of this section, the aircraft multiples are as follows:

[In percent]

Maximum certified takeoff weight of the aircraft Aircraft multiple for a -
Control employee Non-control employee
6,000 lbs. or less 62.5 15.6
6,001 to 10,000 lbs 125.0 23.4
10,001 to 25,000 lbs 300.0 31.3
25,001 lbs. or more 400.0 31.3

(ii)Flights treated as provided a to control employee. Except as provided in paragraph (g)(10) of this section, any flight provided to an individual whose flight would be taxable to a control employee (as defined in paragraph (g)(8) and (9) of this section) as the recipient shall be valued as if such flight has been provided to that control employee. For example, assume that the chief executive officer of an employer, his spouse, and his two children fly on an employer-provided aircraft for personal purposes. Assume further that the maximum certified takeoff weight of the aircraft is 12,000 lbs. The amount includible in the employee's income is 4 × ((300 percent × base aircraft valuation formula) plus the applicable terminal charge).

(8)Control employee defined - Nongovernment employer. For purposes of this paragraph (g), a control employee of a non-government employer is any employee -

(i) Who is a Board- or shareholder- appointed, confirmed, or elected officer of the employer, limited to the lesser of (A) one-percent of all employees (increased to the next highest integer, if not an integer) or (B) ten employees;

(ii) Whose compensation equals or exceeds the compensation of the top one percent most highly-paid employees of the employer (increased to the next highest integer, if not an integer) limited to a maximum of 25 employees;

(iii) Who owns a ten-percent or greater equity, capital or profits interest in the employer; or

(iv) Who is a director of the employer.

For purposes of this paragraph (g), any employee who is a family member (within the meaning of section 267(c)(4)) of a control employee is also a control employee. Pursuant to this paragraph (g)(8), an employee may be a control employee under more than one of the requirements listed in paragraphs (g)(8) (i) through (iv) of this section. For example, an employee may be both an officer under paragraph (g)(8)(i) of this section and a highly-paid employee under paragraph (g)(8)(ii) of this section. In this case, for purposes of the officer limitation rule of paragraph (g)(8)(i) of this section and the highly-paid employee limitation rule of paragraph (g)(8)(ii) of this section, the employee would be counted as reducing both such limitation rules. In no event shall an employee whose compensation is less than $50,000 be a control employee under paragraph (g)(8)(ii) of this section. For purposes of determining who is a ten-percent owner under paragraph (g)(8)(iii) of this section, any individual who owns (or is considered as owning under section 318(a) or principles similar to section 318(a) for entities other than corporations) ten percent or more of the fair market value of an entity (the “owned entity”) is considered a ten-percent owner of all entities which would be aggregated with the owned entity under the rules of section 414 (b), (c), or (m). For purposes of determining who is an officer under paragraph (g)(8)(i) of this section, notwithstanding anything in this section to the contrary, if the employer would be aggregated with other employers under the rules of section 414 (b), (c), or (m), the officer definition and the limitations are applied to each separate employer rather than to the aggregated employer. If applicable, the officer limitation rule of paragraph (g)(8)(i) of this section is applied to employees in descending order of their compensation. Thus, if an employer has 11 board-appointed officers, the employee with the least compensation of those officers would not be an officer under paragraph (g)(8)(i) of this section. For purposes of this paragraph (g), the term “compensation” means the amount reported on a Form W-2 as income for the prior calendar year. Compensation includes all amounts received from all entities treated as a single employer under section 414 (b), (c), or (m).

(9)Control employee defined - Government. For purposes of this paragraph (g), a control employee of a government employer is any -

(i) Elected officials;

(ii) Federal employee who is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. In the case of commissioned officers of the United States Armed Forces, an officer is any individual with the rank or brigadier general or above or the rank of rear admiral (lower half) or above; or

(iii) State or local executive officer comparable to the individuals in paragraph (g)(9)(i) and (ii) of this section.

For purposes of this paragraph (g), the term “government” includes any Federal, state, or local government unit, and any agency or instrumentality thereof.

(10)Seating capacity rule -

(i)In general. Where 50 percent of more of the regular passenger seating capacity of an aircraft (as used by the employer) is occupied by individuals whose flights are primarily for the employer's business (and whose flights are excludable from income under section 132(d)), the value of a flight on that aircraft by any employee who is not flying primarily for the employer's business (or who is flying primarily for the employer's business but the value of whose flight is not excludable under section 132(d) by reason of section 274(c)) is deemed to be zero. See § 1.132-5T which limits the exclusion under section 132(d) to situations where the employee receives the flight in connection with the performance of services for the employer providing the aircraft. For purposes of this paragraph (g)(10), the term “employee” includes only employees and partners of the employer providing the aircraft and does not include independent contractors and directors of the employer.

For purposes of this paragraph (g)(10), the second sentence of paragraph (g)(1) of this section will not apply. Instead, a flight taken by an individual who is either treated as an employee pursuant to section 132(f)(1) or whose flight is treated as a flight taken by an employee pursuant to section 132(f)(2) is considered a flight taken by an employee. If (A) a flight is considered taken by an individual other than an employee (as defined in this paragraph (g)(10)), (B) the value of that individual's flight is not excludable under section 132(d), and (C) the seating capacity rule of this paragraph (g)(10) otherwise applies, then the value of the flight provided to such an individual is the value of a flight provided to a non-control employee (even if the individual who would be taxed on the value of such individual's flight is a control employee).

(ii)Application of 50-percent test to multiple flights. The seating capacity rule of this paragraph (g)(10) must be met both at the time the individual whose flight is being valued boards the aircraft and at the time the individual deplanes. For example, assume that employee A boards an employer-provided aircraft for personal purposes in New York, New York, and that at that time 80 percent of the regular passenger seating capacity of the aircraft is occupied by individuals whose flights are primarily for the employer's business (and whose flights are excludable from income under section 132(d)) (“the business passengers”). If the aircraft flies directly to Hartford, Connecticut where all of the passengers, including A, deplane, the requirements of the seating capacity rule of this paragraph (g)(10) have been satisfied. If instead, some of the passengers, including A, remain on the aircraft in Hartford and the aircraft continues on to Boston, Massachusetts, where they all deplane, the requirements of the seating capacity rule of this paragraph (g)(10) will not be satisfied unless at least 50 percent of the seats comprising the aircraft's regular passenger seating capacity were occupied by the business passengers at the time A deplanes in Boston.

(iii)Regular passenger seating capacity. The regular passenger seating capacity of an aircraft is the maximum number of seats that have at any time been on the aircraft (while owned or leased by the employer). Except to the extent excluded pursuant to paragraph (g)(10)(v) of this section, regular seating capacity includes all seats which may be occupied by members of the flight crew. It is irrelevant that on a particular flight, less than the maximum number of seats are available for use, because, for example, some of the seats are removed. When determining the maximum number of seats, those seats that cannot at any time be legally used during takeoff and are not any time used during takeoff are not counted.

(iv)Examples. The rules of paragraph (g)(10)(iii) of this section are illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
Employer A and employer B order the same aircraft, except that A orders it with 10 seats and B orders it with eight seats. A always uses its aircraft as a 10-seat aircraft; B always uses its aircraft as an eight-seat aircraft. The regular passenger seating capacity of A's aircraft is 10 and of B's aircraft is eight.
Example 2.
Assume the same facts as in example (1), except that whenever A's chief executive officer and spouse use the aircraft eight seats are removed. Even if substantially all of the use of the aircraft is by the chief executive officer and spouse the regular passenger seating capacity of the aircraft is 10.
Example 3.
Assume the same facts as in example (1), except that whenever more than eight people want to fly in B's aircraft, two extra seats are added. Even if substantially all of the use of the aircraft occurs with eight seats, the regular passenger seating capacity of the aircraft is 10.

(v)Seats occupied by flight crew. When determining the regular passenger seating capacity of an aircraft, any seat occupied by a member of the flight crew (whether or not such individual is an employee of the employer providing the aircraft) shall not be counted, unless the purpose of the flight by such individual is not primarily to serve as a member of the flight crew. If the seat occupied by a member of the flight crew is not counted as a passenger seat pursuant to the previous sentence, such member of the flight crew is disregarded in applying the 50 percent test described in the first sentence of paragraph (g)(10)(i) of this section. For example, assume that, prior to the application of this paragraph (g)(10)(v), the regular passenger seating capacity of an aircraft is two seats.

Assume further that an employee pilots the aircraft and that the employee's flight is not primarily for the employer's business. If the employee's spouse occupies the other seat for personal purposes, the seating capacity rule is not met and the value of both flights must be included in the employee's income. If, however, the employee's flight were primarily for the employer's business (unrelated to serving as a member of the flight crew), then the seating capacity rule is met and the value of the flight for the employee's spouse is deemed to be zero. If the employee's flight were primarily to serve as a member of the flight crew, then the seating capacity rule is not met and the value of a flight by any passenger for primarily personal reasons is not deemed to be zero.

(11)Erroneous use of the non-commercial flight valuation rule -

(i)In general. If the non-commercial flight valuation rule of this paragraph (g) is used by an employer or a control employee, as the case may be, on a return as originally filed, on the grounds that either the control employee is not in fact a control employee, or that the aircraft is within a specific weight classification, and either position is subsequently determined to be erroneous, the valuation rule of this paragraph (g) (including paragraph (g)(13) of this section) is not available to value the flight taken by that control employee by the person or persons taking the erroneous position. With respect to the weight classifications, the previous sentence does not apply if the position taken is that the weight of the aircraft is greater than it is subsequently determined to be. If, with respect to a flight by a control employee, the seating capacity rule of paragraph (g)(10) of this section is used by an employer or the control employee, as the case may be, on a return as originally filed, and it is subsequently determined that the requirements of paragraph (g)(10) of this section were not met, the valuation rule of this paragraph (g) (including paragraph (g)(13) of this section) is not available to value the flight taken by that control employee by the person or persons taking the erroneous position.

(ii)Value of flight excluded as a working condition fringe. If either an employer or an employee, on a return as originally filed, excludes from the employee's income or wages the value of a flight on the grounds that the flight was excludable as a working condition fringe under section 132, and that position is subsequently determined to be erroneous, the valuation rule of this paragraph (g) (including paragraph (g)(13) of this section) is not available to value the flight taken by that employee by the person or persons taking the erroneous position.

(12)Consistency rules -

(i)Use by the employer. Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (g)(11) and (g)(13)(iv) of this section, if the non-commercial flight valuation rule of this paragraph (g) is used by an employer to value flights provided in a calendar year, the rule must be used to value all flights provided in the calendar year.

(ii)Use by the employee. Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (g)(11) and (g)(13)(iv) of this section, if the non-commercial flight valuation rule of this paragraph (g) is used by an employee to value a flight taken in a calendar year, the rule must be used to value all flights taken in the calendar year.

(13)Transitional valuation rule -

(i)In general. If the value of a flight determined under this paragraph (g)(13) is lower than the value of the flight otherwise determined under paragraph (g) of this section, the value of the flight is the lower amount. The transitional valuation rule of this paragraph (g)(13) is available only for flights provided after December 31, 1984, and before January 1, 1986.

(ii)Transitional valuation rule aircraft multiples. The appropriate aircraft multiples under the transitional valuation rule are as follows:

(A) 125 percent of the base aircraft valuation formula, plus the applicable terminal charge, for any flight by any employee who is not a key employee (as defined in paragraph (g)(13)(iii) of this section.)

(B) 125 percent of the base aircraft valuation formula, plus the applicable terminal charge, for a flight by a key employee if there is a primary business purpose of the trip by the aircraft. For purposes of this paragraph (g)(13)(ii) (B), entertaining an employee or other individual is not a business purpose.

(C) 600 percent of the base aircraft valuation formula, plus the applicable terminal charge, for a flight by a key employee if there is not primary business for the trip by the aircraft.

Where there is no business purpose for the trip by the aircraft, the alternative valuation rule may not be used to value a flight by a key employee. For purposes of this section, compensating an employee is not a business purpose.

(iii)Key employee defined. A “key employee” is any employee who is a five-percent owner or an officer of the employer, or who, with respect to a particular trip by the aircraft, controls the use of the aircraft. For purposes of determining who is a five-percent owner, any individual who owns (or is considered as owning) five or more percent of the fair market value of an entity (the “owned entity”) is considered a five-percent owner of all entities that would be aggregated with the owned entity under the rules of section 414(b), (c), or (m).

(iv)Erroneous use of transitional valuation rule. If the transitional valuation rule is used by an employer or a key employee, as the case may be, on a return as originally filed, on the grounds that -

(A) The key employee is not in fact a key employee,

(B) An aircraft trip had a primary business purpose, or

(C) An aircraft trip had some business purpose,

and such position is subsequently determined to be erroneous, neither the transitional valuation rule nor the non-commercial flight valuation rule of this paragraph (g) is available to value such flight taken by that key employee by the person or persons taking the erroneous position.

(h)Commercial flight valuation rule -

(1)In general. Under the commercial flight valuation rule of this paragraph (h), the value of a space-available flight (as defined in paragraph (h)(2) of this section) on a commercial aircraft is 25 percent of the actual carrier's highest unrestricted coach fare in effect for the particular flight taken.

(2)Space-available flight. The commercial flight valuation rule of this paragraph (h) is available to value a space-available flight. The term “space-available flight” means a flight on a commercial aircraft (i) for which the airline (the acutal carrier) incurs no substantial additional cost (including forgone revenue) determined without regard to any amount paid for the flight and (ii) which is subject to the same types of restrictions customarily associated with flying on an employee “standby” or “space-available” basis. A flight may be a space-available flight even if the airline that is the actual carrier is not the employer of the employee.

(3)Commercial aircraft. If the actual carrier does not offer, in the ordinary course of its business, air transportation to customers on a per-seat basis, the commercial flight valuation rule of this paragraph (h) is not available. Thus, if, in the ordinary course of its line of business, the employer only offers air transportation to customers on a charter basis, the commerical flight valuation rule of this paragraph (h) may not be used to value a space-available flight on the employer's aircraft. Similarly, if, in the ordinary course of its line of business, an employer only offers air transportation to customers for the transport of cargo, the commercial flight valuation rule of this paragraph (h) may not be used to value a space-available flight on the employer's aircraft.

(4)Timing of inclusion. The date that the flight is taken is the relevant date for purposes of applying section 61(a)(1) and this section to a space-available flight on a commercial aircraft. The date of purchase or issuance of a pass or ticket is not relevant. Thus, this section applies to a flight taken on or after January 1, 1985, regardless of the date on which the pass or ticket for the flight was purchased or issued.

(5)Consistency rules -

(i)Use by employer. If the commercial flight valuation rule of this paragraph (h) is used by an employer to value flights provided in a calendar year, the rule must be used to value all flights provided in the calendar year.

(ii)Use by employee. If the commercial flight valuation rule of this paragraph (h) is used by an employee to value a flight taken in a calendar year, the rule must be used to value all flights taken by such employee in the calendar year.

(i) [Reserved]

(j)Valuation of meals provided at an employer-operated eating facility for employees -

(1)In general. The valuation rule of this paragraph (j) may be used to value a meal provided at an employer-operated eating facility for employees (as defined in § 1.132-7T). For rules relating to an exclusion for the value of meals provided at an employer-operated eating facility for employees, see § 1.132-7T.

(2)Valuation formula -

(i)In general. The value of all meals provided at an employer-operated eating facility for employees during a calendar year is 150 percent of the direct operating costs of the eating facility (“total meal value”). For purposes of this paragraph (j), the definition of direct operating costs provided in § 1.132-7T applies. The taxable value of meals provided at an eating facility may be determined in two ways. The “individual meal subsidy” may be treated as the taxable value of a meal provided at the eating facility (see paragraph (j)(2)(ii) of this section). Alternatively, the employer may allocate the “total meal subsidy” among employees (see paragraph (j)(2)(iii) of this section).

(ii)“Individual meal subsidy” defined. The “individual meal subsidy” is determined by multiplying the price charged for a particular meal by a fraction, the numerator of which is the total meal value and the denominator of which is the gross receipts of the eating facility, and then subtracting the amount paid for the meal. The taxable value of meals provided to a particular employee during a calendar year, therefore, is the sum of the individual meal subsidies provided to the employee during the calendar year.

(iii)Allocation of “total meal subsidy.” Instead of using the individual meal value method, the employer may allocate the “total meal subsidy” (total meal value less the gross receipts of the facility) among employees in any manner reasonable under the circumstances.

[T.D. 8063, 50 FR 52285, Dec. 23, 1985, as amended by T.D. 8256, 54 FR 28582, July 6, 1989; T.D. 8457, 57 FR 62195, Dec. 30, 1992]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 16-Jun-2017 03:58

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR Part 1 after this date.

  • 2017-06-30; vol. 82 # 125 - Friday, June 30, 2017
    1. 82 FR 29719 - Regulations Regarding Withholding of Tax on Certain U.S. Source Income Paid to Foreign Persons, Information Reporting and Backup Withholding on Payments Made to Certain U.S. Persons, and Portfolio Interest Treatment; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendment.
        Effective Date: These corrections are effective June 30, 2017. Applicability Date: The corrections to §§ 1.1441-0; 1.1441-1(b)(7)(ii)(B), (e)(3)(iv)(B) and (C), (e)(4)(ii)(B)( 11 ), (e)(4)(ix)(D), (e)(5)(ii) through (e)(5)(ii)(B), (e)(5)(ii)(D) through (e)(5)(v)(B)( 3 ), (e)(5)(v)(B)( 5 ) through (e)(5)(v)(D), and (f) through (f)(4); 1.1441-1T; 1.1441-3(d)(1); 1.1441-4; 1.6045-1(m)(2)(ii) and (n)(12)(ii); and 1.6049-5(c)(1) through (c)(4) are applicable on January 6, 2017.
      26 CFR Part 1

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