26 CFR 1.6655-2 - Annualized income installment method.

§ 1.6655-2 Annualized income installment method.

(a)In general. In the case of any required installment, if the corporation establishes that the annualized income installment determined under this section, or the adjusted seasonal installment determined under § 1.6655-3, is less than the amount determined under § 1.6655-1 -

(1) The amount of such required installment is the annualized income installment (or, if less, the adjusted seasonal installment); and

(2) Any reduction in a required installment resulting from the application of this section will be recaptured by increasing the amount of the next required installment determined under § 1.6655-1 by the amount of such reduction (and, if the next required installment is similarly reduced, by increasing subsequent required installments to the extent that the reduction has not previously been recaptured).

(b)Determination of annualized income installment - in general. In the case of any required installment, the annualized income installment is the excess (if any) of -

(1) The product of the applicable percentage and the tax (after reducing the annualized tax by the amount of any allowable credits) for the taxable year computed by annualizing the taxable income and alternative minimum taxable income -

(i) For the first 3 months of the taxable year, in the case of the first required installment;

(ii) For the first 3 months of the taxable year, in the case of the second required installment;

(iii) For the first 6 months of the taxable year, in the case of the third required installment; and

(iv) For the first 9 months of the taxable year, in the case of the fourth required installment; over

(2) The aggregate amount of any prior required installments for the taxable year.

(c)Special rules -

(1)Applicable percentage. Except as otherwise provided in § 1.6655-5(d) with respect to short taxable years -

In the case of the
following required
installments
The applicable percentage is
1st 25
2nd 50
3rd 75
4th 100

(2)Partial month. Except as otherwise provided, for purposes of paragraph (b) of this section a partial month is treated as a month.

(3)Annualization period not a short taxable year. An annualization period is not treated as a short taxable year for purposes of determining the taxable income of an annualization period.

(d)Election of different annualization periods.

(1) If the taxpayer timely files Form 8842, “Election to Use Different Annualization Periods for Corporate Estimated Tax,” in accordance with section 6655(e)(2)(C)(iii), and elects Option 1 -

(i) Paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section will be applied by using the language “2 months” instead of “3 months”;

(ii) Paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section will be applied by using the language “4 months” instead of “3 months”;

(iii) Paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section will be applied by using the language “7 months” instead of “6 months”; and

(iv) Paragraph (b)(1)(iv) of this section will be applied by using the language “10 months” instead of “9 months”.

(2) If the taxpayer timely files Form 8842, in accordance with section 6655(e)(2)(C)(iii), and elects Option 2 -

(i) Paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section will be applied by using the language “5 months” instead of “3 months”;

(ii) Paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section will be applied by using the language “8 months” instead of “6 months”; and

(iii) Paragraph (b)(1)(iv) of this section will be applied by using the language “11 months” instead of “9 months”.

(3) The application of the annualized income installment method is illustrated by the following example:

Example.
(i) ABC, a calendar year corporation, had a taxable year of less than twelve months for tax year 2008 and no credits against tax for tax year 2009. ABC made an estimated tax payment of $15,000 on the installment dates of April 15, 2009, June 15, 2009, September 15, 2009, and December 15, 2009, respectively. Assume that, under paragraph (d)(1) of this section, ABC elected Option 1 by timely filing Form 8842, in accordance with section 6655(e)(2)(C)(iii), and determined that its taxable income for the first 2, 4, 7 and 10 months was $25,000, $64,000, $125,000, and $175,000 respectively. The income for each period is annualized as follows:
$25,000 × 12/2 = $150,000
$64,000 × 12/4 = $192,000
$125,000 × 12/7 = $214,286
$175,000 × 12/10 = $210,000
(ii)
(A) To determine whether the installment payment made on April 15, 2009, equals or exceeds the amount that would have been required to have been paid if the estimated tax were equal to 100 percent of the tax computed on the annualized income for the 2-month period, the following computation is necessary:

(1) Annualized income for the 2 month period = $150,000

(2) Tax on this paragraph (d)(3), Example (ii)(A)(1) = $41,750

(3) 100% of this paragraph (d)(3), Example (ii)(A)(2) = $41,750

(4) 25% of this paragraph (d)(3), Example (ii)(A)(3) = $10,438

(B) Because the total amount of estimated tax that was timely paid on or before the first installment date ($15,000) exceeds the amount required to be paid on or before this date if the estimated tax were 100 percent of the tax determined by placing on an annualized basis the taxable income for the first 2-month period ($10,438), the exception described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section applies, and no addition to tax will be imposed for the installment due on April 15, 2009.

(iii)

(A) To determine whether the installment payments made on or before June 15, 2009, equal or exceed the amount that would have been required to have been paid if the estimated tax were equal to 100 percent of the tax computed on the annualized income for the 4-month period, the following computation is necessary:

(1) Annualized income for the 4 month period = $192,000

(2) Tax on this paragraph (d)(3), Example (iii)(A)(1) = $58,130

(3) 100% of this paragraph (d)(3), Example (iii)(A)(2) = $58,130

(4) 50% of this paragraph (d)(3), Example (iii)(A)(3) less $10,438 (amount due with the first installment) = $18,627

(B) Because the total amount of estimated tax actually paid on or before the second installment date ($19,562 ($15,000 second required installment payment plus $4,562 overpayment of first required installment)) exceeds the amount required to be paid on or before this date if the estimated tax were 100 percent of the tax determined by placing on an annualized basis the taxable income for the first 4-month period ($18,627), the exception described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section applies, and no addition to tax will be imposed for the installment due on June 15, 2009.

(iv)

(A) To determine whether the installment payments made on or before September 15, 2009, equal or exceed the amount that would have been required to have been paid if the estimated tax were equal to 100 percent of the tax computed on the annualized income for the 7-month period, the following computation is necessary:

(1) Annualized income for the 7 month period = $214,286

(2) Tax on this paragraph (d)(3), Example (iv)(A)(1) = $66,821

(3) 100% of this paragraph (d)(3), Example (iv)(A)(2) = $66,821

(4) 75% of this paragraph (d)(3), Example (iv)(A)(3) less $29,065 (amount due with the first and second installment) = $21,051

(B) Because the total amount of estimated tax actually paid on or before the third installment date ($15,935 ($15,000 third required installment payment plus $935 overpayment of second required installment)) does not equal or exceed the amount required to be paid on or before this date if the estimated tax were 100 percent of the tax determined by placing on an annualized basis the taxable income for the first 7-month period ($21,051), the exception described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section does not apply, and an addition to tax will be imposed with respect to the underpayment of the September 15, 2009, installment unless another exception applies to this installment payment.

(v)

(A) To determine whether the installment payments made on or before December 15, 2009, equal or exceed the amount that would have been required to have been paid if the estimated tax were equal to 100 percent of the tax computed on the annualized income for the 10-month period, the following computation is necessary:

(1) Annualized income for the 10 month period = $210,000

(2) Tax on this paragraph (d)(3), Example (v)(A)(1) = $65,150

(3) 100% of this paragraph (d)(3), Example (v)(A)(2) = $65,150

(4) 100% of this paragraph (d)(3), Example (v)(A)(3) less $50,116 (amount due with the first, second and third installment) = $15,034

(B) Because the total amount of estimated tax payments made on or before the fourth installment date that is available to be applied to the estimated tax due for the fourth installment ($9,884 ($15,000 fourth required installment payment less $5,116 underpayment for the third installment of estimated tax ($21,051 third installment of estimated tax due less $15,935 payments available to be applied to the third installment of estimated tax))) does not equal or exceed the amount required to be paid on or before this date if the estimated tax were 100 percent of the tax determined by placing on an annualized basis the taxable income for the first 10-month period ($15,034), the exception described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section does not apply, and an addition to tax will be imposed with respect to the underpayment of the December 15, 2009, installment unless another exception applies to this installment payment.

(vi) Assuming that no other exceptions apply and the addition to tax is computed under section 6621(a)(2) at the rate of 8 percent per annum for the applicable periods of underpayment, the amount of the addition to tax is as follows:

(A) First installment (no underpayment) = $0

(B) Second installment (no underpayment) = $0

(C) Third installment (underpayment period 9-16-09 through 12-15-09), computed as 91/365 × $5,116 × 8% = $102

(D) Fourth installment (underpayment period 12-16-09 through 3-15-10), computed as 90/365 × $5,150 × 8% = $102

(E) Total of this paragraph (d)(3), Example (vi)(A) through (D) = $204

(e)52-53 week taxable year.

(1) Generally, except as provided in the alternative rule in paragraph (e)(4) of this section, in the case of a taxpayer whose taxable year constitutes 52 or 53 weeks in accordance with section 441(f), the rules prescribed by § 1.441-2 are applicable in determining -

(i) Whether a taxable year is a taxable year of 12 months; and

(ii) When the 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, 7-, 8-, 9-, 10-, or 11-month period (whichever is applicable) commences and ends for purposes of paragraphs (b)(1), (d)(1) and (d)(2) of this section.

(2) If a taxpayer employs four 13-week periods or thirteen 4-week accounting periods and the end of any accounting period employed by the taxpayer does not correspond to the end of the 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, 7-, 8-, 9-, 10-, or 11-month period (whichever is applicable), then, provided the taxpayer has at least one full 4-week or 13-week accounting period, as appropriate, within the applicable period, annualized taxable income for the applicable period is -

(i) [(x/(y*13))*z], in the case of a taxpayer using four 13-week periods, if -

(A) x = Taxable income for the number of full 13-week periods in the applicable period;

(B) y = The number of full 13-week periods in the applicable period; and

(C) z = The number of weeks in the taxable year; or

(ii) [(x/(y*4))*z], in the case of a taxpayer using thirteen 4-week periods, if -

(A) x = Taxable income for the number of full 4-week periods in the applicable period;

(B) y = The number of full 4-week periods in the applicable period; and

(C) z = The number of weeks in the taxable year.

(3) If a taxpayer employs four 13-week periods and the taxpayer does not have at least one 13-week period within the applicable 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, 7-, 8-, 9-, 10-, or 11-month period, the taxpayer is permitted to determine annualized taxable income for the applicable period based upon -

(i) The taxable income for the number of weeks in the applicable period; or

(ii) The taxable income for the full 13-week periods that end before the due date of the required installment.

(4) As an alternative to using the 52/53 week taxable year rules provided in paragraphs (e)(1), (e)(2), and (e)(3) of this section, a taxpayer whose taxable year constitutes 52 or 53 weeks in accordance with section 441(f) may base its annualization period on the month that ends closest to the end of its applicable 4-week period or 13-week period that ends within the applicable annualization period. This alternative may only be used if it is used for determining annualization periods for all required installments for the taxable year.

(5) The following examples illustrate the rules of this paragraph (e):

Example 1.
Corporation ABC, an accrual method taxpayer, uses a 52/53 week year-end ending on the last Friday in December and uses four thirteen-week periods. For its year beginning December 28, 2007, ABC uses the annualized income installment method under section 6655(e)(2)(A)(i) to calculate all of its required installments. For purposes of computing its first and second required installments, the first 3 months of A's taxable year under paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section will end on March 28th, the thirteenth Friday of ABC's taxable year. For purposes of its third required installment, the first 6 months of ABC's taxable year will end on June 27th, the twenty-sixth Friday of ABC's taxable year. For purposes of its fourth required installment, the first 9 months of ABC's taxable year will end on September 26th, the thirty-ninth Friday of ABC's taxable year.
Example 2.
Same facts as Example 1 except that ABC uses thirteen four-week periods and there are 52 weeks during ABC's taxable year beginning December 28, 2007, and ending December 26, 2008. For purposes of computing ABC's first and second required installments, ABC's annualized taxable income for the first three months will be the taxable income for the first three four-week periods of ABC's taxable year (December 28, 2007, through March 21, 2008) divided by 12 (number of full four-week periods in the first three months (3) multiplied by 4) and multiplied by 52 (the number of weeks in the taxable year). For purposes of computing ABC's third required installment, ABC's annualized taxable income for the first six months will be the taxable income for the first six four-week periods of ABC's taxable year (December 28, 2007, through June 13, 2008) divided by 24 and multiplied by 52. For purposes of computing ABC's fourth required installment, ABC's annualized taxable income for the first nine months will be the taxable income for the first nine four-week periods of ABC's taxable year (December 28, 2007, through September 5, 2008) divided by 36 and multiplied by 52.
Example 3.
Same facts as Example 1 except that ABC uses the alternative method under paragraph (e)(4) of this section for computing its required installments for 2008. For purposes of computing its first and second required installments, the first three months of ABC's taxable year under paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section will end on March 31, 2008, the month that ends closest to the end of ABC's applicable thirteen-week period for the first and second required installments. For purposes of ABC's third required installment, the first six months of ABC's taxable year will end on June 30, 2008, the month that ends closest to the end of ABC's applicable thirteen-week period for the third required installment. For purposes of ABC's fourth required installment, the first nine months of ABC's taxable year will end on September 30, 2008, the month that ends closest to the end of ABC's applicable thirteen-week period for the fourth required installment.

(f)Determination of taxable income for an annualization period -

(1)In general. This paragraph (f) applies for purposes of determining the applicability of the exception described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section (relating to the annualization of income) and the exception described in § 1.6655-3 (relating to annualization of income for corporations with seasonal income). An item of income, deduction, gain or loss is to be taken into account in determining the taxable income and alternative minimum taxable income (and applicable tax and alternative minimum tax) for an annualization period in the manner provided in this paragraph (f). An item may not be taken into account in determining taxable income for any annualization period unless the item is properly taken into account by the last day of that annualization period and the item is properly taken into account in determining the taxpayer's taxable income and alternative minimum taxable income (and applicable tax and alternative minimum tax) for the taxable year that includes the annualization period.

(i)Items of income. An item of income is taken into account in the annualization period in which the item is properly includible under the method of accounting employed by the taxpayer with respect to the item and in accordance with the appropriate provision of the Internal Revenue Code (for example, section 451 for accrual method taxpayers, section 453 for installment sales or section 460 for long-term contracts).

(ii)Items of deduction. An item of deduction is taken into account in the annualization period in which the item is properly deductible under the method of accounting employed by the taxpayer with respect to the item and in accordance with the appropriate provision of the Internal Revenue Code (for example, under the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting, the deduction must be paid under § 1.461-1(a)(1) and be otherwise deductible in computing taxable income; under an accrual method of accounting, the deduction must be incurred under § 1.461-1(a)(2) and be otherwise deductible in computing taxable income). Section 170(a)(2) and § 1.170A-11(b) (charitable contributions by accrual method corporations) and § 1.461-5 (recurring item exception) may not be taken into consideration by an accrual method taxpayer in any annualization period in determining whether an item of deduction has been incurred under § 1.461-1(a)(2) during that annualization period.

(iii)Losses. An item of loss is to be taken into account during the annualization period in which events have occurred that permit the loss to be taken into account under the appropriate provision of the Internal Revenue Code.

(2)Certain deductions required to be allocated in a reasonably accurate manner -

(i)In general. The following deductions allowed for a taxable year must be allocated throughout the taxable year in a reasonably accurate manner (as defined in paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section), regardless of the annualization period in which the item is paid or incurred:

(A) Real property tax deductions.

(B) Employee and independent contractor bonus compensation deductions (including the employer's share of employment taxes related to such compensation).

(C) Deductions under sections 404 (deferred compensation) and 419 (welfare benefit funds).

(D) Items allowed as a deduction for the taxable year by reason of section 170(a)(2) and § 1.170A-11(b) (certain charitable contributions by accrual method corporations), § 1.461-5 (recurring item exception) or § 1.263(a)-4(f) (12-month rule).

(E) Items of deduction designated by the Secretary by publication in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see § 601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter).

(ii)Application of the reasonably accurate manner requirement to certain charitable contributions, recurring items, and 12-month rule items. For purposes of paragraph (f)(2)(i)(D) of this section, the total amount of the item deducted in the computation of taxable income for the taxable year must be allocated in a reasonably accurate manner, notwithstanding the fact that section 170(a)(2) and § 1.170A-11(b), § 1.461-5, or § 1.263(a)-4(f) applies to only a portion of the total amount of the item deducted for the taxable year. For example, if a portion of a taxpayer's rebate liabilities are deducted in the computation of taxable income under the recurring item exception, all rebate liabilities deducted in the computation of taxable income for the taxable year must be allocated in a reasonably accurate manner.

(iii)Reasonably accurate manner defined.

(A) An item is allocated throughout the taxable year in a reasonably accurate manner if the item is allocated ratably throughout the taxable year or if the allocation provides a reasonably accurate estimate of taxable income for the taxable year based upon the facts known as of the end of the annualization period. In determining that an allocation of an item provides a reasonably accurate estimate of taxable income for the taxable year, relevant considerations include -

(1) The extent to which the allocation is consistent with the taxpayer's accounting for the item on its non-tax books and records;

(2) The extent to which the allocable portion of the item becomes fixed and determinable (under § 1.461-1(a)(2)) during the applicable annualization period; and

(3) The extent to which the allocation, if compared to the ratable allocation of the item, results in a better matching of the item of deduction to revenue, earnings, the use of property or the provision of services occurring during the annualization period.

(B) None of the relevant considerations above override the general requirement that the allocation must be done in a reasonably accurate manner based upon the facts known as of the end of the annualization period. For example, the fact that a liability for an annual expense becomes fixed and determinable during an annualization period will not establish that allocating all of the expense to that annualization period has been done in a reasonably accurate manner if the facts known as of the end of the annualization period indicate otherwise.

(iv)Special rule for certain real property tax liabilities. Notwithstanding paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section, real property tax liabilities for which an election under section 461(c) is in effect must be allocated ratably throughout the taxable year for purposes of this section.

(v)Examples. Unless otherwise stated, the following examples assume that the taxpayer uses the 3-3-6-9 annualization period:

Example 1.
(i) Corporation ABC, a calendar year taxpayer, uses an accrual method of accounting and the annualized income installment method under section 6655(e)(2)(A)(i) to calculate all of its required installment payments for its 2008 taxable year. ABC has adopted a plan under which ABC pays an annual bonus to its employees. As of March 31, 2008, ABC estimates that it will pay a year-end bonus of $500,000 to its employees if earnings remain constant throughout the tax year. ABC does not pay any of the estimated bonus liability as of March 31, 2008. On October 31, 2008, ABC declares a $600,000 bonus to its employees which is paid out on November 15, 2008, and properly deducted in ABC's December 31, 2008, tax year. No other bonus liabilities are incurred by ABC during the tax year.

(ii) Under the general rule provided in paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section, ABC is required to allocate its employee bonus liability in a reasonably accurate manner for annualization purposes. Under paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section, ABC's employee bonus liability will be deemed to be allocated in a reasonably accurate manner if the item is allocated ratably throughout the taxable year. Therefore, ABC is permitted to recognize a $150,000 bonus deduction (one quarter of the $600,000 bonus liability properly recognized by ABC in the tax year ending December 31, 2008) in the first annualization period ending March 31, 2008.

Example 2.
(i) Corporation ABC, a calendar year taxpayer, uses an accrual method of accounting and the annualized income installment method under section 6655(e)(2)(A)(i) to calculate all of its required installment payments for its 2008 taxable year. ABC has adopted a plan under which ABC pays an annual bonus to its employees. ABC's employee bonus plan generally calls for an annual bonus equal to 2% of earnings. A bonus reserve for this amount is reported each quarter in ABC's non-tax books and records. ABC's quarterly revenues throughout the year are $10,000,000; $6,000,000; $7,000,000; and $7,000,000 respectively. As of March 31, 2008, ABC estimates that it will pay a year-end bonus of $800,000 ($10,000,000 × 4 × 2%) to its employees if earnings remain constant throughout the year. ABC does not pay any of the estimated bonus payment as of March 31, 2008. On December 31, 2008, ABC declares a $600,000 bonus to its employees which is paid out on January 15, 2009, and properly deducted in ABC's December 31, 2008, tax year.

(ii) Under the general rule provided in paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section, ABC must allocate its employee bonus liability in a reasonably accurate manner for annualization purposes. Under paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section, ABC's employee bonus liability will be deemed to be allocated in a reasonably accurate manner if the allocation provides a reasonable estimate of taxable income based upon the facts known as of the end of the annualization period. Based upon its earnings activities and other information available as of March 31, 2008, ABC estimated that its total deduction for employee bonuses for the taxable year ending December 31, 2008, would be $800,000 ($10,000,000 first quarter earnings × 4 × 2%). Allocating $200,000 ($10,000,000 × 2%) of ABC's annual bonus liability of $600,000 to ABC's first quarter based upon earnings during the quarter represents a better matching of ABC's bonus expense to earnings in the quarter as compared to allocating $150,000 to ABC's first quarter under a ratable accrual method and is consistent with the allocation provided in ABC's non-tax books and records. Accordingly, allocating ABC's employee bonus deductions based upon ABC's earnings will be considered allocated in a reasonably accurate manner.

Example 3.
(i) Corporation ABC, a calendar year taxpayer, uses an accrual method of accounting and the annualized income installment method under section 6655(e)(2)(A)(i) to calculate all of its required installment payments for its 2008 taxable year. ABC has adopted a plan under which ABC pays a bonus to its employees each quarter based upon earnings for that quarter. On March 31, 2008, ABC pays out $2,000,000 to its employees as a quarterly bonus based upon the earnings of ABC for the period January 1, 2008, through March 31, 2008. The $2,000,000 bonus is recognized as an expense on ABC's audited financial statements in the quarter ending March 31, 2008. As of March 31, 2008, ABC anticipates that its earnings will continue throughout the year resulting in future quarterly bonus payments in 2008 similar to the $2,000,000 first quarter payment.

(ii) Under the general rule provided in paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section, ABC is required to allocate its employee bonus liability in a reasonably accurate manner for annualization purposes. Under paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section , ABC's employee bonus liability will be deemed to be allocated in a reasonably accurate manner if the item is allocated ratably throughout the taxable year. Therefore, ABC may recognize a $500,000 bonus deduction (one quarter of the $2,000,000 bonus liability properly recognized by ABC in the tax year ending December 31, 2008) in the first annualization period ending March 31, 2008 (as well as one quarter of any additional bonus liability properly recognized by ABC in the tax year ending December 31, 2008).

(iii) In addition, paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section provides that an allocation will be considered reasonable if the allocation provides an accurate estimate of taxable income for the taxable year based upon the facts known as of the end of the annualization period. Based upon its earnings activities and other information available as of March 31, 2008, ABC estimates that its total deduction for employee bonuses for the taxable year ending December 31, 2008, would be $8,000,000. In addition, the $2,000,000 bonus liability became fixed and determinable during the first quarter. Allocating $2,000,000 to ABC's first quarter earnings is also consistent with ABC's non-tax books and records and represents a better matching of ABC's bonus expense to earnings in the quarter as compared to a ratable accrual. Accordingly, allocating ABC's bonus liability based upon earnings will be considered a reasonably accurate manner for estimated tax purposes.

Example 4.
(i) Corporation ABC, a calendar year taxpayer, uses an accrual method of accounting with the recurring item exception and the annualized income installment method under section 6655(e)(2)(A)(i) to calculate all of its required installment payments for its 2009 taxable year. ABC regularly incurs rebate obligations related to the sale of its products. Rebate coupons that are received and validated by ABC are generally paid in the following month. During the tax year ending December 31, 2009, ABC received, validated and paid $400,000 in rebates. In addition, as of the end of December 31, 2009, ABC had received and validated $100,000 in rebate claims that were paid in January of 2010 and deducted in ABC's December 31, 2009, tax year under the recurring item exception. Therefore, ABC properly recognized a $500,000 rebate liability deduction on ABC's December 31, 2009, tax return.

(ii) Under the rule provided in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section, an item must be allocated in a reasonably accurate manner if any portion of the item is deducted under the recurring item exception. Therefore, ABC will be required to allocate its entire $500,000 rebate liability deduction in a reasonably accurate manner as defined in paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section.

(3)Special rules -

(i)Advance payments -

(A)Advance payments under § 1.451-5(b)(1)(ii). An advance payment for which the taxpayer uses the method of accounting provided in § 1.451-5(b)(1)(ii) is includible in computing taxable income for an annualization period in accordance with that method of accounting except that, if § 1.451-5(c) applies, any amount not included in computing taxable income by the end of the second taxable year following the year in which substantial advance payments are received, and not previously included in accordance with the taxpayer's accrual method of accounting, is includible in computing taxable income on the last day of such second taxable year.

(B)Advance payments under Rev. Proc. 2004-34. An advance payment for which the taxpayer uses the Deferral Method provided in section 5.02 of Rev. Proc. 2004-34 (2004-1 CB 991), (see § 601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter) is includible in computing taxable income for an annualization period in accordance with that method of accounting, except that any amount not included in computing taxable income by the end of the taxable year succeeding the taxable year of receipt is includible in computing taxable income on the last day of such succeeding taxable year.

(ii)Extraordinary items -

(A)In general. In general, extraordinary items must be taken into account after annualizing the taxable income for the annualization period. For purposes of the preceding sentence an extraordinary item is any item identified in § 1.1502-76(b)(2)(ii)(C)(1), (2), (3), (4), (7), and (8), a net operating loss carryover, a section 481(a) adjustment, net gain or loss from the disposition of 25 percent or more of the fair market value of a taxpayer's business assets during a taxable year, and any other item designated by the Secretary by publication in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see § 601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter).

(B)De minimis extraordinary items. A taxpayer may treat any de minimis extraordinary item, other than a net operating loss carryover or section 481(a) adjustment, as an item under the general rule of paragraph (f)(1) of this section rather than an extraordinary item as provided for in paragraph (f)(3)(ii) of this section. A de minimis extraordinary item is any item identified in paragraph (f)(3)(ii)(A) of this section resulting from a transaction in which the total extraordinary items resulting from such transaction is less than $1,000,000.

(C)Special rule for net operating loss deductions and section 481(a) adjustments. For purposes of paragraph (f)(3)(ii) of this section, a taxpayer must treat a net operating loss deduction and section 481(a) adjustment as extraordinary items arising on the first day of the tax year in which the item is taken into account in determining taxable income. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, a taxpayer may choose to treat the portion of a section 481(a) adjustment recognized during the tax year of the accounting method change as an extraordinary item arising on the date the Form 3115, “Application for Change in Accounting Method,” requesting the change was filed with the national office of the Internal Revenue Service.

(iii)Credits -

(A)Current year credits. With respect to a current year credit, the items upon which the credit is computed are annualized, the amount of the credit is computed based on the annualized items, and the amount of the credit is deducted from the annualized tax. For example, for an annualization period consisting of three months in a full 12-month taxable year, the items upon which the credit is based that are taken into account for the three month period are multiplied by four, the credit is determined based on the annualized amount of the items, and the credit reduces the annualized tax.

(B)Credit carryovers. Any credit carryover to the current taxable year is taken into account in computing an annualized income installment only after annualizing the taxable income for the annualization period and computing the applicable tax, and before applying the applicable percentage.

(iv)Depreciation and amortization -

(A)Estimated annual depreciation and amortization. In general, in determining taxable income for any annualization period, a proportionate amount of the taxpayer's estimated annual depreciation and amortization (depreciation) expense may be taken into account. For purposes of the preceding sentence, estimated annual depreciation expense is the estimated depreciation expense to be properly taken into account in determining the taxpayer's taxable income for the taxable year. In determining the estimated annual depreciation expense, a taxpayer may take into account purchases, sales or other dispositions, changes in use, additional first-year depreciation and expense deductions and section 179 or any similar provision, and other events that, based on all the relevant information available as of the last day of the annualization period (such as capital spending budgets, financial statement data and projections, or similar reports that provide evidence of the taxpayer's capital spending plans for the current taxable year), are reasonably expected to occur or apply during the taxable year.

(B)Safe harbors -

(1)Proportionate depreciation allowance. In determining taxable income for any annualization period, in lieu of the rule provided in paragraph (f)(3)(iv)(A) of this section a taxpayer may take into account a proportionate amount of the depreciation and amortization (depreciation) expense, including special depreciation and expense deductions such as those provided for in section 168(k) and section 179 or any similar provision, allowed for the taxable year from -

(i) Assets that were in service on the last day of the prior taxable year, are in service on the first day of the current taxable year, and that have not been disposed of during the annualization period;

(ii) Assets placed in service during the annualization period and have not been disposed of during that period; and

(iii) Assets that were in service on the last day of the prior taxable year and that are disposed of during the annualization period.

(2)90 percent of preceding year's depreciation. In determining taxable income for any annualization period, in lieu of the general rule provided in paragraph (f)(3)(iv)(A) of this section, a proportionate amount of 90 percent of the amount of depreciation and amortization (depreciation) expense taken on the taxpayer's Federal income tax return for the preceding taxable year may be taken into account. If the taxpayer's preceding taxable year is less than 12 months (a short taxable year), the amount of depreciation expense taken into account is annualized by multiplying the depreciation and amortization for the short taxable year by 12, and dividing the result by the number of months in the short taxable year.

(3)Safe harbor operational rules. If a taxpayer selects one of the two safe harbors provided in paragraph (f)(3)(iv)(B)(1) or paragraph (f)(3)(iv)(B)(2) of this section, the taxpayer must use that safe harbor for all depreciation expenses within the annualization period for the annualized income installment. However, a taxpayer may use either the method provided for in paragraph (f)(3)(iv)(A) of this section or a method provided for in this paragraph (f)(3)(iv)(B) of this section for each annualized income installment during the taxable year. For example, a taxpayer may use the safe harbor provided in paragraph (f)(3)(iv)(B)(1) of this section for its first annualized income installment and may use the general rule provided in paragraph (f)(3)(iv)(A) of this section for its second annualized income installment.

(C)Short taxable years. If the taxable year is, or will be, a short taxable year (based on all relevant information available as of the last day of the annualization period), annual depreciation expense is computed using the rules applicable for computing depreciation during a short taxable year for purposes of determining the annual depreciation expense to be allocated to an annualization period. For this purpose, the rules applicable for computing depreciation during a short taxable year are applied on the basis of the date the taxable year is expected to end based on all relevant information available as of the last day of the annualization period. See Rev. Proc. 89-15 (1989-1 CB 816) for computing depreciation expense under section 168 (see § 601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter). An annualization period is not treated as a short taxable year for purposes of determining the depreciation expense for an annualization period. See paragraph (c)(3) of this section.

(v)Distributive share of items -

(A)Member of partnership. In determining a partner's distributive share of partnership items that must be taken into account during an annualization period, the rules set forth in § 1.6654-2(d)(2) are applicable.

(B)Treatment of subpart F income and income under section 936(h) -

(1)General rule. Any amounts required to be included in gross income under section 936(h) or section 951(a), and credits properly allocable thereto, are taken into account in computing any annualized income installment in a manner similar to the manner under which partnership inclusions, and credits properly allocable thereto, are taken into account in accordance with paragraph (f)(3)(v)(A) of this section.

(2)Prior year safe harbor -

(i)General rule. If a taxpayer elects to have the safe harbor in this paragraph (f)(3)(v)(B)(2) apply for any taxable year, then paragraph (f)(3)(v)(B)(1) of this section does not apply; and, for purposes of computing any annualized income installment for the taxable year, the taxpayer is treated as having received ratably during the taxable year items of income and credit described in paragraph (f)(3)(v)(B)(1) of this section in an amount equal to 115 percent of the amount of such items shown on the return of the taxpayer for the preceding taxable year (the second preceding taxable year in the case of the first and second required installments for such taxable year).

(ii)Special rule for noncontrolling shareholder. If a taxpayer making the election under paragraph (f)(3)(v)(B)(2)(i) of this section is a noncontrolling shareholder of a corporation, paragraph (f)(3)(v)(B)(2)(i) of this section is applied with respect to items of such corporation by substituting “100 percent” for “115 percent”. For purposes of paragraph (f)(3)(v)(B)(2)(ii) of this section, the term noncontrolling shareholder means, with respect to any corporation, a shareholder that, as of the beginning of the taxable year for which the installment is being made, does not own within the meaning of section 958(a), and is not treated as owning within the meaning of section 958(b), more than 50 percent by vote or value of the stock in the corporation.

(C)Dividends from closely held real estate investment trust -

(1)General rule. Any dividend received from a closely held real estate investment trust by any person that owns, after the application of section 856(d)(5), 10 percent or more by vote or value of the stock or beneficial interests in the trust is taken into account in computing annualized income installments in a manner similar to the manner under which partnership income inclusions are taken into account.

(2)Closely held real estate investment trust. For purposes of paragraph (f)(3)(v)(C)(1) of this section, the term closely held real estate investment trust means a real estate investment trust with respect to which 5 or fewer persons own, after the application of section 856(d)(5), 50 percent or more by vote or value of the stock or beneficial interests in the trust.

(D)Other passthrough entities. A taxpayer's distributive share of items from a passthrough entity, other than those described in paragraphs (f)(3)(v)(A) and (f)(3)(v)(C) of this section, is taken into account in computing any annualized income installment in a manner similar to the manner under which partnership items are taken into account under paragraph (f)(3)(v)(A) of this section.

(vi)Alternative minimum taxable income exemption amount. The alternative minimum taxable income exemption amount provided by section 55(d)(2) is applied after the alternative minimum taxable income for the annualization period is annualized.

(vii)Examples. The provisions of this paragraph (f) are illustrated by the following examples. Unless otherwise stated, the following examples assume that the taxpayer uses the 3-3-6-9 annualization period.

Example 1. Expense paid or incurred in the installment period.
Corporation ABC, a calendar year taxpayer, uses an accrual method of accounting and the annualized income installment method under section 6655(e)(2)(A)(i) to calculate all of its required installment payments for its 2008 taxable year. ABC has licensed technology from Corporation XYZ. Pursuant to the license agreement, ABC pays a license fee to XYZ equal to $.01 for every dollar of gross receipts earned by ABC. For 2008, ABC projects gross receipts of $200,000,000, of which $100,000,000 is earned by March 31, 2008. Pursuant to paragraph (f)(1) of this section, a license fee expense of $1,000,000 ($100,000,000 × $.01) is incurred by March 31, 2008, and may be taken into account for purposes of determining the taxable income to be annualized in computing ABC's first annualized income installment.
Example 2. Expense not paid or incurred in the installment period.
Same facts as Example 1 except that ABC does not earn any gross receipts by March 31, 2008. In accordance with paragraph (f)(1) of this section, because the license fee expense was not incurred under § 1.461-1(a)(2) by the last day of the annualization period, no license fee expense is taken into account for purposes of determining the taxable income to be annualized in computing ABC's first annualized income installment, which is based on the income and deductions from the first three months of the taxable year.
Example 3. Bad debt expense.
Corporation ABC, a calendar year taxpayer, uses an accrual method of accounting and the annualized income installment method under section 6655(e)(2)(A)(i) to calculate all of its required installment payments for its 2008 taxable year. As of December 31, 2007, ABC had a $100,000 account receivable due from XYZ related to the sale of goods from ABC to XYZ during 2007. On March 30, 2008, ABC determined that its receivable from XYZ was worthless under section 166 and the regulations. No other receivables were determined to be worthless between January 1, 2008, and March 31, 2008. In accordance with paragraph (f)(1) of this section, a $100,000 bad debt write-off is taken into account for purposes of determining the taxable income to be annualized in computing ABC's first annualized income installment.
Example 4. Bad debt expense.
Same facts as Example 3 except that ABC determines that the receivable from XYZ was worthless under section 166 and the regulations on April 10, 2008. As of March 31, 2008, ABC had not determined that any receivables were worthless under section 166 and the regulations. In accordance with paragraph (f)(1) of this section, the $100,000 bad debt expense attributable to the receivable from XYZ is not taken into account for purposes of determining the taxable income to be annualized in computing ABC's first annualized income installment, which is based on the income and deductions from the first three months of the taxable year, because the receivable from XYZ became worthless after the last day of the annualization period.
Example 5. Employer deductions under section 404 and 419.
(i) Corporation ABC, a calendar year taxpayer, uses an accrual method of accounting and uses the annualized income installment method under section 6655(e)(2)(A)(i) to calculate all of its required installment payments for its 2008 taxable year. On March 1, 2008, the board of directors of ABC makes a binding, irrevocable commitment to fund a minimum contribution of $10,000,000 to ABC's qualified retirement plan by March 14, 2009. ABC remits a $1,000,000 payment to the retirement plan on March 1, 2008, and a $9,000,000 payment on March 3, 2009. ABC does not incur any other related retirement plan deductions during its 2008 taxable year.

(ii) Under the rule provided in paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section, ABC's employer deduction for payment made to the qualified plan must be allocated throughout the tax year for estimated tax purposes in a reasonably accurate manner. Therefore, ABC will not be permitted to allocate the $10,000,000 deduction to its first installment period. Under paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section, ABC's qualified plan deduction will be deemed to be allocated in a reasonably accurate manner if the item is allocated ratably throughout the taxable year. Therefore, ABC will be permitted to allocate $2,500,000 of its qualified plan deduction in its first installment period.

Example 6. Prepaid expense.
(i) Corporation ABC, a calendar year taxpayer, uses an accrual method of accounting and does not capitalize qualifying costs under the exception provided for in § 1.263(a)-4(f). ABC uses the annualized income installment method under section 6655(e)(2)(A)(i) to calculate all of its required installment payments for its 2008 taxable year. On July 1, 2008, ABC purchases an annual business license from State X which permits ABC to operate its business in State X from July 1, 2008, through June 30, 2009. An annual payment of $12,000 is due on July 1, 2008, and ABC pays the fee on this date. ABC has not elected out of the 12-month rule provided by § 1.263(a)-4(f) and therefore ABC is not required to capitalize any amount paid for the license and will recognize a $12,000 deduction for the tax year ending December 31, 2008, with respect to this license.

(ii) Under the rule provided in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section, ABC's $12,000 business license expense must be allocated in a reasonably accurate manner because ABC utilizes the 12-month rule exception provided for in the § 1.263(a)-4(f). Under paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section, ABC's deduction will be deemed to be allocated in a reasonably accurate manner if the item is allocated ratably throughout the taxable year. Therefore, ABC will be permitted to allocate $3,000 of its business license deduction in its first installment period.

Example 7. Real property tax liability.
(i) Corporation ABC, a calendar year taxpayer, uses an accrual method of accounting and the annualized income installment method under section 6655(e)(2)(A)(i) to calculate all of its required installment payments for its 2008 taxable year. ABC owns real property in State Y and uses the real property in its trade or business. ABC incurs a $400,000 deduction for State Y real estate taxes during ABC's December 31, 2008, taxable year. ABC has elected to recognize its real property taxes ratably under section 461(c).

(ii) Under the rule provided in paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section, ABC's $400,000 real property tax liabilities must be allocated in a reasonably accurate manner. However, paragraph (f)(2)(iv) of this section provides that with respect to real property taxes for which an election has been made under section 461(c), ratable accrual is the only method which will be considered a reasonably accurate method. Therefore, ABC will be required to allocate its $400,000 real property taxes ratably for estimated tax purposes and thus $100,000 will be allocated to the ABC's first annualized income installment.

Example 8. NOL (Net Operating Loss) deduction.
Corporation ABC, a calendar year taxpayer, uses an accrual method of accounting and the annualized income installment method under section 6655(e)(2)(A)(i) to calculate all of its required installment payments for its 2008 taxable year. ABC has a net operating loss carryover to 2008 of $2,000,000. ABC's taxable income from January 1, 2008, through March 31, 2008, without regard to any net operating loss deduction, is $1,500,000 (pre-NOL taxable income). Under the special rule for net operating loss deductions provided in paragraph (f)(3)(ii) of this section, the NOL deduction is treated as an extraordinary item incurred on the first day of ABC's December 31, 2008, tax year. Therefore, the NOL deduction is taken into account after annualization for purposes of determining ABC's first annualized income installment.
Example 9. Advance payment.
(i) Corporation ABC, a calendar year taxpayer, uses an accrual method of accounting and the annualized income installment method under section 6655(e)(2)(A)(i) to calculate all of its required installment payments for its 2008 and 2009 taxable years. ABC is in the business of giving dancing lessons and receives advance payments. For Federal income tax purposes, ABC uses the Deferral Method provided in section 5.02 of Rev. Proc. 2004-34 for the advance payments it receives for dance lessons. On November 1, 2008, ABC receives an advance payment of $2,400 for a 2-year contract commencing on November 1, 2008, and providing for up to 24 individual, 1-hour lessons. ABC provides 2 lessons in 2008, 12 lessons in 2009, and 10 lessons in 2010. ABC recognizes $200 in revenues in its financial statements for the last quarter of 2008. ABC recognizes $300 in revenues in its financial statements for each quarter of 2009 for a total of $1,200 in 2009. ABC recognizes the remaining $1,000 in revenues in its financial statements during 2010. For tax purposes, ABC recognizes $200 into revenue in 2008 and $2,200 into revenue in 2009 under Rev. Proc. 2004-34. See § 601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b).

(ii) Pursuant to paragraph (f)(3)(i)(B) of this section, ABC is not required to take into account any of the advance payment for purposes of computing any required installment payment for ABC's 2008 taxable year because no part of the $2,400 advance payment was recognized as income in ABC's financial statements during the first nine months of ABC's 2008 taxable year. In 2009, ABC must take into account $300 of revenue for purposes of computing its first and second required installment payments, $600 of revenue for purposes of computing its third required installment payment and $900 for purposes of computing its fourth required installment payment. Pursuant to paragraph (f)(3)(i)(B) of this section, the remaining deferred revenue is recognized on December 31, 2009, for purposes of computing ABC's annualized income installments for 2009.

Example 10. Section 481(a) adjustment.
Corporation ABC, a calendar year taxpayer, uses an accrual method of accounting and the annualized income installment method under section 6655(e)(2)(A)(i) to calculate all of its required installment payments for its 2008 taxable year. On December 20, 2008, ABC files a Form 3115 requesting permission to change its method of accounting. The requested change results in a negative section 481(a) adjustment of $80,000. ABC subsequently receives the consent of the Commissioner to make the change and therefore, the negative $80,000 section 481(a) adjustment is properly recognized in ABC's tax return for the year ending December 31, 2008. Under paragraph (f)(3)(ii) of this section ABC is permitted to recognize the negative $80,000 section 481(a) adjustment as an extraordinary item occurring on January 1, 2008 (the first day of ABC's December 31, 2008, tax year), or December 20, 2008 (the date ABC filed the Form 3115). ABC chooses to recognize the negative $80,000 section 481(a) adjustment as an extraordinary item occurring in January 1, 2008. Accordingly, $80,000 of the negative section 481(a) adjustment is taken into account after annualization for purposes of determining ABC's first annualized income installment. In addition, under § 1.6655-6(b), ABC is required to use its new method of accounting as of January 1, 2008 for estimated tax purposes, consistent with the recognition of the section 481(a) adjustment for estimated tax purposes. Therefore, ABC will be required to use the new method of accounting in determining taxable income to be annualized in computing ABC's first annualized income installment.
Example 11. Section 481(a) adjustment.
Corporation ABC, a calendar year taxpayer, uses an accrual method of accounting and uses the annualized income installment method under section 6655(e)(2)(A)(i) to calculate all of its required installment payments for its 2008 taxable year. On June 15, 2008, ABC files a Form 3115 requesting permission to change its method of accounting. The requested change results in a positive section 481(a) adjustment of $240,000. ABC subsequently receives the consent of the Commissioner to make the change and therefore, $60,000 of the section 481(a) adjustment (one quarter of the positive $240,000 section 481(a) adjustment) is properly recognized in ABC's tax return for the year ending December 31, 2008. Under paragraph (f)(3)(ii) of this section, ABC is permitted to recognize the positive $60,000 section 481(a) adjustment as an extraordinary item occurring on January 1, 2008 (the first day of ABC's December 31, 2008, tax year), or June 15, 2008 (the date ABC filed the Form 3115). ABC chooses to recognize the positive $60,000 section 481(a) adjustment as an extraordinary item occurring on June 15, 2008. Accordingly, the $60,000 positive section 481(a) adjustment is not taken into account for purposes of determining ABC's first annualized income installment. However, in all futures years any portion of the section 481(a) adjustment related to this change in method of accounting will be treated as an extraordinary item occurring on the first day of the tax year under paragraph (f)(3)(ii) of this section. In addition, under § 1.6655-6(b), ABC is required to use its new method of accounting as of June 15, 2008 for estimated tax purposes, consistent with the recognition of the section 481(a) adjustment for estimated tax purposes. Therefore, ABC will be required to use the new method of accounting (as of the beginning of the tax year) for purposes of determining taxable income to be annualized in computing ABC's third and fourth annualized income installments (which are based upon annualization periods that include June 15, 2008.)
Example 12. Extraordinary item.
Corporation ABC, a calendar year taxpayer, uses an accrual method of accounting and the annualized income installment method under section 6655(e)(2)(A)(i) to calculate all of its required installment payments for its 2008 taxable year. On May 10, 2008, ABC reaches a settlement agreement with XYZ over a tort action filed by ABC. As a result, ABC receives a payment of $10,000,000 on June 15, 2006, that is recognized as income by ABC. The settlement of a tort action is an extraordinary item defined in paragraph (f)(3)(ii)(A) of this section. Accordingly, the $10,000,000 of income will be taken into account by ABC on May 10, 2008, for purposes of computing ABC's annualized income installments for 2008. Therefore, the $10,000,000 settlement will only be taken into account in computing ABC's third and fourth annualized income installments (which are based upon annualization periods that include May 10, 2008). In addition, the $10,000,000 settlement income will be taken into account as an extraordinary item of income after annualization for purposes of determining ABC's third and fourth annualized installment payments.
Example 13. Credit carryover.
Corporation ABC, a calendar year taxpayer, uses an accrual method of accounting and the annualized income installment method under section 6655(e)(2)(A)(i) to calculate all of its required installment payments for its 2008 taxable year. ABC projects its annualized tax for its 2008 taxable year, based on annualizing ABC's taxable income for its first annualization period from January 1, 2008, through March 31, 2008, to be $1,500,000 before reduction for any credits. ABC has an unused section 38 credit from 2007 for increasing research activities from 2007 of $500,000 that is carried over to 2008. For purposes of determining ABC's first annualized income installment, ABC's annualized tax for 2008 is $1,000,000, determined as the tax for the taxable year computed by placing on an annualized basis ABC's taxable income from its first annualization period from January 1, 2008, through March 31, 2008 ($1,500,000) reduced by the $500,000 credit carryover from 2007. Therefore, ABC's first required installment payment for 2008 is $250,000 ($1,000,000 × 25%).
Example 14. Current year credit.
Corporation ABC, a calendar year taxpayer, uses an accrual method of accounting and the annualized income installment method under section 6655(e)(2)(A)(i) to calculate all of its required installment payments for its 2008 taxable year. ABC projects its annualized tax for its 2008 taxable year, based on annualizing ABC's taxable income for its first annualization period from January 1, 2008, through March 31, 2008, to be $2,000,000 before reduction for any credits. ABC has historically earned a section 41 credit for increasing research activities and, for 2008, ABC estimates that it will earn a credit for increasing research activities under section 41 of $1,200,000. However, pursuant to paragraph (f)(3)(iii) of this section, if ABC were to annualize all components involved in computing the current year credit based on ABC's activity from January 1, 2008, through March 31, 2008, ABC would generate a credit of $1,600,000 for 2008. For purposes of determining ABC's first annualized income installment, ABC's annualized tax for 2008 is $400,000, determined as the tax for the 2008 taxable year ($2,000,000) computed by placing on an annualized basis ABC's taxable income from its first annualization period January 1, 2008, through March 31, 2008, reduced by a $1,600,000 current year section 41 credit from increasing research activities. Therefore, ABC's first required installment payment for 2008 is $100,000 ($400,000 × 25%).
Example 15. Current year credit.
Same facts as Example 14 except that ABC does not begin any research activities until April 3, 2008, and will not incur any research expenses described in paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of this section. As a result, if ABC were to annualize all components involved in computing the current year credit based on ABC's activity from January 1, 2008, through March 31, 2008, ABC would generate no section 41 research credit for purposes of determining its first annualized income installment. Pursuant to paragraph (f)(3)(iii) of this section, ABC cannot take into account any credit for its first annualization period because ABC did not incur any qualified research expenses by the last day of the first annualization period. Accordingly, for purposes of determining ABC's first annualized income installment, ABC's annualized tax for its first annualization period January 1, 2008, through March 31, 2008, is $2,000,000. Therefore, ABC's first required installment payment for 2008 is $500,000 ($2,000,000 × 25%).
Example 16. Depreciation and amortization expense.
Corporation ABC, a calendar year taxpayer that began business on January 2, 2007, adopted an accrual method of accounting and will use the annualized income installment method under section 6655(e)(2)(A)(i) to calculate all of its required installment payments for its 2008 taxable year. On January 2, 2007, ABC purchased and placed in service a tangible depreciable asset that costs $50,000 and is 5-year property under section 168(e). ABC depreciates its 5-year property placed in service in 2007 under the general depreciation system using the 200-percent declining balance method, a 5-year recovery period, and the half year convention. On January 2, 2008, ABC purchased and placed in service qualified Gulf Opportunity Zone property (GO Zone property) that costs $30,000 and is 5-year property under section 168(e). ABC will depreciate its 5-year property placed in service in 2008 under the general depreciation system using the 200-percent declining balance method, a 5-year recovery period, and the half-year convention. ABC will deduct the 50% additional first year depreciation deduction under section 1400N(d) with respect to the GO Zone property. For tax year 2007, ABC takes a depreciation deduction under section 168 of $10,000 ($50,000 × 20% = $10,000). ABC does not anticipate being subject to the mid-quarter convention for the 2008 taxable year, does not anticipate making any depreciation elections for any class of property, does not anticipate making a section 179 election, does not anticipate any sales or other dispositions of depreciable property, and no events have occurred, nor does ABC know, based on all relevant information available as of the due date of ABC's first required installment for 2008, of any event that will occur to cause ABC's 2008 taxable year to be a short taxable year. The optional amounts of depreciation expense ABC may take into account for its first annualized income installment for its 2008 taxable year are determined as follows:

(i)General rule - Estimated annual depreciation. In accordance with the general rule provided in paragraph (f)(3)(iv)(A) of this section, ABC may take a depreciation expense of $8,500 ($34,000 × 3/12 = $8,500) into account in computing ABC's January 1, 2008, through March 31, 2008, taxable income. ABC's estimated annual depreciation expense for 2008 of $34,000 is computed as follows: $15,000 for the 50% additional first year depreciation deduction under section 1400N(d) ($30,000 × 50% = $15,000) plus annual depreciation of $16,000 ($40,000 × 40% = $16,000) and $3,000 ($15,000 × 20% = $3,000). Under paragraphs (c)(3) and (f)(3)(iv)(C) of this section, ABC may not consider its first annualization period to be a short taxable year for purposes of determining the depreciation allowance for such annualization period.

(ii)Safe Harbor - Proportionate depreciation allowance. In accordance with the safe harbor provided in paragraph (f)(3)(iv)(B)(1) of this section, ABC may take a depreciation expense of $8,500 ($34,000 × 3/12 = $8,500) into account in computing ABC's January 1, 2008, through March 31, 2008, taxable income based on annual depreciation expense for 2008 of $34,000, computed as follows: $15,000 for the 50% additional first year depreciation deduction under section 1400N(d) ($30,000 × 50% = $15,000) plus annual depreciation of $16,000 ($40,000 × 40% = $16,000) and $3,000 ($15,000 × 20% = $3,000). Under paragraphs (c)(3) and (f)(3)(iv)(C) of this section, ABC may not consider its first annualization period to be a short taxable year for purposes of determining the depreciation allowance for such annualization period.

(iii)Safe Harbor - 90 percent of preceding year's depreciation. In accordance with the safe harbor in paragraph (f)(3)(iv)(B)(2) of this section, ABC may take a depreciation expense of $2,250 ($10,000 prior year's depreciation × 90% = $9,000 × 3/12 = $2,250) into account in computing ABC's January 1, 2008, through March 31, 2008, taxable income. Under paragraphs (c)(3) and (f)(3)(iv)(C) of this section, ABC may not consider its first annualization period to be a short taxable year for purposes of determining the depreciation allowance for such annualization period.

(g)Items that substantially affect taxable income but cannot be determined accurately by the installment due date -

(1)In general. In determining the applicability of the annualization exceptions described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section and § 1.6655-3, reasonable estimates may be made from existing data for items that substantially affect income if the amount of such items cannot be determined accurately by the installment due date. This paragraph (g) applies only to the inflation index for taxpayers using the dollar-value LIFO (last-in, first-out) inventory method, adjustments required under section 263A, the computation of a taxpayer's section 199 deduction, intercompany adjustments for taxpayers that file consolidated returns, the liquidation of a LIFO layer at the installment date that the taxpayer reasonably believes will be replaced at the end of the year, deferred gain on a qualifying conversion or exchange of property under sections 1031 and 1033 that the taxpayer reasonably believes will be replaced with qualifying replacement property, and any other item designated by the Secretary by publication in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see § 601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter).

(2)Example. The following example illustrates the rules of this paragraph (g):

Example. Section 199 deduction.
Corporation ABC, a calendar year taxpayer, uses an accrual method of accounting and the annualized income installment method under section 6655(e)(2)(A)(i) to calculate all of its required installment payments for its 2008 taxable year. ABC engages in production activities that generate qualified production activities income (QPAI), as defined in § 1.199-1(c), and projects taxable income of $50,000 for its first annualization period from January 1, 2008, through March 31, 2008, without taking into account the section 199 deduction. During its first annualization period from January 1, 2008, through March 31, 2008, ABC incurs W-2 wages allocable to domestic production gross receipts pursuant to section 199(b)(2) of $10,000. Pursuant to paragraph (g)(1) of this section, ABC is permitted to take into account its estimated section 199 deduction before annualizing taxable income based on the lesser of its estimated QPAI or taxable income and W-2 wages for its first installment period for 2008. For the first installment period in 2008, ABC is permitted to recognize a deduction under section 199 of $3,000 ($50,000 × .06 = $3,000) subject to the wage limitation of $5,000 (50 percent of $10,000 of W-2 wages incurred during the first installment period). Accordingly, ABC's annualized income for the first installment for 2008 is $188,000 (($50,000-$3,000) × 1 2/3 = $188,000). The tax on $188,000 is $56,570 and ABC's first required installment for 2008 is $14,143 ($56,570 × .25 = $14,143).

(h)Effective/applicability date. This section applies to taxable years beginning after September 6, 2007.

[T.D. 9347, 72 FR 44349, Aug. 7, 2007; 72 FR 53684, Sept. 20, 2007; 72 FR 54350, Sept. 25, 2007]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 15-Sep-2017 03:46

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR Part 1 after this date.

  • 2017-09-28; vol. 82 # 187 - Thursday, September 28, 2017
    1. 82 FR 45233 - Public Approval of Tax-Exempt Private Activity Bonds
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Withdrawal of notice of proposed rulemaking and notice of proposed rulemaking.
      Comments and requests for a public hearing must be received by December 27, 2017.
      26 CFR Parts 1 and 5f

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