26 CFR § 1.6664-2 - Underpayment.

§ 1.6664-2 Underpayment.

(a)Underpayment defined. In the case of income taxes imposed under subtitle A, an underpayment for purposes of section 6662, relating to the accuracy-related penalty, and section 6663, relating to the fraud penalty, means the amount by which any income tax imposed under this subtitle (as defined in paragraph (b) of the section) exceeds the excess of -

(1) The sum of -

(i) The amount shown as the tax by the taxpayer on his return (as defined in paragraph (c) of this section), plus

(ii)Amounts not so shown previously assessed (or collected without assessment) (as defined in paragraph (d) of this section), over

(2) The amount of rebates made (as defined in paragraph (e) of this section).

The definition of underpayment also may be expressed as -
Underpayment = W − (X + Y − Z),
where W = the amount of income tax imposed; X = the amount shown as the tax by the taxpayer on his return; Y = amounts not so shown previously assessed (or collected without assessment); and Z = the amount of rebates made.

(b)Amount of income tax imposed. For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, the “amount of income tax imposed” is the amount of tax imposed on the taxpayer under subtitle A for the taxable year, determined without regard to -

(1) The credits for tax withheld under sections 31 (relating to tax withheld on wages) and 33 (relating to tax withheld at source on nonresident aliens and foreign corporations);

(2)Payments of tax or estimated tax by the taxpayer;

(3) Any credit resulting from the collection of amounts assessed under section 6851 as the result of a termination assessment, or section 6861 as the result of a jeopardy assessment; and

(4) Any tax that the taxpayer is not required to assess on the return (such as the tax imposed by section 531 on the accumulated taxable income of a corporation).

(c)Amount shown as the tax by the taxpayer on his return -

(1)Defined. For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, the amount shown as the tax by the taxpayer on his return is the tax liability shown by the taxpayer on his return, determined without regard to the items listed in paragraphs (b)(1), (2), and (3) of this section, except that it is reduced by the excess of -

(i) The amounts shown by the taxpayer on his return as credits for tax withheld under section 31 (relating to tax withheld on wages) and section 33 (relating to tax withheld at source on nonresident aliens and foreign corporations), as payments of estimated tax, or as any other payments made by the taxpayer with respect to a taxable year before filing the return for such taxable year, over

(ii) The amounts actually withheld, actually paid as estimated tax, or actually paid with respect to a taxable year before the return is filed for such taxable year.

(2)Effect of qualified amended return. The amount shown as the tax by the taxpayer on his return includes an amount shown as additional tax on a qualified amended return (as defined in paragraph (c)(3) of this section), except that such amount is not included if it relates to a fraudulent position on the original return.

(3)Qualified amended return defined -

(i)General rule. A qualified amended return is an amended return, or a timely request for an administrative adjustment under section 6227, filed after the due date of the return for the taxable year (determined with regard to extensions of time to file) and before the earliest of -

(A) The date the taxpayer is first contacted by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) concerning any examination (including a criminal investigation) with respect to the return;

(B) The date any person is first contacted by the IRS concerning an examination of that person under section 6700 (relating to the penalty for promoting abusive tax shelters) for an activity with respect to which the taxpayer claimed any tax benefit on the return directly or indirectly through the entity, plan or arrangement described in section 6700(a)(1)(A);

(C) In the case of a pass-through item (as defined in § 1.6662-4(f)(5)), the date the pass-through entity (as defined in § 1.6662-4(f)(5)) is first contacted by the IRS in connection with an examination of the return to which the pass-through item relates;

(D)(1) The date on which the IRS serves a summons described in section 7609(f) relating to the tax liability of a person, group, or class that includes the taxpayer (or pass-through entity of which the taxpayer is a partner, shareholder, beneficiary, or holder of a residual interest in a REMIC) with respect to an activity for which the taxpayer claimed any tax benefit on the return directly or indirectly.

(2) The rule in paragraph (c)(3)(i)(D)(1) of this section applies to any return on which the taxpayer claimed a direct or indirect tax benefit from the type of activity that is the subject of the summons, regardless of whether the summons seeks the production of information for the taxable period covered by such return; and

(E) The date on which the Commissioner announces by revenue ruling, revenue procedure, notice, or announcement, to be published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see § 601.601(d)(2) of this chapter), a settlement initiative to compromise or waive penalties, in whole or in part, with respect to a listed transaction. This rule applies only to a taxpayer who participated in the listed transaction and for the taxable year(s) in which the taxpayer claimed any direct or indirect tax benefits from the listed transaction. The Commissioner may waive the requirements of this paragraph or identify a later date by which a taxpayer who participated in the listed transaction must file a qualified amended return in the published guidance announcing the listed transaction settlement initiative.

(ii)Undisclosed listed transactions. An undisclosed listed transaction is a transaction that is the same as, or substantially similar to, a listed transaction within the meaning of § 1.6011-4(b)(2) (regardless of whether § 1.6011-4 requires the taxpayer to disclose the transaction) and was neither previously disclosed by the taxpayer within the meaning of § 1.6011-4 or § 1.6011-4T, nor disclosed under Announcement 2002-2 (2002-1 C.B. 304), (see § 601.601(d)(2)(ii) of this chapter) by the deadline therein. In the case of an undisclosed listed transaction for which a taxpayer claims any direct or indirect tax benefits on its return (regardless of whether the transaction was a listed transaction at the time the return was filed), an amended return or request for administrative adjustment under section 6227 will not be a qualified amended return if filed on or after the earliest of -

(A) The dates described in paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section;

(B) The date on which the IRS first contacts any person regarding an examination of that person's liability under section 6707(a) with respect to the undisclosed listed transaction of the taxpayer; or

(C) The date on which the IRS requests, from any person who made a tax statement to or for the benefit of the taxpayer or from any person who gave the taxpayer material aid, assistance, or advice as described in section 6111(b)(1)(A)(i) with respect to the taxpayer, the information required to be included on a list under section 6112 relating to a transaction that was the same as, or substantially similar to, the undisclosed listed transaction, regardless of whether the taxpayer's information is required to be included on that list.

(4)Special rules.

(i) A qualified amended return includes an amended return that is filed to disclose information pursuant to § 1.6662-3(c) or § 1.6662-4(e) and (f) even though it does not report any additional tax liability. See § 1.6662-3(c), § 1.6662-4(f), and § 1.6664-4(c) for rules relating to adequate disclosure.

(ii) The Commissioner may by revenue procedure prescribe the manner in which the rules of paragraph (c) of this section regarding qualified amended returns apply to particular classes of taxpayers.

(5)Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of paragraphs (c)(3) and (c)(4) of this section:

Example 1.
T, an individual taxpayer, claimed tax benefits on its 2002 Federal income tax return from a transaction that is substantially similar to the transaction identified as a listed transaction in Notice 2002-65, 2002-2 C.B. 690 (Partnership Entity Straddle Tax Shelter). T did not disclose his participation in this transaction on a Form 8886, “Reportable Transaction Disclosure Statement,” as required by § 1.6011-4. On June 30, 2004, the IRS requested from P, T's material advisor, an investor list required to be maintained under section 6112. The section 6112 request, however, related to the type of transaction described in Notice 2003-81, 2003-2 C.B. 1223 (Tax Avoidance Using Offsetting Foreign Currency Option Contracts). T did not participate in (within the meaning of § 1.6011-4(c)) a transaction described in Notice 2003-81. T may file a qualified amended return relating to the transaction described in Notice 2002-65 because T did not claim a tax benefit with respect to the listed transaction described in Notice 2003-81, which is the subject of the section 6112 request.
Example 2.
The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that T's 2002 Federal income tax return reflected T's participation in the transaction described in Notice 2003-81. As of June 30, 2004, T may not file a qualified amended return for the 2002 tax year.
Example 3.
(i) Corporation X claimed tax benefits from a transaction on its 2002 Federal income tax return. In October 2004, the IRS and Treasury Department identified the transaction as a listed transaction. In December 2004, the IRS contacted P concerning an examination of P's liability under section 6707(a) (as in effect prior to the amendment to section 6707 by section 816 of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 (the Jobs Act), Public Law 108-357 (118 Stat. 1418)). P is the organizer of a section 6111 tax shelter (as in effect prior to the amendment to section 6111 by section 815 of the Jobs Act) who provided representations to X regarding tax benefits from the transaction, and the IRS has contacted P about the failure to register that transaction. Three days later, X filed an amended return.

(ii) X's amended return is not a qualified amended return, because X did not disclose the transaction before the IRS contacted P. X's amended return would have been a qualified amended return if it was submitted prior to the date on which the IRS contacted P.

Example 4.
The facts are the same as in Example 3 except that, instead of contacting P concerning an examination under section 6707(a), in December 2004, the IRS served P with a John Doe summons described in section 7609(f) relating to the tax liability of participants in the type of transaction for which X claimed tax benefits on its return. X cannot file a qualified amended return after the John Doe summons has been served regardless of when, or whether, the transaction becomes a listed transaction.
Example 5.
On November 30, 2003, the IRS served a John Doe summons described in section 7609(f) on Corporation Y, a credit card company. The summons requested the identity of, and information concerning, United States taxpayers who, during the taxable years 2001 and 2002, had signature authority over Corporation Y's credit cards issued by, through, or on behalf of certain offshore financial institutions. Corporation Y complied with the summons, and identified, among others, Taxpayer B. On May 31, 2004, before the IRS first contacted Taxpayer B concerning an examination of Taxpayer B's Federal income tax return for the taxable year 2002, Taxpayer B filed an amended return for that taxable year, that showed an increase in Taxpayer B's Federal income tax liability. Under paragraph (c)(3)(i)(D) of this section, the amended return is not a qualified amended return because it was not filed before the John Doe summons was served on Corporation Y.
Example 6.
The facts are the same as in Example 5. Taxpayer B continued to maintain the offshore credit card account through 2003 and filed an original tax return for the 2003 taxable year claiming tax benefits attributable to the existence of the account. On March 21, 2005, Taxpayer B filed an amended return for the taxable year 2003, that showed an increase in Taxpayer B's Federal income tax liability. Under paragraph (c)(3)(i)(D) of this section, the amended return is not a qualified amended return because it was not filed before the John Doe summons for 2001 and 2002 was served on Corporation Y, and the return reflects benefits from the type of activity that is the subject of the John Doe summons.
Example 7.
(i) On November 30, 2003, the IRS served a John Doe summons described in section 7609(f) on Corporation Y, a credit card company. The summons requested the identity of, and information concerning, United States taxpayers who, during the taxable years 2001 and 2002, had signature authority over Corporation Y's credit cards issued by, through, or on behalf of certain offshore financial institutions. Taxpayer C did not have signature authority over any of Corporation Y's credit cards during either 2001 or 2002 and, therefore, was not a person described in the John Doe summons.

(ii) In 2003, Taxpayer C first acquired signature authority over a Corporation Y credit card issued by an offshore financial institution. Because Taxpayer C did not have signature authority during 2001 or 2002 over a Corporation Y credit card issued by an offshore financial institution, and was therefore not covered by the John Doe summons served on November 30, 2003, Taxpayer C's ability to file a qualified amended return for the 2003 taxable year is not limited by paragraph (c)(3)(i)(D) of this section.

(d)Amounts not so shown previously assessed (or collected without assessment). For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, “ amounts not so shown previously assessed” means only amounts assessed before the return is filed that were not shown on the return, such as termination assessments under section 6851 and jeopardy assessments under section 6861 made prior to the filing of the return for the taxable year. For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, the amount “collected without assessment” is the amount by which the total of the credits allowable under section 31 (relating to tax withheld on wages) and section 33 (relating to tax withheld at source on nonresident aliens and foreign corporations), estimated tax payments, and other payments in satisfaction of tax liability made before the return is filed, exceed the tax shown on the return (provided such excess has not been refunded or allowed as a credit to the taxpayer).

(e)Rebates. The term “rebate” means so much of an abatement credit, refund or other repayment, as was made on the ground that the tax imposed was less than the excess of -

(1) The sum of -

(i) The amount shown as the tax by the taxpayer on his return, plus

(ii)Amounts not so shown previously assessed (or collected without assessment), over

(2) Rebates previously made.

(f)Underpayments for certain carryback years not reduced by amount of carrybacks. The amount of an underpayment for a taxable year that is attributable to conduct proscribed by sections 6662 or 6663 is not reduced on account of a carryback of a loss, deduction or credit to that year. Such conduct includes negligence or disregard of rules or regulations; a substantial understatement of income tax; and a substantial (or gross) valuation misstatement under chapter 1, provided that the applicable dollar limitation is satisfied for the carryback year.

(g)Examples. The following examples illustrate this section:

Example 1.
Taxpayer's 1990 return showed a tax liability of $18,000. Taxpayer had no amounts previously assessed (or collected without assessment) and received no rebates of tax. Taxpayer claimed a credit in the amount of $23,000 for income tax withheld under section 3402, which resulted in a refund received of $5,000. It is later determined that the taxpayer should have reported additional income and that the correct tax for the taxable year is $25,500. There is an underpayment of $7,500, determined as follows:
Tax imposed under subtitle A $25,500
Tax shown on return $18,000
Tax previously assessed (or collected without assessment) None
Amount of rebates made None
Balance $18,000
Underpayment $7,500
Example 2.
The facts are the same as in Example 1 except that the taxpayer failed to claim on the return a credit of $1,500 for income tax withheld. This $1,500 constitutes an amount collected without assessment as defined in paragraph (d) of this section. The underpayment is $6,000, determined as follows:
Tax imposed under subtitle A $25,500
Tax shown on return $18,000
Tax previously assessed (or collected without assessment) 1,500
Amount of rebates made None
Balance $19,500
Underpayment $6,000
Example 3.
On Form 1040 filed for tax year 1990, taxpayer reported a tax liability of $10,000, estimated tax payments of $15,000, and received a refund of $5,000. Estimated tax payments actually made with respect to tax year 1990 were only $7,000. For purposes of determining the amount of underpayment subject to a penalty under section 6662 or section 6663, the tax shown on the return is $2,000 (reported tax liability of $10,000 reduced by the overstated estimated tax of $8,000 ($15,000-$7,000)). The underpayment is $8,000, determined as follows:
Tax imposed under subtitle A $10,000
Tax shown on return $2,000
Tax previously assessed (or collected without assessment) None
Amount of rebates made None
Balance $2,000
Underpayment $8,000
[T.D. 8381, 56 FR 67506, Dec. 31, 1991; T.D. 8381, 57 FR 6165, Feb. 20, 1992, as amended by T.D. 9186, 70 FR 10039, Mar. 2, 2005; T.D. 9309, 72 FR 903, Jan. 9, 2007]