26 CFR 1.62-1T - Adjusted gross income (temporary).
(a)Basis for determining the amount of certain deductions. The term “adjusted gross income” means the gross income computed under section 61 minus such of the deductions allowed by chapter 1 of the Code as are specified in section 62(a). Adjusted gross income is used as the basis for determining the following:
(b)Double deduction not permitted. Section 62 (a) merely specifies which of the deductions provided in chapter 1 of the Code shall be allowed in computing adjusted gross income. It does not create any new deductions. The fact that a particular item may be described in more than one of the paragraphs under section 62(a) does not permit the item to be deducted twice in computing adjusted gross income or taxable income.
(1) Deductions allowable under chapter 1 of the Code (other than by part VII (section 211 and following), subchapter B of such chapter) that are attributable to a trade or business carried on by the taxpayer not consisting of services performed as an employee;
(3) For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986, deductions allowable under section 162 that consist of expenses paid or incurred by a qualified performing artist (as defined in section 62(b)) in connection with the performance by him or her of services in the performing arts as an employee;
(6) Deductions for depreciation or depletion allowable under sections 167 or 611 to a life tenant of property or to an income beneficiary of property held in trust or to an heir, legatee, or devisee of an estate;
(10) For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1972, deductions allowed by section 165 for losses incurred in any transaction entered into for profit though not connected with a trade or business, to the extent that such losses include amounts forfeited to a bank, mutual savings bank, savings and loan association, building and loan association, cooperative bank or homestead association as a penalty for premature withdrawal of funds from a time savings account, certificate of deposit, or similar class of deposit;
(13) Deductions allowed by section 165 for the repayment (made in a taxable year beginning after December 28, 1980) to a trust described in paragraph (9) or (17) of section 501(c) of supplemental unemployment compensation benefits received from such trust if such repayment is required because of the receipt of trade readjustment allowances under section 231 or 232 of the Trade Act of 1974 ( 19 U.S.C. 2291 and 2292).
(d)Expenses directly related to a trade or business. For the purpose of the deductions specified in section 62, the performance of personal services as an employee does not constitute the carrying on of a trade or business, except as otherwise expressly provided. The practice of a profession, not as an employee, is considered the conduct of a trade or business within the meaning of such section. To be deductible for the purposes of determining adjusted gross income, expenses must be those directly, and not those merely remotely, connected with the conduct of a trade or business. For example, taxes are deductible in arriving at adjusted gross income only if they constitute expenditures directly attributable to a trade or business or to property from which rents or royalties are derived. Thus, property taxes paid or incurred on real property used in a trade or business are deductible, but state taxes on net income are not deductible even though the taxpayer's income is derived from the conduct of a trade or business.
(e)Reimbursed and unreimbursed employee expenses -
(1)In general. Expenses paid or incurred by an employee that are deductible from gross income under part VI in computing taxable income (determined without regard to section 67) and for which the employee is reimbursed by the employer, its agent, or third party (for whom the employee performs a benefit as an employee of the employer) under an express agreement for reimbursement or pursuant to an express expense allowance arrangement may be deducted from gross income in computing adjusted gross income. Except as provided in paragraphs (e)(2) and (e)(4) of this section, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986, if the amount of a reimbursement made by an employer, its agent, or third party to an employee is less than the total amount of the business expenses paid or incurred by the employee, the determination of to which of the employee's business expenses the reimbursement applies and the amount of each expense that is covered by the reimbursement is made on the basis of all of the facts and circumstances of the particular case.
(2)Facts and circumstances unclear on business expenses for meals and entertainment. If -
(i) The facts and circumstances do not make clear -
(A) That a reimbursement does not apply to business expenses for meals or entertainment, or
(B) The amount of business expenses for meals or entertainment that is covered by the reimbursement, and
(ii) The employee pays or incurs business expenses for meals or entertainment,
(3)Deductibility of unreimbursed expenses. The amount of expenses that is determined not to be reimbursed pursuant to paragraph (e) (1) or (2) of this section is deductible from adjusted gross income in determining the employee's taxable income subject to the limitations applicable to such expenses (e.g., the 2-percent floor of section 67 and the 80-percent limitation on meal and entertainment expenses provided for in section 274(n)).
(4)Unreimbursed expenses of State legislators. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986, any portion of the amount allowed as a deduction to State legislators pursuant to section 162(h)1)(B) that is not reimbursed by the State or a third party shall be allocated between lodging and meals in the same ratio as the amounts allowable for lodging and meals under the Federal per diem applicable to the legislator's State capital at the end of the legislator's taxable year (see Appendix 1-A of the Federal Travel Regulations (FTR), which as of March 28, 1988, are contained in GSA Bulletin FPMR A-40, Supplement 20). For purposes of this paragraph (e)(4), the amount allowable for meals under the Federal per diem shall be the amount of the Federal per diem allowable for meals and incidental expenses reduced by $2 per legislative day (or other amount allocated to incidental expenses in 1-7.5(a)(2) of the FTR). The unreimbursed portion of each type of expense is deductible from adjusted gross income in determining the State legislator's taxable income subject to the limitations applicable to such expenses. For example, the unreimbursed portion allocable to meals shall be reduced by 20 percent pursuant to section 274(n) before being subjected to the 2-percent floor of section 67 for purposes of computing the taxable income of a State legislator. See § 1.67-1T(a)(2).
(5)Expenses paid directly by an employer, its agent, or third party. In the case of an employer, its agent, or a third party who provides property or services to an employee or who pays an employee's expenses directly instead of reimbursing the employee, see section 132 and the regulations thereunder for the income tax treatment of such expenses.
(6)Examples. The provisions of this paragraph (e) may be illustrated by the following examples:
(g)Moving expenses. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986, a taxpayer described in section 217(a) shall not take into account the deduction described in section 217 relating to moving expenses in computing adjusted gross income under section 62 even if the taxpayer is reimbursed for his or her moving expenses. Such a taxpayer shall include the amount of any reimbursement for moving expenses in income pursuant to section 82. The deduction described in section 217 shall be taken into account in computing the taxable income of the taxpayer under section 63. Pursuant to section 67(b)(6), the 2-percent floor described in section 67(a) does not apply to moving expenses.
(h)Cross-reference. See 26 CFR 1.62-1 (Rev. as of April 1, 1986) with respect to pre-1987 deductions for travel, meal, lodging, transportation, and other trade or business expenses of an employee, reimbursed expenses of an employee, expenses of an outside salesperson, long-term capital gains, contributions described in section 405(c) to a bond purchase plan on behalf of a self-employed individual, moving expenses, amounts not received as benefits pursuant to section 1379(b)(3), and retirement bonds described in section 409 (allowed by section 219).