26 CFR § 1.857-5 - Net income and loss from prohibited transactions.
(a) In general. Section 857(b)(6) imposes, for each taxable year, a tax equal to 100 percent of the net income derived from prohibited transactions. A prohibited transaction is a sale or other disposition of property described in section 1221(1) that is not foreclosure property. The 100-percent tax is imposed to preclude a real estate investment trust from retaining any profit from ordinary retailing activities such as sales to customers of condominium units or subdivided lots in a development tract. In order to prevent a trust from receiving any tax benefit from such activities, a net loss from prohibited transactions effectively is disallowed in compting real estate investment trust taxable income. See § 1.857-2(a)(8). Such loss, however, does reduce the amount which a trust is required to distribute as dividends. For purposes of applying the provisions of the Code, other than those provisions of part II of subchapter M which relate to prohibited transactions, no inference is to be drawn from the fact that a type of transaction does not constitute a prohibited transaction.
(b) Special rules. In determining whether a particular transaction constitutes a prohibited transaction, the activities of a real estate investment trust with respect to foreclosure property and its sales of such property are disregarded. Also, if a real estate investment trust enters into a purchase and leaseback of real property with an option in the seller-lessee to repurchase the property at the end of the lease period, and the seller exercises the option pursuant to its terms, income from the sale generally will not be considered to be income from a prohibited transaction solely because the purchase and leaseback was entered into with an option in the seller to repurchase and because the option was exercised pursuant to its terms. Other facts and circumstances, however, may require a conclusion that the property is held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business. Gain from the sale or other disposition of property described in section 1221(1) (other than foreclosure property) that is included in gross income for a taxable year of a qualified real estate investment trust constitutes income from a prohibited transaction, even though the sale or other disposition from which the gain is derived occurred in a prior taxable year. For example, if a corporation that is a qualified real estate investment trust for the current taxable year elected to report the income from the sale of an item of section 1221(1) property (other than foreclosure property) on the installment method of reporting income, the gain from the sale that is taken into income by the real estate investment trust for the current taxable year is income from a prohibited transaction. This result follows even though the sale occurred in a prior taxable year for which the corporation did not qualify as a real estate investment trust. On the other hand, if the gain is taken into income in a taxable year for which the taxpayer is not a qualifed real estate investment trust, the 100-percent tax does not apply.
(c) Net income or loss from prohibited transactions. Net income or net loss from prohibited transactions is determined by aggregating all gains from the sale or other disposition of property (other than foreclosure property) described in section 1221(1) with all losses from the sale or other disposition of such property. Thus, for example, if a real estate investment trust sells two items of property described in section 1221(1) (other than foreclosure property) and recognizes a gain of $100 on the sale of one item and a loss of $40 on the sale of the second item, the net income from prohibited transactions will be $60.