26 CFR § 1.75-1 - Treatment of bond premiums in case of dealers in tax-exempt securities.

§ 1.75-1 Treatment of bond premiums in case of dealers in tax-exempt securities.

(a) In general.

(1) Section 75 requires certain adjustments to be made by dealers in securities with respect to premiums paid on municipal bonds which are held for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the trade or business. The adjustments depend upon the method of accounting used by the taxpayer in computing the gross income from the trade or business. See paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.

(2) The term “municipal bond” under section 75 means any obligation issued by a government or political subdivision thereof if the interest on the obligation is excludable from gross income under section 103. However, such term does not include an obligation -

(i) If the earliest maturity or call date of the obligation is more than 5 years from the date of acquisition by the taxpayer or the obligation is sold or otherwise disposed of by the taxpayer within 30 days after the date of acquisition by him, and

(ii) If, in case of an obligation acquired after December 31, 1957, the amount realized upon its sale (or, in the case of any other disposition, its fair market value at the time of disposition) is higher than its adjusted basis.

For purposes of this subparagraph, the amount realized on the sale of the obligation, or the fair market value of the obligation, shall not include any amount attributable to interest, and the adjusted basis shall be computed without regard to any adjustment for amortization of bond premium required under section 75 and section 1016(a)(6). For purposes of determining whether the obligation is sold or otherwise disposed of by the taxpayer within 30 days after the date of its acquisition by him, it is immaterial whether or not such 30-day period is entirely within one taxable year.

(3) The term “cost of securities sold” means the amount ascertained by subtracting the inventory value of the closing inventory of a taxable year from the sum of the inventory value of the opening inventory for such year and the cost of securities and other property purchased during such year which would properly be included in the inventory of the taxpayer if on hand at the close of the taxable year.

(b) Inventories not valued at cost.

(1) In the case of a dealer in securities who computes gross income from his trade or business by the use of inventories and values such inventories on any basis other than cost, the adjustment required by section 75 is, except as provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, the reduction of “cost of securities sold” by the amount equal to the amortizable bond premium which would be disallowed as a deduction under section 171(a)(2) with respect to the municipal bond if the dealer were an ordinary investor holding such bond. Such amortizable bond premium is computed under section 171(b) by reference to the cost or other original basis of the bond on the date of acquisition (determined without regard to section 1013, relating to inventory value on a subsequent date).

(2) With respect to an obligation acquired after December 31, 1957, which has as its earliest maturity or call date a date more than five years from the date on which it was acquired by the taxpayer, the following rules shall apply:

(i) If the taxpayer holds the obligation at the end of the taxable year, he is not required by section 75 to reduce the “cost of securities sold” for such year with respect to the obligation.

(ii) If the taxpayer sells or otherwise disposes of the obligation during the taxable year, he shall reduce the “cost of securities sold” for the taxable year of the sale or disposition unless he sold the obligation for more than its adjusted basis or otherwise disposed of it when its fair market value was more than its adjusted basis. For purposes of determining whether or not the taxpayer sold the obligation for more than its adjusted basis, or otherwise disposed of it when its fair market value was more than its adjusted basis, the amount realized on the sale of the obligation, or the fair market value of the obligation, shall not include any amount attributable to interest, and the adjusted basis shall be computed without regard to any adjustment for amortization of bond premium required under sections 75 and 1016(a)(6). The amount of the reduction referred to in the first sentence of this subdivision is the total amount by which the adjusted basis of the obligation would be required to be reduced under section 1016(a)(5) were the obligation subject to the amortizable bond premium provisions of section 171; that is, the amount of the amortizable bond premium attributable to the period during which the obligation was held which would be disallowed as a deduction under section 171(a)(2) if the taxpayer were an ordinary investor.

(3) This paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
X, a dealer in securities who values his inventories on a basis other than cost, makes his income tax returns on the calendar year basis. On July 1, 1954, he bought, for $1,060 each, three municipal bonds (A, B, an C) having a face obligation of $1,000, and maturing on July 1, 1959. Bond A is sold on December 31, 1954, bond B is sold on December 31, 1955, and bond C is sold on June 30, 1956. For each bond the amortizable bond premium to maturity is $60, the period from date of acquisition to maturity is 60 months, and the amortizable bond premium per month is $1. The adjustment for each of the years 1954, 1955, and 1956 is as follows:
Bond Date acquired Date sold Adjustment to “cost of securities sold” for -
1954 1955 1956
A July 1, 1954 Dec. 31, 1954 $6
B July 1, 1954 Dec. 31, 1955 6 $12
C July 1, 1954 Jun. 30, 1956 6 12 $6
Total 18 24 6
Example 2.
Y is a dealer in securities who values his inventories on a basis other than cost. He makes his income tax returns on the calendar year basis. On January 1, 1958, Y bought five bonds (D, E, F, G, and H) issued by various municipalities. Each bond has a face obligation of $1,000 and was purchased for $1,060. The interest on each is excludable from gross income under section 103. Bonds D, E, and F mature on December 31, 1962, and bonds G and H mature on December 31, 1967. The amortizable bond premium per month is $1 with respect to bonds D, E, and F, and is $.50 with respect to bonds G and H. The following table indicates the reduction in “cost of securities sold” which Y should make for the years shown, assuming that he sells the bonds on the dates and for the prices set forth:
Bond Date sold Sale price Adjustment to “cost of securities sold” for -
1958 1959 1960
D Feb. 1, 1959 $1,090 $12 $1
E Jan. 30, 1958 1,100 None
F Jan. 30, 1958 1,000 1
G Dec. 31, 1960 1,065 None None None
H Dec. 31, 1960 1,050 None None $18
Total 13 1 18
An adjustment to “cost of securities sold” must be made with respect to bond D (even though it was ultimately sold at a gain) because the bond neither had an earliest maturity or call date of more than 5 years from the date on which Y acquired it, nor was it disposed of within 30 days after such date. An adjustment must be made for the years 1958 and 1959 since section 75(a)(1) requires that an adjustment be made with respect to such a bond at the close of each taxable year in which it is held. On the other hand, since bonds E, F, G, and H either were disposed of within 30 days after the date of such acquisition or had an earliest maturity or call date more than 5 years from the date of acquisition, and were acquired after December 31, 1957, it is necessary to determine whether Y disposed of them at a loss so as to require an adjustment under section 75. No adjustment is necessary with respect to bonds E and G because they were sold at a gain. An adjustment to “cost of securities sold” is required with respect to bonds F and H because they were sold at a loss. As in the case of bond D, an adjustment with respect to bond F is made in 1958 in accordance with section 75(a)(1); however, the adjustment with respect to bond H is made entirely in 1960, the taxable year in which Y sold that bond, in accordance with the last sentence of section 75(a). If Y had acquired bonds before January 1, 1958, it would be unnecessary to determine whether they were disposed of at a loss since that factor is significant only with respect to bonds acquired on or after that date.

(c) Inventories not used or inventories valued at cost.

(1) In the case of a dealer in securities who computes gross income from his trade or business without the use of inventories or by use of inventories valued at cost, the adjustment required by section 75 is a reduction of the adjusted basis of each municipal bond sold or otherwise disposed of during the taxable year. The amount of such reduction is the total amount by which the adjusted basis of the bond would be required to be reduced under section 1016(a)(5) were the bond subject to the amortizable bond premium provisions of section 171; that is, the amount of the amortizable bond premium attributable to the period during which the bond was held which would be disallowed as a deduction under section 171(a)(2) if the taxpayer were an ordinary investor.

(2) Subparagraph (1) of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example.
Z, a dealer in securities who values his inventories on the basis of cost, makes his income tax returns on the calendar year basis. On January 1, 1954, he buys, for $1,060 each, three municipal bonds (I, J, and K) having a face obligation of $1,000, and maturing on January 1, 1959. Bond I is sold on December 31, 1954, bond J is sold on June 30, 1955, and bond K is sold on December 31, 1956. For each bond, the amortizable bond premium to maturity is $60, the period from the date of acquisition to maturity is 60 months, and the amortizable bond premium per month is $1.
Bond Date acquired Date sold Adjustment for -
1954 1955 1956
I Jan. 1, 1954 Dec. 31,1954 $12
J Jan. 1,1954 June 30,1955 None $18
K Jan. 1,1954 Dec. 31,1956 None None $36

(d) Bonds acquired before July 1, 1950. Under section 203(c) of the Revenue Act of 1950, adjustment is required for a municipal bond acquired before July 1, 1950, only with respect to taxable years beginning on or after that date. Accordingly, if the municipal bond was acquired before July 1, 1950, then for purposes of section 75 the amortizable bond premium under section 171 must be computed after adjusting the bond premium to the extent proper to reflect unamortized bond premium for so much of the holding period (as determined under section 1223) as precedes the taxable year of the dealer beginning on or after July 1, 1950. Thus, in example (1) of paragraph (b) and in the example in paragraph (c) of this section, the first taxable year beginning on or after July 1, 1950, is, for each dealer, the taxable year beginning January 1, 1951. If each dealer had purchased for $1,060 on April 1, 1950, a municipal bond having a face obligation of $1,000 and maturing April 1, 1955, and had sold such bond on February 28, 1955, the adjustment under section 75 would be computed as follows:

Dealer X Dealer Z
Bond premium $60 $60
Adjustment for holding period prior to Jan. 1, 1951 9 9
Amortizable bond premium to maturity, as adjusted 51 51
Amortizable bond premium per month 1 1
Total adjustments under sec. (o), 1939 Code, for years 1951-53 36 None
Adjustment under sec. 75 for 1954 12 None
Adjustment under sec. 75 for 1955 2 50
[T.D. 6647, 28 FR 3519, Apr. 11, 1963]