26 CFR 1.856-10 - Definition of real property.

§ 1.856-10 Definition of real property.

(a)In general. This section provides definitions for purposes of part II, subchapter M, chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code. Paragraph (b) of this section defines real property, which includes land as defined under paragraph (c) of this section and improvements to land as defined under paragraph (d) of this section. Improvements to land include inherently permanent structures as defined under paragraph (d)(2) of this section and structural components of inherently permanent structures as defined under paragraph (d)(3) of this section. Paragraph (e) of this section provides rules for determining whether an item is a distinct asset for purposes of applying the definitions in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section. Paragraph (f) of this section identifies intangible assets that are real property or interests in real property. Paragraph (g) of this section provides examples illustrating the rules of paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section. Paragraph (h) of this section provides the effective/applicability date for this section.

(b)Real property. The term real property means land and improvements to land. Local law definitions are not controlling for purposes of determining the meaning of the term real property.

(c)Land. Land includes water and air space superjacent to land and natural products and deposits that are unsevered from the land. Natural products and deposits, such as crops, water, ores, and minerals, cease to be real property when they are severed, extracted, or removed from the land. The storage of severed or extracted natural products or deposits, such as crops, water, ores, and minerals, in or upon real property does not cause the stored property to be recharacterized as real property.

(d)Improvements to land -

(1)In general. The term improvements to land means inherently permanent structures and their structural components.

(2)Inherently permanent structure -

(i)In general. The term inherently permanent structure means any permanently affixed building or other permanently affixed structure. Affixation may be to land or to another inherently permanent structure and may be by weight alone. If the affixation is reasonably expected to last indefinitely based on all the facts and circumstances, the affixation is considered permanent. A distinct asset that serves an active function, such as an item of machinery or equipment, is not a building or other inherently permanent structure.

(ii)Building -

(A)In general. A building encloses a space within its walls and is covered by a roof.

(B)Types of buildings. Buildings include the following distinct assets if permanently affixed: Houses; apartments; hotels; motels; enclosed stadiums and arenas; enclosed shopping malls; factory and office buildings; warehouses; barns; enclosed garages; enclosed transportation stations and terminals; and stores.

(iii)Other inherently permanent structures -

(A)In general. Other inherently permanent structures serve a passive function, such as to contain, support, shelter, cover, protect, or provide a conduit or a route, and do not serve an active function, such as to manufacture, create, produce, convert, or transport.

(B)Types of other inherently permanent structures. Other inherently permanent structures include the following distinct assets if permanently affixed: Microwave transmission, cell, broadcast, and electrical transmission towers; telephone poles; parking facilities; bridges; tunnels; roadbeds; railroad tracks; transmission lines; pipelines; fences; in-ground swimming pools; offshore drilling platforms; storage structures such as silos and oil and gas storage tanks; and stationary wharves and docks. Other inherently permanent structures also include outdoor advertising displays for which an election has been properly made under section 1033(g)(3).

(iv)Facts and circumstances determination. If a distinct asset (within the meaning of paragraph (e) of this section) does not serve an active function as described in paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(A) of this section and is not otherwise listed in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(B) or (d)(2)(iii)(B) of this section or in guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see § 601.601(d)(2)(ii) of this chapter), the determination of whether that asset is an inherently permanent structure is based on all the facts and circumstances. In particular, the following factors must be taken into account:

(A) The manner in which the distinct asset is affixed to real property;

(B) Whether the distinct asset is designed to be removed or to remain in place indefinitely;

(C) The damage that removal of the distinct asset would cause to the item itself or to the real property to which it is affixed;

(D) Any circumstances that suggest the expected period of affixation is not indefinite (for example, a lease that requires or permits removal of the distinct asset upon the expiration of the lease); and

(E) The time and expense required to move the distinct asset.

(3)Structural components -

(i)In general. The term structural component means any distinct asset (within the meaning of paragraph (e) of this section) that is a constituent part of and integrated into an inherently permanent structure, serves the inherently permanent structure in its passive function, and, even if capable of producing income other than consideration for the use or occupancy of space, does not produce or contribute to the production of such income. If interconnected assets work together to serve an inherently permanent structure with a utility-like function (for example, systems that provide a building with electricity, heat, or water), the assets are analyzed together as one distinct asset that may be a structural component. A structural component may qualify as real property only if the real estate investment trust (REIT) holds its interest in the structural component together with a real property interest in the space in the inherently permanent structure served by the structural component. A mortgage secured by a structural component is a real estate asset only if the mortgage is also secured by a real property interest in the inherently permanent structure served by the structural component. If a distinct asset is customized in connection with the rental of space in or on an inherently permanent structure to which the asset relates, the customization does not affect whether the distinct asset is a structural component.

(ii)Types of structural components. Structural components include the following distinct assets and systems if integrated into the inherently permanent structure and held together with a real property interest in the space in the inherently permanent structure served by that distinct asset or system: Wiring; plumbing systems; central heating and air-conditioning systems; elevators or escalators; walls; floors; ceilings; permanent coverings of walls, floors, and ceilings; windows; doors; insulation; chimneys; fire suppression systems, such as sprinkler systems and fire alarms; fire escapes; central refrigeration systems; security systems; and humidity control systems.

(iii)Facts and circumstances determination. If an interest in a distinct asset (within the meaning of paragraph (e) of this section) is held together with a real property interest in the space in the inherently permanent structure served by that distinct asset and that asset is not otherwise listed in paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section or in guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see § 601.601(d)(2)(ii) of this chapter), the determination of whether that asset is a structural component is based on all the facts and circumstances. In particular, the following factors must be taken into account:

(A) The manner, time, and expense of installing and removing the distinct asset;

(B) Whether the distinct asset is designed to be moved;

(C) The damage that removal of the distinct asset would cause to the item itself or to the inherently permanent structure to which it is affixed;

(D) Whether the distinct asset serves a utility-like function with respect to the inherently permanent structure;

(E) Whether the distinct asset serves the inherently permanent structure in its passive function;

(F) Whether the distinct asset produces income from consideration for the use or occupancy of space in or upon the inherently permanent structure;

(G) Whether the distinct asset is installed during construction of the inherently permanent structure; and

(H) Whether the distinct asset will remain if the tenant vacates the premises.

(e)Distinct asset -

(1)In general. A distinct asset is analyzed separately from any other assets to which the asset relates to determine if the asset is real property, whether as land, an inherently permanent structure, or a structural component of an inherently permanent structure.

(2)Facts and circumstances. The determination of whether a particular separately identifiable item of property is a distinct asset is based on all the facts and circumstances. In particular, the following factors must be taken into account:

(i) Whether the item is customarily sold or acquired as a single unit rather than as a component part of a larger asset;

(ii) Whether the item can be separated from a larger asset, and if so, the cost of separating the item from the larger asset;

(iii) Whether the item is commonly viewed as serving a useful function independent of a larger asset of which it is a part; and

(iv) Whether separating the item from a larger asset of which it is a part impairs the functionality of the larger asset.

(f)Intangible assets -

(1)In general. To the extent that an intangible asset, including an intangible asset established under generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) as a result of an acquisition of real property or an interest in real property, derives its value from real property or an interest in real property, is inseparable from that real property or interest in real property, and does not produce or contribute to the production of income other than consideration for the use or occupancy of space, the intangible asset is real property or an interest in real property.

(2)Licenses and permits. A license, permit, or other similar right that is solely for the use, enjoyment, or occupation of land or an inherently permanent structure and that is in the nature of a leasehold or easement generally is an interest in real property. A license or permit to engage in or operate a business is not real property or an interest in real property if the license or permit produces or contributes to the production of income other than consideration for the use or occupancy of space.

(g)Examples. The following examples demonstrate the rules of this section. Examples 1 and 2 illustrate the definition of land as provided in paragraph (c) of this section. Examples 3 through 10 illustrate the definition of improvements to land as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. Finally, Examples 11 through 13 illustrate whether certain intangible assets are real property or interests in real property as provided in paragraph (f) of this section.

Example 1.
Natural products of land. A is a REIT. REIT A owns land with perennial fruit-bearing plants. REIT A leases the fruit-bearing plants to a tenant and grants the tenant an easement to enter the land to cultivate the plants and to harvest the fruit. The lease and easement are long-term and REIT A provides no services to the tenant. The unsevered plants are natural products of the land and are land within the meaning of paragraph (c) of this section. The tenant annually harvests fruit from the plants. Upon severance from the land, the harvested fruit ceases to qualify as land. Storage of the harvested fruit upon or within real property does not cause the harvested fruit to be real property.
Example 2.
Water space superjacent to land. REIT B leases a marina from a governmental entity. The marina is comprised of U-shaped boat slips and end ties. The U-shaped boat slips are spaces on the water that are surrounded by a dock on three sides. The end ties are spaces on the water at the end of a slip or on a long, straight dock. REIT B rents the boat slips and end ties to boat owners. The boat slips and end ties are water space superjacent to land that is land within the meaning of paragraph (c) of this section and, therefore, are real property.
Example 3.
Indoor sculpture.
(i) REIT C owns an office building and a large sculpture in the atrium of the building. The sculpture measures 30 feet tall by 18 feet wide and weighs five tons. The building was specifically designed to support the sculpture, which is permanently affixed to the building by supports embedded in the building's foundation. The sculpture was constructed within the building. Removal would be costly and time consuming and would destroy the sculpture. The sculpture is reasonably expected to remain in the building indefinitely. The sculpture does not manufacture, create, produce, convert, transport, or serve any similar active function.

(ii) The sculpture is not an asset listed in paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(B) of this section, and, therefore, the sculpture is an asset that must be analyzed to determine whether it is an inherently permanent structure using the factors provided in paragraph (d)(2)(iv) of this section. The sculpture -

(A) Is permanently affixed to the building by supports embedded in the building's foundation;

(B) Is not designed to be removed and is designed to remain in place indefinitely;

(C) Would be damaged if removed and would damage the building to which it is affixed;

(D) Will remain affixed to the building after any tenant vacates the premises and will remain affixed to the building indefinitely; and

(E) Would require significant time and expense to move.

(iii) The factors described in this paragraph (g)Example 3 (ii)(A) through (E) all support the conclusion that the sculpture is an inherently permanent structure within the meaning of paragraph (d)(2) of this section and, therefore, is real property.

Example 4.
Bus shelters.
(i) REIT D owns 400 bus shelters, each of which consists of four posts, a roof, and panels enclosing two or three sides. REIT D enters into a long-term lease with a local transit authority for use of the bus shelters. Each bus shelter is prefabricated from steel and is bolted to the sidewalk. Bus shelters are disassembled and moved when bus routes change. Moving a bus shelter takes less than a day and does not significantly damage either the bus shelter or the real property to which it was affixed.

(ii) The bus shelters are not permanently affixed enclosed transportation stations or terminals and do not otherwise meet the definition of a building in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section nor are they listed as types of other inherently permanent structures in paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(B) of this section. Therefore, the bus shelters must be analyzed to determine whether they are inherently permanent structures using the factors provided in paragraph (d)(2)(iv) of this section. The bus shelters -

(A) Are not permanently affixed to the land or an inherently permanent structure;

(B) Are designed to be removed and are not designed to remain in place indefinitely;

(C) Would not be damaged if removed and would not damage the sidewalks to which they are affixed;

(D) Will not remain affixed after the local transit authority vacates the site and will not remain affixed indefinitely; and

(E) Would not require significant time and expense to move.

(iii) The factors described in this paragraph (g)Example 4 (ii)(A) through (E) all support the conclusion that the bus shelters are not inherently permanent structures within the meaning of paragraph (d)(2) of this section. Although the bus shelters serve a passive function of sheltering, the bus shelters are not permanently affixed, which means the bus shelters are not inherently permanent structures within the meaning of paragraph (d)(2) of this section and, therefore, are not real property.

Example 5.
Cold storage warehouse.
(i) REIT E owns a refrigerated warehouse (Cold Storage Warehouse). REIT E enters into a long-term lease with a tenant. REIT E neither operates the Cold Storage Warehouse nor provides services to its tenant. The tenant uses the Cold Storage Warehouse to store perishable products. Certain components and utility systems that are integrated into the Cold Storage Warehouse have been customized to accommodate the tenant's need for refrigerated storage space. For example, the Cold Storage Warehouse has customized freezer walls and a central refrigeration system. Freezer walls within the Cold Storage Warehouse are specifically designed to maintain the desired temperature within the Cold Storage Warehouse. The freezer walls and central refrigeration system comprise a series of interconnected assets that work together to serve a utility-like function within the Cold Storage Warehouse, were installed during construction of the building, and will remain in place when the tenant vacates the premises. The freezer walls and central refrigeration system were designed to remain permanently in place.

(ii) Walls and central refrigeration systems are listed as structural components in paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section and, therefore, are real property. The customization of the freezer walls does not affect their qualification as structural components of REIT E's Cold Storage Warehouse within the meaning of paragraph (d)(3) of this section. Therefore, the freezer walls and central refrigeration system are structural components of REIT E's Cold Storage Warehouse.

Example 6.
Data center.
(i) REIT F owns a building that it leases to a tenant under a long-term lease. REIT F neither operates the building nor provides services to its tenant. To accommodate the particular requirements for housing computer servers, certain interior components and utility systems within the building have been customized to provide a higher level of functionality than a conventional office building. These customized systems are owned by REIT F and include an electrical distribution and redundancy system (Electrical System), a central heating and air-conditioning system, a telecommunication infrastructure system, an integrated security system, a fire suppression system, and a humidity control system (each, a System). In addition, the space for computer servers in REIT F's building has been constructed with raised flooring that is integrated into the building to accommodate the Systems. Each System is comprised of a series of interconnected assets that work together to serve a utility-like function within the building. The Systems are integrated into the office building, were installed during construction of the building, and will remain in place when the tenant vacates the premises. Each of the Systems was customized to enhance the capacity of the System in connection with the rental of space within the building.

(ii) The central heating and air-conditioning system, integrated security system, fire suppression system, and humidity control system are listed as structural components in paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section and, therefore, are real property. The customization of these Systems does not affect the qualification of these Systems as structural components of REIT F's building within the meaning of paragraph (d)(3) of this section. Therefore, these Systems are structural components of REIT F's building.

(iii) In addition to wiring and flooring, which are listed as structural components in paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section and, therefore, are real property, the Electrical System and telecommunication infrastructure system include equipment used to ensure that the tenant is provided with uninterruptable, stable power and telecommunication services. The Electrical System and telecommunication infrastructure system are not listed in paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section, and, therefore, they must be analyzed to determine whether they are structural components of the building using the factors provided in paragraph (d)(3)(iii) of this section. The Electrical System and telecommunication infrastructure system -

(A) Are embedded within the walls and floors of the building and would be costly to remove;

(B) Are not designed to be moved and are designed specifically for the particular building of which they are a part;

(C) Would not be significantly damaged upon removal and, although removing them would damage the walls and floors in which they are embedded, their removal would not significantly damage the building;

(D) Serve a utility-like function with respect to the building;

(E) Serve the building in its passive functions of containing, sheltering, and protecting computer servers;

(F) Produce income as consideration for the use or occupancy of space within the building;

(G) Were installed during construction of the building; and

(H) Will remain in place when the tenant vacates the premises.

(iv) The factors described in this paragraph (g)Example 6 (iii)(A), (B), and (D) through (H) all support the conclusion that the Electrical System and telecommunication infrastructure system are structural components of REIT F's building within the meaning of paragraph (d)(3) of this section and, therefore, are real property. The factor described in this paragraph (g)Example 6 (iii)(C) would support a conclusion that the Electrical System and telecommunication infrastructure system are not structural components. However this factor does not outweigh the factors supporting the conclusion that the Electric System and telecommunication infrastructure system are structural components.

Example 7.
Partitions.
(i) REIT G owns an office building that it leases to tenants under long-term leases. REIT G neither operates the office building nor provides services to its tenants. Partitions are owned by REIT G and are used to delineate space between tenants and within each tenant's space. The office building has two types of interior, non-load-bearing drywall partition systems: a conventional drywall partition system (Conventional Partition System) and a modular drywall partition system (Modular Partition System). Neither the Conventional Partition System nor the Modular Partition System was installed during construction of the office building. Conventional Partition Systems are comprised of fully integrated gypsum board partitions, studs, joint tape, and covering joint compound. Modular Partition Systems are comprised of assembled panels, studs, tracks, and exposed joints. Both the Conventional Partition System and the Modular Partition System reach from the floor to the ceiling.

(ii) Depending on the needs of a new tenant, the Conventional Partition System may remain in place when a tenant vacates the premises. The Conventional Partition System is integrated into the office building and is designed and constructed to remain in areas not subject to reconfiguration or expansion. The Conventional Partition System can be removed only by demolition, and, once removed, neither the Conventional Partition System nor its components can be reused. Removal of the Conventional Partition System causes substantial damage to the Conventional Partition System itself but does not cause substantial damage to the building.

(iii) Modular Partition Systems are typically removed when a tenant vacates the premises. Modular Partition Systems are not designed or constructed to remain permanently in place. Modular Partition Systems are designed and constructed to be movable. Each Modular Partition System can be readily removed, remains in substantially the same condition as before, and can be reused. Removal of a Modular Partition System does not cause any substantial damage to the Modular Partition System itself or to the building. The Modular Partition System may be moved to accommodate the reconfigurations of the interior space within the office building for various tenants that occupy the building.

(iv) The Conventional Partition System is comprised of walls that are integrated into an inherently permanent structure, and thus are listed as structural components in paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section. The Conventional Partition System, therefore, is real property.

(v) The Modular Partition System is not integrated into the building and, therefore, is not listed in paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section. Thus, the Modular Partition System must be analyzed to determine whether it is a structural component using the factors provided in paragraph (d)(3)(iii) of this section. The Modular Partition System -

(A) Is installed and removed quickly and with little expense;

(B) Is designed to be moved and is not designed specifically for the particular building of which it is a part;

(C) Is not damaged, and the building is not damaged, upon its removal;

(D) Does not serve a utility-like function with respect to the building;

(E) Serves the building in its passive functions of containing and protecting the tenants' assets;

(F) Produces income only as consideration for the use or occupancy of space within the building;

(G) Was not installed during construction of the building; and

(H) Will not remain in place when a tenant vacates the premises.

(vi) The factors described in this paragraph (g)Example 7 (v)(A) through (D), (G) and (H) all support the conclusion that the Modular Partition System is not a structural component of REIT G's building within the meaning of paragraph (d)(3) of this section and, therefore, is not real property. The factors described in this paragraph (g)Example 7 (v)(E) and (F) would support a conclusion that the Modular Partition System is a structural component. These factors, however, do not outweigh the factors supporting the conclusion that the Modular Partition System is not a structural component.

Example 8.
Solar energy site.
(i) REIT H owns a solar energy site, among the components of which are land, photovoltaic modules (PV Modules), mounts and an exit wire. REIT H enters into a long-term lease with a tenant for the solar energy site. REIT H neither operates the solar energy site nor provides services to its tenant. The mounts support the PV Modules. The racks are affixed to the land through foundations made from poured concrete. The mounts will remain in place when the tenant vacates the solar energy site. The PV Modules convert solar photons into electric energy (electricity). The exit wire is buried underground, is connected to equipment that is in turn connected to the PV Modules, and transmits the electricity produced by the PV Modules to an electrical power grid, through which the electricity is distributed for sale to third parties.

(ii) REIT H's PV Modules, mounts, and exit wire are each separately identifiable items. Separation from a mount does not affect the ability of a PV Module to convert photons to electricity. Separation from the equipment to which it is attached does not affect the ability of the exit wire to transmit electricity to the electrical power grid. The types of PV Modules and exit wire that REIT H owns are each customarily sold or acquired as single units. Removal of the PV Modules from the mounts that support them does not damage the function of the mounts as support structures and removal is not costly. The PV Modules serve the active function of converting photons to electricity. Disconnecting the exit wire from the equipment to which it is attached does not damage the function of that equipment, and the disconnection is not costly. The PV Modules, mounts, and exit wire are each distinct assets within the meaning of paragraph (e) of this section.

(iii) The land is real property as defined in paragraph (c) of this section.

(iv) The mounts are designed and constructed to remain in place indefinitely, and they have a passive function of supporting the PV Modules. The mounts are not listed in paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(B) of this section, and, therefore, the mounts are assets that must be analyzed to determine whether they are inherently permanent structures using the factors provided in paragraph (d)(2)(iv) of this section. The mounts -

(A) Are permanently affixed to the land through the concrete foundations or molded concrete anchors (which are part of the mounts);

(B) Are not designed to be removed and are designed to remain in place indefinitely;

(C) Would be damaged if removed;

(D) Will remain affixed to the land after the tenant vacates the premises and will remain affixed to the land indefinitely; and

(E) Would require significant time and expense to move.

(v) The factors described in this paragraph (g)Example 8 (iv)(A) through (E) all support the conclusion that the mounts are inherently permanent structures within the meaning of paragraph (d)(2) of this section and, therefore, are real property.

(vi) The PV Modules convert solar photons into electricity that is transmitted through an electrical power grid for sale to third parties. The conversion is an active function. Thus, the PV Modules are items of machinery or equipment and therefore are not inherently permanent structures within the meaning of paragraph (d)(2) of this section and, so, are not real property. The PV Modules do not serve the mounts in their passive function of providing support; instead, the PV Modules produce electricity for sale to third parties, which is income other than consideration for the use or occupancy of space. Thus, the PV Modules are not structural components of REIT H's mounts within the meaning of paragraph (d)(3) of this section and, therefore, are not real property.

(vii) The exit wire is buried under the ground and transmits the electricity produced by the PV Modules to the electrical power grid. The exit wire was installed during construction of the solar energy site and is designed to remain permanently in place. The exit wire is permanently affixed and is a transmission line, which is listed as an inherently permanent structure in paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(B) of this section. Therefore, the exit wire is real property.

Example 9.
Solar-powered building.
(i) REIT I owns a solar energy site similar to that described in Example 8, except that REIT I's solar energy site assets (Solar Energy Site Assets) are mounted on land adjacent to an office building owned by REIT I. REIT I leases the office building and the solar energy site to a single tenant. REIT I does not operate the office building or the solar energy site and does not provide services to its tenant. Although the tenant occasionally transfers excess electricity produced by the Solar Energy Site Assets to a utility company, the Solar Energy Site Assets are designed and intended to produce electricity only to serve the office building. The size and specifications of the Solar Energy Site Assets were designed to be appropriate to serve only the electricity needs of the office building. Although the Solar Energy Site Assets were not installed during construction of the office building, no facts indicate either that the Solar Energy Site Assets will not remain in place indefinitely or that they may be removed if the tenant vacates the premises.

(ii) With the exception of the occasional transfers of excess electricity to a utility company, the Solar Energy Site Assets serve the office building to which they are adjacent, and, therefore, the Solar Energy Site Assets are analyzed to determine whether they are a structural component using the factors provided in paragraph (d)(3)(iii) of this section. The Solar Energy Site Assets -

(A) Are expensive and time consuming to install and remove;

(B) Were designed with the size and specifications needed to serve only the office building;

(C) Will be damaged, but will not cause damage to the office building, upon removal;

(D) Serve a utility-like function with respect to the office building;

(E) Serve the office building in its passive functions of containing, sheltering, and protecting the tenant and the tenant's assets;

(F) Produce income from consideration for the use or occupancy of space within the office building;

(G) Were not installed during construction of the office building; and

(H) Will remain in place when the tenant vacates the premises.

(iii) The factors described in this paragraph (g)Example 9 (ii)(A) through (C) (in part), (ii)(D) through (F), and (ii)(H) all support the conclusion that the Solar Energy Site Assets are a structural component of REIT I's office building within the meaning of paragraph (d)(3) of this section and, therefore, are real property. The factors described in this paragraph (g)Example 9 (ii)(C) (in part) and (ii)(G) would support a conclusion that the Solar Energy Site Assets are not a structural component, but these factors do not outweigh the factors supporting the conclusion that the Solar Energy Site Assets are a structural component.

(iv) The result in this Example 9 would not change if, instead of the Solar Energy Site Assets, solar shingles were used as the roof of REIT I's office building. Solar shingles are roofing shingles like those commonly used for residential housing, except that they contain built-in PV modules. The solar shingle installation was specifically designed and constructed to serve only the needs of REIT I's office building, and the solar shingles were installed as a structural component to provide solar energy to REIT I's office building (although REIT I's tenant occasionally transfers excess electricity produced by the solar shingles to a utility company). The analysis of the application of the factors provided in paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section would be similar to the analysis of the application of the factors to the Solar Energy Site Assets in this paragraph (g)Example 9 (ii) and (iii).

Example 10.
Pipeline transmission system.
(i) REIT J owns a natural gas pipeline transmission system that provides a conduit to transport natural gas from unrelated third-party producers and gathering facilities to unrelated third-party distributors and end users. REIT J enters into a long-term lease with a tenant for the pipeline transmission system. REIT J neither operates the pipeline transmission system nor provides services to its tenant. The pipeline transmission system is comprised of underground pipelines, isolation valves and vents, pressure control and relief valves, meters, and compressors. Although the pipeline transmission system as a whole serves an active function (transporting natural gas), one or more distinct assets within the system may nevertheless be inherently permanent structures that do not themselves perform active functions. Each of these distinct assets was installed during construction of the pipeline transmission system and will remain in place when the tenant vacates the pipeline transmission system. Each of these assets was designed to remain permanently in place.

(ii) The pipelines are permanently affixed and are listed as other inherently permanent structures in paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(B) of this section. Therefore, the pipelines are real property.

(iii) Isolation valves and vents are placed at regular intervals along the pipelines to isolate and evacuate sections of the pipelines in case there is need for a shut-down or maintenance of the pipelines. Pressure control and relief valves are installed at regular intervals along the pipelines to provide overpressure protection. The isolation valves and vents and pressure control and relief valves are not listed in paragraph (d)(3)(ii) and, therefore, must be analyzed to determine whether they are structural components using the factors provided in paragraph (d)(3)(iii) of this section. The isolation valves and vents and pressure control and relief valves -

(A) Are time consuming and expensive to install and remove from the pipelines;

(B) Are designed specifically for the particular pipelines for which they are a part;

(C) Will sustain damage and will damage the pipelines if removed;

(D) Do not serve a utility-like function with respect to the pipelines;

(E) Serve the pipelines in their passive function of providing a conduit for natural gas;

(F) Produce income only from consideration for the use or occupancy of space within the pipelines;

(G) Were installed during construction of the pipelines; and

(H) Will remain in place when the tenant vacates the premises.

(iv) The factors described in this paragraph (g)Example 10 (iii)(A) through (C) and (iii)(E) through (H) support the conclusion that the isolation valves and vents and pressure control and relief valves are structural components of REIT J's pipelines within the meaning of paragraph (d)(3) of this section and, therefore, are real property. The factor described in this paragraph (g)Example 10 (iii)(D) would support a conclusion that the isolation valves and vents and pressure control and relief valves are not structural components, but this factor does not outweigh the factors that support the conclusion that the isolation valves and vents and pressure control and relief valves are structural components.

(v) Meters are used to measure the natural gas passing into or out of the pipeline transmission system for purposes of determining the end users' consumption. Over long distances, pressure is lost due to friction in the pipeline transmission system. Compressors are required to add pressure to transport natural gas through the entirety of the pipeline transmission system. The meters and compressors do not serve the pipelines in their passive function of providing a conduit for the natural gas, and are used in connection with the production of income from the sale and transportation of natural gas, rather than as consideration for the use or occupancy of space within the pipelines. The meters and compressors are not structural components within the meaning of paragraph (d)(3) of this section and, therefore, are not real property.

Example 11.
Above-market lease. REIT K acquires an office building from an unrelated third party subject to a long-term lease with a single tenant under which the tenant pays above-market rents. The above-market lease is an intangible asset under GAAP. Seventy percent of the value of the above-market lease asset is attributable to income from the long-term lease that qualifies as rents from real property, as defined in section 856(d)(1). The remaining thirty percent of the value of the above-market lease asset is attributable to income from the long-term lease that does not qualify as rents from real property. The portion of the value of the above-market lease asset that is attributable to rents from real property (here, seventy percent) derives its value from real property, is inseparable from that real property, does not produce or contribute to the production of income other than consideration for the use or occupancy of space, and, therefore, is an interest in real property under section 856(c)(5)(C) and a real estate asset under section 856(c)(5)(B). The remaining portion of the above-market lease asset does not derive its value from real property and, therefore, is not a real estate asset.
Example 12.
Land use permit. REIT L receives a special use permit from the government to place a cell tower on Federal Government land that abuts a federal highway. Government regulations provide that the permit is not a lease of the land, but is a permit to use the land for a cell tower. Under the permit, the government reserves the right to cancel the permit and compensate REIT L if the site is needed for a higher public purpose. REIT L leases space on the tower to various cell service providers. Each cell service provider installs its equipment on a designated space on REIT L's cell tower. The permit does not produce, or contribute to the production of, any income other than REIT L's receipt of payments from the cell service providers in consideration for their being allowed to use space on the tower. The permit is in the nature of a leasehold that allows REIT L to place a cell tower in a specific location on government land. Therefore, the permit is an interest in real property.
Example 13.
License to operate a business. REIT M owns a building and receives a license from State to operate a casino in the building. The license applies only to REIT M's building and cannot be transferred to another location. REIT M's building is an inherently permanent structure under paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section and, therefore, is real property. However, REIT M's license to operate a casino is not a right for the use, enjoyment, or occupation of REIT M's building but is rather a license to engage in the business of operating a casino in the building. Therefore, the casino license is not real property.

(h)Effective/applicability date. The rules of this section apply for taxable years beginning after August 31, 2016. For purposes of applying the first sentence of the flush language of section 856(c)(4) to a quarter in a taxable year that begins after August 31, 2016, the rules of this section apply in determining whether the taxpayer met the requirements of section 856(c)(4) at the close of prior quarters. Taxpayers may rely on this section for quarters that end before the applicability date.

[T.D. 9784, 81 FR 59860, Aug. 31, 2016, as amended by 81 FR 68934, Oct. 5, 2016]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 15-Sep-2017 03:46

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR Part 1 after this date.

  • 2017-09-28; vol. 82 # 187 - Thursday, September 28, 2017
    1. 82 FR 45233 - Public Approval of Tax-Exempt Private Activity Bonds
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Withdrawal of notice of proposed rulemaking and notice of proposed rulemaking.
      Comments and requests for a public hearing must be received by December 27, 2017.
      26 CFR Parts 1 and 5f

Pages

The section you are viewing is cited by the following CFR sections.