26 CFR § 1.6655-5 - Short taxable year.

§ 1.6655-5 Short taxable year.

(a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the provisions of section 6655 and these regulations are applicable in the case of a short taxable year (including an initial taxable year) for which a payment of estimated tax is required to be made.

(b) Exception to payment of estimated tax. In the case of a short taxable year, no payment of estimated tax is required if -

(1) The short taxable year is a period of less than 4 full calendar months; or

(2) The tax shown on the return for such taxable year (or, if no return is filed, the tax) is less than $500.

(c) Installment due dates -

(1) In general -

(i) Taxable year of at least four months but less than twelve months. Except as otherwise provided, in the case of a short taxable year, if such year results in a taxable year of four or more full calendar months but less than twelve full calendar months, the due dates prescribed in § 1.6655-1(f)(2) apply.

(ii) Exceptions.

(A) If the date determined under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section for the first required installment due during the taxpayer's short taxable year is earlier than the 15th day of the fourth month of the taxpayer's short taxable year, the taxpayer's first required installment is due on the first due date otherwise determined under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section that is on or after the 15th day of the fourth month of the short taxable year.

(B) A taxpayer with an initial short taxable year may make estimated tax payments as though it were a calendar year taxpayer until it files its tax return for its initial taxable year and will not be subject to an addition to tax under section 6655 for making estimated tax payments as though it were a calendar year taxpayer for the period beginning with its initial short taxable year to the time it files its tax return for its initial short taxable year if, when filing its tax return for its initial short taxable year, the taxpayer chooses to be a fiscal year taxpayer.

(2) Early termination of taxable year -

(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, if a taxable year ends early (for example, as a result of an acquisition or a change in taxable year), the due date for the final required installment is the date that would have been the due date of the next required installment if the event that gave rise to the short taxable year had not occurred.

(ii) Exception. If the date determined under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section is within thirty days of the last day of the short taxable year, the due date for the final required installment is the fifteenth day of the second month following the month that includes the last day of the short taxable year.

(d) Amount due for required installment -

(1) In general. The amount due for any required installment determined under section 6655(d)(1)(B)(i) for a short taxable year is 100% of the required annual payment for the short taxable year divided by the number of required installments due (as determined under this section) for the short taxable year.

(2) Tax shown on the return for the preceding taxable year. If the current taxable year is a short taxable year, the amount due for any required installment determined under section 6655(d)(1)(B)(ii) is determined in the following manner -

(i) Take 100% of the tax shown on the return of the corporation for the preceding taxable year;

(ii) Multiply such amount by the number of full calendar months in the current short taxable year and divide by 12; and

(iii) Divide the amount determined under paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section by the number of required installments due (as determined under this section) for the current short taxable year.

(3) Applicable percentage. In the case of any required installment determined under section 6655(e), the applicable percentage under section 6655(e)(2)(B)(ii) is -

(i) 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% for the first, second, third, and fourth (last) required installments, respectively, if the taxpayer will have four required installments due for the short taxable year;

(ii) 33.33%, 66.67%, and 100% for the first, second, and third (last) required installments, respectively, if the taxpayer will have three required installments due for the short taxable year;

(iii) 50% and 100% for the first and second (last) required installments, respectively, if the taxpayer will have two required installments due for the short taxable year; or

(iv) 100% for the first (and last) required installment if the taxpayer will have one required installment for the short taxable year.

(4) Applicable percentage for installment period in which taxpayer does not reasonably expect that the taxable year will be an early termination year. In the case of any required installment determined under section 6655(e) in which the taxpayer does not reasonably expect that the taxable year will be an early termination year, the applicable percentage under section 6655(e)(2)(B)(ii) is the applicable percentage provided by paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section with the remaining balance of the estimated tax payment for the year due with the final installment.

(e) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this section:

(1) Example 1. Short year of less than 4 months.

Corporation A is a calendar year taxpayer that was acquired by corporation B, a member of a consolidated group (as defined in § 1.1502-1(h)) on April 16, 2009, resulting in A having a short taxable year from January 1, 2009, through April 16, 2009. Because A has a taxable year of less than four full calendar months, no estimated tax payments are required by A for the short taxable year.

(2) Example 2. Initial short year with four required installments.

Corporation B began business on January 9, 2009, and adopted a calendar year as its taxable year. B computes its required installments based on 100 percent of the tax shown on the return for the taxable year in accordance with section 6655(d)(1)(B)(i). Pursuant to § 1.6655-1(f)(2)(i), the due dates of B's required installments for B's initial taxable year from January 9, 2009, through December 31, 2009, are April 15, 2009, June 15, 2009, September 15, 2009, and December 15, 2009. Pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the amount due with each required installment is 25% of the required annual payment for B's first required installment, 50% of the required annual payment for B's second required installment, 75% of the required annual payment for B's third required installment, and 100% of the required annual payment for B's fourth required installment.

(3) Example 3. Initial short year with three required installments.

Corporation C began business on February 12, 2009, and adopted a calendar year as its taxable year. C computes its required installments based on 100 percent of the tax shown on the return for the taxable year in accordance with section 6655(d)(1)(B)(i). Pursuant to § 1.6655-1(f)(2)(i), the due dates of C's required installments for C's initial taxable year from February 12, 2009, through December 31, 2009, are April 15, 2009, June 15, 2009, September 15, 2009, and December 15, 2009. However, in accordance with paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(A) of this section, C's first required installment is due June 15, 2009, because April 15, 2009, is earlier than the fifteenth day of the fourth month of C's taxable year. As a result, C's second required installment is due September 15, 2009, and C's third (and last) installment is due December 15, 2009. Pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the amount due with each required installment is 33.33% of the required annual payment for C's first required installment, 66.67% of the required annual payment for C's second required installment, and 100% of the required annual payment for C's third (and last) required installment.

(4) Example 4. Initial short year with two required installments.

Same facts as Example 3 except C began business on April 10, 2009. In accordance with paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(A) of this section, C's first required installment is due September 15, 2009, because April 15, 2009, and June 15, 2009, are earlier than the fifteenth day of the fourth month of C's taxable year. As a result, C's second (and last) required installment is due December 15, 2009. Pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the amount due with each required installment is 50% of the required annual payment for C's first required installment, and 100% of the required annual payment for C's second (and last) required installment.

(5) Example 5. Initial short year for fiscal year taxpayer with two required installments.

Corporation D began business on February 12, 2009, and adopted a fiscal year ending October 31 as its taxable year. D computes its required installments based on 100 percent of the tax shown on the return for the taxable year in accordance with section 6655(d)(1)(B)(i). Pursuant to § 1.6655-1(f)(2)(ii), the due dates of D's required installments for D's initial taxable year from February 12, 2009, through October 31, 2009, are February 15, 2009, April 15, 2009, July 15, 2009, and October 15, 2009. However, in accordance with paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(A) of this section, D's first required installment is due July 15, 2009, because February 15, 2009, and April 15, 2009, are earlier than the fifteenth day of the fourth month of D's taxable year. As a result, D's second (and last) installment is due October 15, 2009. Pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the amount due with each required installment is 50% of the required annual payment for D's first required installment, and 100% of the required annual payment for D's second (and last) required installment.

(6)Example 6. Initial short year for fiscal year taxpayer with one required installment.

Same facts as Example 5 except D corporation began business on May 11, 2009. In accordance with paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(A) of this section, D's first (and last) installment is due October 15, 2009, because July 15, 2009, is earlier than the fifteenth day of the fourth month of D's taxable year. Pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the amount due with D's required installment is 100% of the required annual payment, computed as 100% divided by the number of required installments due for the short taxable year.

(7) Example 7. Short termination year with three required installments.

Corporation E is a calendar year taxpayer that computes its required installments based on 100 percent of the tax shown on the return for the taxable year in accordance with section 6655(d)(1)(B)(i). E computes its 2009 required installments based on a projected 2009 total tax liability of $600,000. On July 31, 2009, E is acquired by corporation F, a member of a consolidated group (as defined in § 1.1502-1(h)), resulting in E having a short taxable year from January 1, 2009, through July 31, 2009. E determines that its total tax liability for the short period is $350,000. The due dates for E's first and second required installments are April 15, 2009, and June 15, 2009, respectively. Pursuant to section 6655(d)(1)(A), E paid $150,000 with each required installment. Pursuant to paragraph (c)(2) of this section, E's third (and last) required installment of estimated tax is due on September 15, 2009, and the percentage of the required annual payment due with such installment is 100% pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section. Accordingly, E is required to pay $50,000 with its final required installment on September 15, 2009 ($350,000 total tax liability for the short taxable year less prior installment payments of $300,000).

(8) Example 8. Unexpected short termination year with three required installments using the annualization method.

Same facts as Example 7 except that E uses the annualized income installment method under section 6655(e)(2)(A)(i) to calculate all of its required installment payments for its 2009 taxable year. In addition, E does not reasonably expect until July 28, 2009, that it will have a short termination year caused by E being acquired by F on July 31, 2009. Had E known about its acquisition by F in the first quarter of 2009, E's applicable percentages for computing the amount of its three required installments would be 33.33%, 66.67%, and 100% for the first, second, and third (last) required installments, respectively, pursuant to paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section. However, because E had an unexpected short termination year that E was not aware of until after its second required installment payment, E's applicable percentages for computing the amount of its three required installment are 25%, 50%, and 100% for the first, second, and third (last) required installments, respectively, pursuant to paragraph (d)(4) of this section.

(9) Example 9. Short termination year ending within 30 days of the regular final installment due date.

Same facts as Example 7 except that E is acquired by F on August 31, 2009. Pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, E's third (and last) required installment of estimated tax is due on October 15, 2009, because September 15, 2009, the date that would have been the due date of E's next required installment if F's acquisition of E had not occurred, is within thirty days of the last day of E's short taxable year, and 100% of the required annual payment is due with such installment.

(10) Example 10. Short termination year ending within 30 days of the regular final installment due date.

Corporation F is a calendar year taxpayer that computes its required installments based on 100 percent of the tax shown on the return for the taxable year in accordance with section 6655(d)(1)(B)(i). F computes its 2009 estimated tax payments based on a projected 2009 total tax liability of $900,000. On December 3, 2009, F is acquired by corporation G, a member of a consolidated group (as defined in § 1.1502-1(h)), resulting in F having a short taxable year from January 1, 2009, through December 3, 2009. F determined its total tax liability for the short period to be $800,000. The due dates for F's first, second, and third required installments are April 15, 2009, June 15, 2009, and September 15, 2009, respectively. Pursuant to section 6655(d)(1)(A), F paid $225,000 with each required installment. Pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, F's fourth (and last) required installment of estimated tax is due on February 15, 2010, and the percentage of the required annual payment due with such installment is 100% pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section. However, because the due date for the fourth required installment falls on a legal holiday, F's required installment payment will be timely if paid on or before the first business day following the actual due date of the fourth required installment, that is, February 16, 2010. Accordingly, F is required to pay $125,000 with its final required installment on February 16, 2010 ($800,000 total tax liability for the short taxable year less prior installment payments of $675,000).

(11) Example 11. Short termination year using the tax shown on the return for the preceding taxable year.

Corporation G, a calendar year taxpayer, reported a tax liability of $75,000 on its return for the taxable year ending December 31, 2008, and is not a large corporation as defined in section 6655(g). On July 31, 2009, G makes a final distribution of its assets, in connection with a plan of complete liquidation, resulting in a short taxable year from January 1, 2009, through July 31, 2009. To satisfy the requirements of the exception described in section 6655(d)(1)(B)(ii) for payments determined by reference to the tax shown on the return of the corporation for the preceding taxable year, pursuant to paragraph (d)(2) of this section, G must pay in a proportionate amount of its 2008 tax liability based on the number of months in the current taxable year. Accordingly, G must pay $43,750 ($75,000 × 7/12) through payments of estimated tax payments in 2009, with $14,583 due on April 15, 2009, June 15, 2009, and September 15, 2009.

(12) Example 12. Short termination year using the tax shown on the return for the preceding taxable year.

Same facts as Example 11 except that G makes a final distribution of its assets, in connection with a plan of complete liquidation, on October 1, 2009, resulting in a short taxable year from January 1, 2009, through October 1, 2009. To satisfy the requirements of the exception described in section 6655(d)(1)(B)(ii), G must pay $56,250 ($75,000 × 9/12) through payments of estimated tax in 2009, with $14,063 due on April 15, 2009, June 15, 2009, September 15, 2009, and December 15, 2009, respectively.

(13) Example 13. Short initial year with three required installments resulting in an underpayment.

(i) Corporation H began business on February 17, 2009, and adopted a calendar year. H computes its required installments based on 100 percent of the tax shown on the return for the taxable year in accordance with section 6655(d)(1)(B)(i). H estimated at the beginning of its short taxable year that its estimated tax liability for short taxable year February 17, 2009, through December 31, 2009, would be $180,000. H paid its first required installment of estimated tax of $60,000 on June 15, 2009, its second required installment of estimated tax of $60,000 on September 15, 2009, and its third (and last) required installment of estimated tax of $60,000 on December 15, 2009 ($180,000 total estimated tax liability for the short taxable year less prior installment payments of $120,000). H reported a tax liability of $240,000 on its return for the short period February 17, 2009, through December 31, 2009, with no credits against tax. There was an underpayment in the amount of $20,000 on the first installment date through September 15, 2009, $40,000 on the second installment date through December 15, 2009, and $60,000 on the third (and last) installment date through March 15, 2010, determined as follows:

(A) Tax as defined in section 6655(d)(1)(B)(i) = $240,000

(B) 100% of this paragraph (e), Example 13 (A) = $240,000

(C) Amount of estimated tax required to be paid by the first installment date (33.33% of $240,000) = $80,000

(D) Amount of estimated tax required to be paid by the second installment date (66.67% of $240,000 less $80,000 (amount due with first installment)) = $80,000

(E) Amount of estimated tax required to be paid by the third installment date (100% of $240,000 less $160,000 (amount due with first and second installment)) = $80,000

(F) Deduction of amount paid on or before the first installment date = $60,000

(G) Amount of underpayment for the first installment date (this paragraph (e), Example 13 (i)(C) minus this paragraph (e), Example 13 (i)(F)) = $20,000

(H) Deduction of amount available for the second installment date ($60,000 second installment payment less this paragraph (e), Example 13 (i)(G) applied towards the first installment underpayment) = $40,000

(I) Amount of underpayment for the second installment date (this paragraph (e), Example 13 (i)(D) minus this paragraph (e), Example 13 (i)(H)) = $40,000

(J) Deduction of amount available for the third installment date ($60,000 third installment payment less this paragraph (e), Example 13 (i)(I) applied towards the second installment underpayment) = $20,000

(K) Amount of underpayment for the third installment date (this paragraph (e), Example 1 (i)(E) minus this paragraph (e), Example 13 (i)(J)) = $60,000

(ii) [Reserved]

(f) 52 or 53 week taxable year. For purposes of this section a taxable year of 52 or 53 weeks is deemed a period of 12 months in the case of a corporation that computes its taxable income in accordance with the election permitted by section 441(f).

(g) Use of annualized income or seasonal installment method -

(1) In general. Regardless of the annual accounting period used by a corporation (for example, calendar year, fiscal year) the taxpayer may use the method described in § 1.6655-2 (annualized income installment method) or § 1.6655-3 (adjusted seasonal installment method) to compute its required installments of estimated tax when the current taxable year is a short taxable year.

(2) Computation of annualized income installment. To the extent a short taxable year includes an annualization period elected by the taxpayer, the taxpayer computes its annualized income installment by determining the tax on the basis of such annualized income for the annualization period, divided by 12, multiplied by the number of months in the short taxable year, and multiplied by the applicable percentage for the required installment.

(3) Annualization period for final required installment. For purposes of determining the final required installment (as described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section) for a short taxable year, annualized taxable income is determined by placing on an annualized basis the taxable income for the last complete annualization period that occurs within the short taxable year.

(4) Examples. The provisions of paragraph (g) of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
Corporation X began business on February 12, 2009, and adopted a calendar year as its taxable year. X adopts an accrual method of accounting and uses the annualized income installment method under section 6655(e)(2)(A)(i) to calculate all of its required installment payments for its 2009 taxable year. Pursuant to § 1.6655-1(f)(2)(i), the due dates of X's required installments for X's initial taxable year from February 12, 2009, through December 31, 2009, are April 15, 2009, June 15, 2009, September 15, 2009, and December 15, 2009. However, in accordance with paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(A) of this section, X's first required installment is due June 15, 2009. As a result, X's second required installment is due September 15, 2009, and X's third (and last) required installment is due December 15, 2009. The amount of X's first and second required installments are each based on annualizing X's taxable income from February 12, 2009, through April 30, 2009, (the first three months of X's taxable year) and X's third (and last) required installment is based on annualizing X's taxable income from February 12, 2009, through July 31, 2009 (the first six months of X's taxable year). Because X will have three required installments due for its short taxable year, pursuant to paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section, the applicable percentage is 33.33% for X's first required installment, 66.67% for X's second required installment, and 100% for X's third (and last) required installment.
Example 2.
(i) Y, a calendar year corporation, made a final distribution of its assets, in connection with a plan of complete liquidation, on August 3, 2009. Y filed a timely election to use the alternative annualization periods described under section 6655(e)(2)(C)(i) and determined that its taxable income for the first 2, 4 and 7 months of the taxable year was $25,000, $50,000 and $140,000. The due dates for Y's required installments for its short taxable year January 1, 2009, through August 3, 2009, are April 15, 2009, June 15, 2009, and September 15, 2009. Y made installment payments of $10,000, $10,000, and $20,000, respectively, on April 15, 2009, June 15, 2009, and September 15, 2009. The taxable income for each period is annualized as follows:
$25,000 × 12/2 = $150,000
$50,000 × 12/4 = $150,000
$140,000 × 12/7 = $240,000
(ii)
(A) To determine whether the first required installment equals or exceeds the amount that would have been required to have been paid if the estimated tax were equal to one hundred percent of the tax computed on the annualized income for the 2-month period taking into account the number of months in the short taxable year, the following computation is necessary:

(1) Annualized income for the 2 month period = $150,000

(2) Tax on this paragraph (g)(4), Example 2 (ii)(A)(1) = $41,750

(3) Tax determined under this paragraph (g)(4), Example 2 (ii)(A)(2) divided by 12 multiplied by 7 (the number of months in the short taxable year) = $24,354

(4) 100% of this paragraph (g)(4), Example 2 (ii)(A)(3) = $24,354

(5) 33.33% of this paragraph (g)(4), Example 2 (ii)(A)(4) = $ 8,117

(B) Because the total amount of estimated tax that is timely paid on or before the first installment date ($10,000) exceeds the amount required to be paid on or before this date if the estimated tax were one hundred percent of the tax determined by placing on an annualized basis the taxable income for the first 2-month period taking into account the number of months in the short taxable year, the exception described in § 1.6655-2(a) applies and no addition to tax will be imposed for the installment due on April 15, 2009.

(iii)

(A) To determine whether the required installments made on or before June 15, 2009, equal or exceed the amount that would have been required to have been paid if the estimated tax were equal to one hundred percent of the tax computed on the annualized income for the 4-month period taking into account the number of months in the short taxable year, the following computation is necessary:

(1) Annualized income for the 4 month period = $150,000

(2) Tax on this paragraph (g)(4), Example 2 (iii)(A)(1) = $41,750

(3) Tax determined under this paragraph (g)(4), Example 2 (iii)(A)(2) divided by 12 multiplied by 7 (the number of months in the short taxable year) = $24,354

(4) 100% of this paragraph (g)(4), Example 2 (iii)(A)(3) = $24,354

(5) 66.67% of this paragraph (g)(4), Example 2 (iii)(A)(4) less $8,117 (amount due with first installment) = $8,120

(B) Because the total amount of estimated tax available to apply towards the amount due for the second installment ($11,883 ($10,000 paid on the second installment date plus $1,883 overpayment of the first installment)) exceeds the amount required to be paid on or before this date if the estimated tax were one hundred percent of the tax determined by placing on an annualized basis the taxable income for the first 4-month period for the taxable year taking into account the number of months in the short taxable year, the exception described in § 1.6655-2(a) applies and no addition to tax will be imposed for the installment due on June 15, 2009.

(iv)

(A) Pursuant to paragraph (c) and (d) of this section, the final required installment is due by September 15, 2009, and the applicable percentage due for the final required installment is 100%. To determine whether the installment payments made on or before September 15, 2009, equal or exceed the amount that would have been required to have been paid if the estimated tax were equal to one hundred percent of the tax computed on the annualized income for the 7-month period taking into account the number of months in the short taxable year, the following computation is necessary:

(1) Annualized income for the 7 month period = $240,000

(2) Tax on this paragraph (g)(4), Example 2 (iv)(A)(1) = $76,850

(3) Tax determined under this paragraph (g)(4), Example 2 (iv)(A)(2) divided by 12 multiplied by 7 (the number of months in the short taxable year) = $44,829

(4) 100% of this paragraph (g)(4), Example 2 (iv)(A)(3) = $44,829

(5) 100% of this paragraph (g)(4), Example 2 (iv)(A)(4) less $16,237 (amount due with first and second installment) = $28,592

(B) Because the total amount of estimated tax available to apply towards the amount due for the final installment ($23,763 ($20,000 that is timely paid on the third installment date plus $3,763 overpayment of the second installment)) does not exceed the amount required to be paid on or before this date if the estimated tax were one hundred percent of the tax determined by placing on an annualized basis the taxable income for the first 7-month period for the taxable year taking into account the number of months in the short taxable year, the exception described in § 1.6655-2(a) does not apply and an addition to tax will be imposed for the final installment due on September 15, 2009, unless another exception (for example, see section 6655(e)(3)) applies with respect to these installments.

(h) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to taxable years beginning after September 6, 2007.

[T.D. 9347, 72 FR 44361, Aug. 7, 2007, as amended by T.D. 9885, 84 FR 67045, Dec. 6, 2019]