26 CFR § 1.832-1 - Gross income.
(a) Gross income as defined in section 832(b)(1) means the gross amount of income earned during the taxable year from interest, dividends, rents, and premium income, computed on the basis of the underwriting and investment exhibit of the annual statement approved by the National Convention of Insurance Commissioners, as well as the gain derived from the sale or other disposition of property, and all other items constituting gross income under section 61, except that in the case of a mutual fire insurance company described in § 1.831-1 the amount of single deposit premiums received, but not assessments, shall be excluded from gross income. Gross income does not include increase in liabilities during the year on account of reinsurance treaties, remittances from the home office of a foreign insurance company to the United States branch, borrowed money, or gross increase due to adjustments in book value of capital assets. The underwriting and investment exhibit is presumed to reflect the true net income of the company, and insofar as it is not inconsistent with the provisions of the Code will be recognized and used as a basis for that purpose. All items of the exhibit, however, do not reflect an insurance company's income as defined in the Code. By reason of the definition of investment income, miscellaneous items which are intended to reflect surplus but do not properly enter into the computation of income, such as dividends declared to shareholders in their capacity as such, home office remittances and receipts, and special deposits, are ignored. Gain or loss from agency balances and bills receivable not admitted as assets on the underwriting and investment exhibit will be ignored, excepting only such agency balances and bills receivable as have been allowed as deductions for worthless debts or, having been previously so allowed, are recovered during the taxable year. In computing “premiums earned on insurance contracts during the taxable year” the amount of the unearned premiums shall include (1) life insurance reserves as defined in section 803(b) and § 1.803-1 pertaining to the life, burial, or funeral insurance, or annuity business of an insurance company subject to the tax imposed by section 831 and not qualifying as a life insurance company under section 801, and (2) liability for return premiums under a rate credit or retrospective rating plan based on experience, such as the “War Department Insurance Rating Plan,” and which return premiums are therefore not earned premiums. In computing “losses incurred” the determination of unpaid losses at the close of each year must represent actual unpaid losses as nearly as it is possible to ascertain them.
(b) Every insurance company to which this section applies must be prepared to establish to the satisfaction of the district director that the part of the deduction for “ losses incurred” which represents unpaid losses at the close of the taxable year comprises only actual unpaid losses stated in amounts which, based upon the facts in each case and the company's experience with similar cases, can be said to represent a fair and reasonable estimate of the amount the company will be required to pay. Amounts included in, or added to, the estimates of such losses which, in the opinion of the district director are in excess of the actual liability determined as provided in the preceding sentence will be disallowed as a deduction. The district director may require any such insurance company to submit such detailed information with respect to its actual experience as is deemed necessary to establish the reasonableness of the deduction for “losses incurred.”
(c) That part of the deduction for “losses incurred” which represents an adjustment to losses paid for salvage and reinsurance recoverable shall, except as hereinafter provided, include all salvage in course of liquidation, and all reinsurance in process of collection not otherwise taken into account as a reduction of losses paid, outstanding at the end of the taxable year. Salvage in course of liquidation includes all property (other than cash), real or personal, tangible or intangible, except that which may not be included by reason of express statutory provisions (or rules and regulations of an insurance department) of any State or Territory or the District of Columbia in which the company transacts business. Such salvage in course of liquidation shall be taken into account to the extent of the value thereof at the end of the taxable year as determined from a fair and reasonable estimate based upon either the facts in each case or the company's experience with similar cases. Cash received during the taxable year with respect to items of salvage or reinsurance shall be taken into account in computing losses paid during such taxable year.