26 CFR § 1.861-20 - Allocation and apportionment of foreign income taxes.

§ 1.861-20 Allocation and apportionment of foreign income taxes.

(a) Scope. This section provides rules for the allocation and apportionment of foreign income taxes, including allocating and apportioning foreign income taxes to separate categories for purposes of the foreign tax credit. The rules of this section apply except as modified under the rules for an operative section (as described in § 1.861-8(f)(1)). See, for example, §§ 1.704-1(b)(4)(viii)(d)(1), 1.904-6, 1.960-1(d)(3)(ii), and 1.965-5(b)(2). Paragraph (b) of this section provides definitions for the purposes of this section. Paragraph (c) of this section provides the general rule for allocation and apportionment of foreign income taxes. Paragraph (d) of this section provides rules for assigning foreign gross income to statutory and residual groupings. Paragraph (e) of this section provides rules for allocating and apportioning foreign law deductions to foreign gross income in the statutory and residual groupings. Paragraph (f) of this section provides rules for apportioning foreign income taxes among statutory and residual groupings. Paragraph (g) of this section provides examples that illustrate the application of this section. Paragraph (h) of this section provides the applicability date for this section.

(b) Definitions. The following definitions apply for purposes of this section.

(1) Corporation. The term corporation has the same meaning as set forth in § 301.7701-2(b) of this chapter, and so includes a reverse hybrid.

(2) Corresponding U.S. item. The term corresponding U.S. item means the item of U.S. gross income or U.S. loss, if any, that arises from the same transaction or other realization event from which an item of foreign gross income also arises. An item of U.S. gross income or U.S. loss is a corresponding U.S. item even if the item of foreign gross income that arises from the same transaction or realization event differs in amount from the item of U.S. gross income or U.S. loss. A corresponding U.S. item does not include an item of gross income that is exempt, excluded, or eliminated from U.S. gross income, nor does it include an item of U.S. gross income or U.S. loss that is not realized, recognized or taken into account by the taxpayer in the U.S. taxable year in which the taxpayer paid or accrued the foreign income tax, except as provided in the next sentence. If a taxpayer pays or accrues a foreign income tax that is imposed on foreign taxable income that includes an item of foreign gross income by reason of a transaction or other realization event that also gave rise to an item of U.S. gross income or U.S. loss, but the U.S. and foreign taxable years end on different dates and the event occurred in the last U.S. taxable year that ends before the end of the foreign taxable year, then the item of U.S. gross income or U.S. loss is a corresponding U.S. item.

(3) Disregarded entity. The term disregarded entity means an entity described in § 301.7701-2(c)(2) of this chapter that is disregarded as an entity separate from its owner for Federal income tax purposes.

(4) Foreign capital gain amount. The term foreign capital gain amount means the portion of a distribution that under foreign law gives rise to gross income of a type described in section 301(c)(3)(A).

(5) Foreign dividend amount. The term foreign dividend amount means the portion of a distribution that is taxable as a dividend under foreign law.

(6) Foreign gross income. The term foreign gross income means the items of gross income included in the base upon which a foreign income tax is imposed. This includes all items of foreign gross income included in the foreign tax base, even if the foreign taxable year begins in the U.S. taxable year that precedes the U.S. taxable year in which the taxpayer pays or accrues the foreign income tax.

(7) Foreign income tax. The term foreign income tax means an income, war profits, or excess profits tax within the meaning of § 1.901-2(a) that is a separate levy within the meaning of § 1.901-2(d) and that is paid or accrued to any foreign country (as defined in § 1.901-2(g)).

(8) Foreign law CFC. The term foreign law CFC means an entity that is a body corporate under foreign law, certain of the earnings of which are taxable to its shareholder under a foreign law inclusion regime.

(9) Foreign law disposition. The term foreign law disposition means an event that foreign law treats as a taxable disposition or deemed disposition of property but that Federal income tax law does not treat as a disposition causing the recognition of gain or loss (for example, marking property to market under foreign law).

(10) Foreign law distribution. The term foreign law distribution means an event that foreign law treats as a taxable distribution (other than by reason of a foreign law inclusion regime) but that Federal income tax law does not treat as a distribution of property within the meaning of section 317(a) (for example, a stock dividend described in section 305 or a foreign law consent dividend).

(11) Foreign law inclusion regime. A foreign law inclusion regime is a foreign law tax regime similar to the subpart F or GILTI regime described in sections 951 through 959, or the PFIC regime described in sections 1293 through 1295 (relating to qualified electing funds), that imposes a tax on a shareholder of an entity based on an inclusion in the shareholder's taxable income of certain of the entity's current earnings, whether or not the foreign law deems the entity's earnings to be distributed.

(12) Foreign law inclusion regime income. The term foreign law inclusion regime income means the items of foreign gross income included by a taxpayer with respect to a foreign law CFC by reason of a foreign law inclusion regime.

(13) Foreign law pass-through income. The term foreign law pass-through income means the items of a reverse hybrid, computed under foreign law, that give rise to an inclusion in a taxpayer's foreign gross income under the laws of a foreign country imposing tax by reason of the taxpayer's ownership of the reverse hybrid.

(14) Foreign taxable income. The term foreign taxable income means foreign gross income reduced by the deductions that are allowed under foreign law.

(15) Foreign taxable year. The term foreign taxable year has the meaning set forth in section 7701(a)(23), applied by substituting “under foreign law” for the phrase “under subtitle A.”

(16) Partnership. The term partnership has the same meaning as set forth in § 301.7701-2(c)(1) of this chapter.

(17) Reverse hybrid. The term reverse hybrid means a corporation that is a fiscally transparent entity (under the principles of § 1.894-1(d)(3)) or a branch under the laws of a foreign country imposing tax on the income of the entity.

(18) Taxpayer. The term taxpayer has the meaning described in § 1.901-2(f)(1).

(19) U.S. capital gain amount. The term U.S. capital gain amount means gain recognized by a taxpayer on the sale or exchange of stock or, in the case of a distribution with respect to stock, the portion of the distribution to which section 301(c)(3)(A) applies. However, a U.S. capital gain amount does not include any portion of the gain recognized by a taxpayer that is treated as a dividend under section 964(e) or 1248.

(20) U.S. dividend amount. The term U.S. dividend amount means the portion of a distribution that is made out of earnings and profits under Federal income tax law, including distributions out of previously taxed earnings and profits described in section 959(a) or (b). It also includes amounts included in gross income as a dividend by reason of section 1248 or section 964(e).

(21) U.S. gross income. The term U.S. gross income means the items of gross income that a taxpayer recognizes and includes in taxable income under Federal income tax law for its U.S. taxable year.

(22) U.S. loss. The term U.S. loss means the item of loss that a taxpayer recognizes and includes in taxable income under Federal income tax law for its U.S. taxable year.

(23) U.S. return of capital amount. The term U.S. return of capital amount means, in the case of the sale or exchange of stock, the adjusted basis of the stock, and in the case of a distribution with respect to stock, the portion of a distribution to which section 301(c)(2) applies.

(24) U.S. taxable year. The term U.S. taxable year has the same meaning as that of the term taxable year set forth in section 7701(a)(23).

(c) General rule. A foreign income tax is allocated and apportioned to the statutory and residual groupings that include the items of foreign gross income included in the base on which the tax is imposed. Each foreign income tax (that is, each separate levy) is allocated and apportioned separately under the rules in this section. A foreign income tax is allocated and apportioned to or among the statutory and residual groupings under the following steps:

(1) First, by assigning the items of foreign gross income to the groupings under the rules of paragraph (d) of this section;

(2) Second, by allocating and apportioning the deductions that are allowed under foreign law to the foreign gross income in the groupings under the rules of paragraph (e) of this section; and

(3) Third, by allocating and apportioning the foreign income tax by reference to the foreign taxable income in the groupings under the rules of paragraph (f) of this section.

(d) Assigning items of foreign gross income to the statutory and residual groupings -

(1) In general. Each item of foreign gross income is assigned to a statutory or residual grouping. The amount of the item is determined under foreign law. However, Federal income tax law applies to characterize the item and the transaction or other realization event from which the item arose, and to assign it to a grouping. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(3) of this section, if a taxpayer pays or accrues a foreign income tax that is imposed on foreign taxable income that includes an item of foreign gross income with respect to which the taxpayer also realizes, recognizes, or takes into account a corresponding U.S. item, then the item of foreign gross income is assigned to the grouping to which the corresponding U.S. item is assigned. See paragraph (g)(2) of this section (Example 1). If the corresponding U.S. item is a U.S. loss (or zero), the foreign gross income is assigned to the grouping to which a gain would be assigned had the transaction or other realization event given rise to a gain, rather than a U.S. loss (or zero), for Federal income tax purposes, and not (if different) to the grouping to which the U.S. loss is allocated and apportioned in computing U.S. taxable income. Paragraph (d)(3) of this section provides special rules regarding the assignment of the item of foreign gross income in particular circumstances.

(2) Items of foreign gross income with no corresponding U.S. item -

(i) In general. The rules in paragraphs (d)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section apply for purposes of characterizing an item of foreign gross income and assigning it to a grouping if the taxpayer does not realize, recognize, or take into account a corresponding U.S. item. But see paragraphs (d)(3)(i)(C) and (d)(3)(iii) of this section for special rules with respect to items of foreign gross income attributable to foreign law pass-through income and foreign law inclusion regime income.

(ii) Foreign gross income from U.S. nonrecognition event, or U.S. recognition event that falls in a different U.S. taxable year -

(A) In general. If a taxpayer recognizes an item of foreign gross income arising from a transaction or other foreign realization event that does not result in the recognition of gross income or loss under Federal income tax law in the same U.S. taxable year in which the foreign income tax is paid or accrued or (in the circumstance described in the last sentence of paragraph (b)(2) of this section) in the immediately preceding U.S. taxable year, then the item of foreign gross income is characterized and assigned to the grouping to which the corresponding U.S. item (or the items described in paragraph (d)(3) of this section that are used to assign certain items of foreign gross income to the statutory and residual groupings) would be assigned if the event giving rise to the foreign gross income resulted in the recognition of gross income or loss under Federal income tax law in the U.S. taxable year in which the foreign income tax is paid or accrued.

(B) Foreign law distributions. An item of foreign gross income that a taxpayer includes as a result of a foreign law distribution with respect to either stock or a partnership interest is assigned to the same statutory or residual groupings to which the foreign gross income would be assigned if a distribution of property in the amount of the taxable distribution under foreign law were made for Federal income tax purposes on the date on which the foreign law distribution occurred. See paragraph (g)(6) of this section (Example 5). See paragraph (d)(3)(i)(B) of this section for rules regarding the assignment of foreign gross income arising from a distribution with respect to stock. For purposes of applying paragraph (d)(3)(i)(B) of this section to a foreign law distribution, the U.S. dividend amount, U.S. capital gain amount, and U.S. return of capital amount are computed as if the distribution occurred on the date the distribution occurs for foreign law purposes. See § 1.960-1(d)(3)(ii) for rules for assigning foreign gross income arising from a foreign law distribution to income groups or PTEP groups for purposes of section 960 as the operative section.

(C) Foreign law dispositions. A foreign gross income item of gain that a taxpayer includes as a result of a foreign law disposition of property is assigned to the grouping to which a corresponding U.S. item of gain or loss would be assigned on a taxable disposition of the property under Federal income tax law in exchange for an amount equal to the gross receipts or other value used under foreign law to determine the amount of the items of foreign gross income arising from the foreign law disposition in the U.S. taxable year in which the taxpayer paid or accrued the foreign income tax. For example, an item of foreign gross income that results from a deemed disposition of stock under a foreign law mark-to-market regime is assigned under the rules of this paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(C) as though a taxable disposition of the stock occurred under Federal income tax law for an amount equal to the fair market value determined under foreign law for purposes of marking the stock to market. See paragraph (g)(3) of this section (Example 2).

(iii) Foreign gross income of a type that is recognized but excluded from U.S. gross income -

(A) In general. If a taxpayer recognizes an item of foreign gross income that is a type of recognized gross income that Federal income tax law excludes from U.S. gross income, then the item of foreign gross income is assigned to the grouping to which the item of gross income would be assigned if it were included in U.S. gross income. See paragraph (g)(4) of this section (Example 3). Notwithstanding the first sentence of this paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(A), foreign gross income that is attributable to a base difference is assigned under paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(B) of this section.

(B) Base differences. If a taxpayer recognizes an item of foreign gross income that is attributable to a base difference, then the item of foreign gross income is assigned to the residual grouping. But see § 1.904-6(b)(1) (assigning foreign gross income attributable to a base difference to foreign source income in the separate category described in section 904(d)(2)(H)(i)) for purposes of applying section 904 as the operative section). An item of foreign gross income is attributable to a base difference under this paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(B) only if the item results from the receipt of one of the following items:

(1) Death benefits described in section 101;

(2) Gifts and inheritances described in section 102;

(3) Contributions to capital described in section 118;

(4) Money or other property in exchange for stock described in section 1032 (including by reason of a transfer described in section 351(a)); or

(5) Money or other property in exchange for a partnership interest described in section 721.

(3) Special rules for assigning certain items of foreign gross income to a statutory or residual grouping -

(i) Items of foreign gross income that a taxpayer includes by reason of its ownership of an interest in a corporation -

(A) Scope. The rules of this paragraph (d)(3)(i) apply to characterize and assign to a statutory or residual grouping an item of foreign gross income that a taxpayer includes in foreign taxable income as a result of its ownership of an interest in a corporation with respect to which there is a distribution under both foreign and Federal income tax law or an inclusion of foreign law pass-through income.

(B) Foreign gross income items arising from a distribution with respect to a corporation -

(1) In general. If there is a distribution by a corporation that is treated as a distribution of property for both foreign law and Federal income tax purposes, a taxpayer first applies the rules of paragraph (d)(3)(i)(B)(2) of this section, and then (if necessary) applies the rules of paragraph (d)(3)(i)(B)(3) of this section to characterize and assign to the statutory and residual groupings the items of foreign gross income that constitute the foreign dividend amount and the foreign capital gain amount, if any, that arise from the distribution. See paragraph (g)(5) of this section (Example 4). For purposes of this paragraph (d)(3)(i)(B), the U.S. dividend amount, U.S. capital gain amount, and U.S. return of capital amount that result from a distribution (including a distribution that occurs on the same date, but in different taxable years, for foreign law purposes and Federal income tax purposes) are computed on the date the distribution occurred for Federal income tax purposes. See paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(B) of this section for rules for assigning foreign gross income arising from any portion of a distribution that is a foreign law distribution. See § 1.960-1(d)(3)(ii) for rules for assigning foreign gross income arising from a distribution described in this paragraph (d)(3)(i)(B) to income groups or PTEP groups for purposes of section 960 as the operative section.

(2) Foreign dividend amounts. The foreign dividend amount is, to the extent of the U.S. dividend amount, assigned to the same statutory and residual grouping (or ratably to the groupings) from which a distribution of the U.S. dividend amount is made under Federal income tax law. If the foreign dividend amount exceeds the U.S. dividend amount, the excess foreign dividend amount is an item of foreign gross income that is, to the extent of the U.S. return of capital amount, assigned to the same statutory and residual grouping (or ratably to the groupings) to which earnings equal to the U.S. return of capital amount would be assigned if they were recognized for Federal income tax purposes in the U.S. taxable year in which the distribution is made. These earnings are deemed to arise in the statutory and residual groupings in the same proportions as the proportions in which the tax book value of the stock of the distributing corporation is (or would be if the taxpayer were a United States person) assigned to the groupings under the asset method in § 1.861-9 in the U.S. taxable year in which the distribution is made. Any additional excess of the foreign dividend amount over the sum of the U.S. dividend amount and the U.S. return of capital amount is an item of foreign gross income that is assigned to the statutory or residual grouping (or ratably to the groupings) to which the U.S. capital gain amount is assigned.

(3) Foreign capital gain amounts. The foreign capital gain amount is, to the extent of the U.S. capital gain amount, assigned to the statutory and residual groupings to which the U.S. capital gain amount is assigned under Federal income tax law. If the foreign capital gain amount exceeds the U.S. capital gain amount, the excess is, to the extent of the U.S. return of capital amount, assigned to the statutory and residual groupings to which earnings equal to the U.S. return of capital amount would be assigned if they were recognized in the U.S. taxable year in which the distribution is made. These earnings are deemed to arise in the statutory and residual groupings in the same proportions as the proportions in which the tax book value of the stock of the distributing corporation is (or would be if the taxpayer were a United States person) assigned under the asset method in § 1.861-9 in the U.S. taxable year in which the distribution is made. Any excess of the foreign capital gain amount over the sum of the U.S. capital gain amount and the U.S. return of capital amount is assigned ratably to the statutory and residual groupings to which the U.S. dividend amount is assigned.

(C) Foreign law pass-through income from a reverse hybrid. An item of foreign law pass-through income that a taxpayer includes in its foreign taxable income as a result of its direct or indirect ownership of a reverse hybrid is assigned to a statutory or residual grouping by treating the taxpayer's items of foreign law pass-through income as the foreign gross income of the reverse hybrid, and applying the rules in this paragraph (d) by treating the reverse hybrid as the taxpayer in the reverse hybrid's U.S. taxable year with or within which its foreign taxable year (under the law of the foreign jurisdiction imposing the owner-level tax) ends. See § 1.904-6(f) for special rules that apply for purposes of section 904 with respect to items of foreign gross income that under this paragraph (d)(3)(iii) would be assigned to a separate category that includes income that gives rise to inclusions under section 951A.

(ii) [Reserved]

(iii) Foreign law inclusion regime income. A gross item of foreign law inclusion regime income that a taxpayer includes in its capacity as a shareholder under foreign law of a foreign law CFC under a foreign law inclusion regime is assigned to the same statutory and residual groupings as the item of foreign gross income of the foreign law CFC that gives rise to the item of foreign law inclusion regime income of the taxpayer. The assignment is made by treating the gross items of foreign law inclusion regime income of the taxpayer as the items of foreign gross income of the foreign law CFC and applying the rules in this paragraph (d) by treating the foreign law CFC as the taxpayer in its U.S. taxable year with or within which its foreign taxable year (under the law of the foreign jurisdiction imposing the shareholder-level tax) ends. See paragraphs (g)(7) and (8) of this section (Examples 6 and 7). See § 1.904-6(f) for special rules with respect to items of foreign gross income relating to items of the foreign law CFC that give rise to inclusions under section 951A for purposes of applying section 904 as the operative section.

(iv) Gain on sale of disregarded entity. An item of foreign gross income arising from gain recognized on the sale, exchange, or other disposition of a disregarded entity that is characterized as a disposition of assets for Federal income tax purposes is assigned to statutory and residual groupings in the same proportion as the gain that would be treated as foreign gross income in each grouping if the transaction were treated as a disposition of assets for foreign tax law purposes. See paragraph (g)(9) of this section (Example 8).

(e) Allocating and apportioning deductions (allowed under foreign law) to foreign gross income in a grouping -

(1) Application of foreign law expense allocation rules. In order to determine foreign taxable income in each statutory grouping, or the residual grouping, foreign gross income in each grouping is reduced by deducting any expenses, losses, or other amounts that are deductible under foreign law that are specifically allocable to the items of foreign gross income in the grouping under the laws of that foreign country. If expenses are not specifically allocated under foreign law, then the expenses are allocated and apportioned among the groupings under the principles of foreign law. Thus, for example, if foreign law provides that expenses will be apportioned on a gross income basis, the foreign law deductions are apportioned on the basis of the relative amounts of foreign gross income assigned to each grouping.

(2) Application of U.S. expense allocation rules in the absence of foreign law rules. If foreign law does not provide rules for the allocation or apportionment of expenses, losses or other deductions to particular items of foreign gross income, then the principles of the section 861 regulations (as defined in § 1.861-8(a)(1)) apply in allocating and apportioning such expenses, losses, or other deductions to foreign gross income. For example, in the absence of foreign law expense allocation rules, the principles of the section 861 regulations apply to allocate definitely related expenses to particular categories of foreign gross income and provide the methods for apportioning foreign law expenses that are definitely related to more than one statutory grouping or that are not definitely related to any statutory grouping. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(2), the apportionment of expenses required to be made under the principles of the section 861 regulations need not be made on other than a separate company basis. If the taxpayer applies the principles of the section 861 regulations for purposes of allocating foreign law deductions under this paragraph (e), the taxpayer must apply the principles in the same manner as the taxpayer applies such principles in determining the income or earnings and profits for Federal income tax purposes of the taxpayer (or of the foreign branch, controlled foreign corporation, or other entity that paid or accrued the foreign taxes, as the case may be). For example, a taxpayer must use the modified gross income method under § 1.861-9T when applying the principles of that section for purposes of this paragraph (e) to determine the amount of foreign taxable income in each grouping if the taxpayer applies the modified gross income method in determining the income and earnings and profits of a controlled foreign corporation for Federal income tax purposes.

(f) Allocation and apportionment of foreign income tax. Foreign income tax is allocated to the statutory or residual grouping or groupings to which the items of foreign gross income are assigned under the rules of paragraph (d) of this section. If foreign gross income is assigned to more than one grouping, then the foreign income tax is apportioned among the statutory and residual groupings by multiplying the foreign income tax by a fraction, the numerator of which is the foreign taxable income in a grouping and the denominator of which is all foreign taxable income on which the foreign income tax is imposed. If foreign law, including by reason of an income tax convention, exempts certain types of income from tax, or if foreign taxable income is reduced to or below zero by foreign law deductions, then no foreign income tax is allocated and apportioned to that income. A withholding tax (as defined in section 901(k)(1)(B)) is allocated and apportioned to the foreign gross income from which it is withheld. If foreign law, including by reason of an income tax convention, provides for a specific rate of tax with respect to certain types of income (for example, capital gains), or allows credits only against tax on particular items or types of income (for example, credit for foreign withholding taxes), then such provisions are taken into account in determining the amount of foreign tax imposed on such foreign taxable income.

(g) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this section and § 1.904-6.

(1) Presumed facts. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (g), the following facts are assumed for purposes of the examples in paragraphs (g)(2) through (9) of this section:

(i) USP and US2 are domestic corporations, which are unrelated;

(ii) USP elects to claim a foreign tax credit under section 901;

(iii) CFC, CFC1, and CFC2 are controlled foreign corporations organized in Country A, and are not reverse hybrids;

(iv) All parties have a U.S. dollar functional currency and a U.S. taxable year and foreign taxable year that correspond to the calendar year;

(v) No party has expenses for Country A tax purposes or expenses for U.S. tax purposes (other than foreign income tax expense); and

(vi) Section 904 is the operative section, and terms have the meaning provided in this section or §§ 1.904-4 and 1.904-5.

(2) Example 1: Corresponding U.S. item -

(i) Facts. USP conducts business in Country A that gives rise to a foreign branch (as defined in § 1.904-4(f)(3)). In Year 1, in a transaction that is a sale for purposes of the laws of Country A and Federal income tax law, the foreign branch transfers Asset X to US2 for $1,000x. For Country A tax purposes, USP earns $600x of gross income from the sale of Asset X and incurs foreign income tax of $80x. For Federal income tax purposes, USP earns $800x of foreign branch category income from the sale of Asset X.

(ii) Analysis. For purposes of allocating and apportioning the $80x of Country A foreign income tax, the $600x of Country A gross income from the sale of Asset X is first assigned to separate categories. The $800x of foreign branch category income from the sale of Asset X is the corresponding U.S. item to the Country A item of gross income. Under paragraph (d)(1) of this section, because USP recognizes a corresponding U.S. item with respect to the Country A item of gross income in the same U.S. taxable year, the $600x of Country A gross income is assigned to the same separate category as the corresponding U.S. item. This is the case even though the amount of gross income recognized for Federal income tax purposes differs from the amount recognized for Country A tax purposes. Accordingly, the $600x of Country A gross income is assigned to the foreign branch category. Additionally, because all of the Country A taxable income is assigned to a single separate category, the $80x of Country A tax is also allocated to the foreign branch category. No apportionment of the $80x is necessary because the class of gross income to which the tax is allocated consists entirely of a single statutory grouping, foreign branch category income.

(3) Example 2: Foreign law disposition -

(i) Facts. USP owns all of the outstanding stock of CFC, which conducts business in Country A. CFC sells Asset X for $1,000x. For Country A tax purposes, CFC's basis in Asset X is $600x, the sale of Asset X occurs in Year 1, and CFC recognizes $400x of foreign gross income and incurs $80x of foreign income tax. For Federal income tax purposes, CFC's basis in Asset X is $500x, the sale of Asset X occurs in Year 2, and CFC recognizes $500x of general category income.

(ii) Analysis. For purposes of allocating and apportioning the $80x of Country A foreign income tax in Year 1, the $400x of Country A gross income from the sale of Asset X is first assigned to separate categories. There is no corresponding U.S. item because the sale occurs on a different date and in a different U.S. taxable year for U.S. and foreign tax purposes. Under paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(C) of this section, the item of foreign gross income (the $400x from the sale of Asset X) is characterized and assigned to the groupings to which the corresponding U.S. item would be assigned if for Federal income tax purposes Asset X were sold for $1,000x in Year 1, the same U.S. taxable year in which the foreign income tax accrued. This is the case even though the amount of gross income that would be recognized for Federal income tax purposes differs from the amount recognized for Country A tax purposes. Accordingly, the $400x of Country A gross income is assigned to the general category. Additionally, because all of the Country A taxable income is assigned to a single separate category, the $80x of Country A tax is also allocated to the general category. No apportionment of the $80x is necessary because the class of gross income to which the deduction is allocated consists entirely of a single statutory grouping, general category income.

(4) Example 3: Foreign gross income excluded from U.S. gross income -

(i) Facts. USP conducts business in Country A. In Year 1, USP earns $200x of interest income on a State or local bond. For Country A tax purposes, the $200x of income is included in gross income and incurs $10x of foreign income tax. For Federal income tax purposes, the $200x is excluded from gross income under section 103.

(ii) Analysis. For purposes of allocating and apportioning the $10x of Country A foreign income tax, the $200x of Country A gross income is first assigned to separate categories. There is no corresponding U.S. item because the interest income is excluded from U.S. gross income. Thus, the rules of paragraph (d)(2) of this section apply to characterize and assign the foreign gross income to the groupings to which a corresponding U.S. item would be assigned if it were recognized under Federal income tax law in that U.S. taxable year. The interest income is excluded from U.S. gross income but is otherwise described or identified by section 103. Accordingly, under paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(A) of this section, the $200x of Country A gross income is assigned to the separate category to which the interest income would be assigned under Federal income tax law if the income were included in gross income. Under section 904(d)(2)(B)(i), the interest income would be passive category income. Accordingly, the $200x of Country A gross income is assigned to the passive category. Additionally, because all of the Country A taxable income is assigned to a single separate category, the $10x of Country A tax is also allocated to the passive category (subject to the rules in § 1.904-4(c)). No apportionment of the $10x is necessary because the class of gross income to which the deduction is allocated consists entirely of a single statutory grouping, passive category income.

(5) Example 4: Actual distribution -

(1) Facts. USP owns all of the outstanding stock of CFC1, which in turn owns all of the outstanding stock of CFC2. CFC1 and CFC2 conduct business in Country A. In Year 1, CFC2 distributes $300x to CFC1. For Country A tax purposes, $100x of the distribution is the foreign dividend amount, $160x is treated as a nontaxable return of capital, and the remaining $40x is the foreign capital gain amount. CFC1 incurs $20x of foreign income tax with respect to the foreign dividend amount and $4x of foreign income tax with respect to the foreign capital gain amount. The $20x and $4x of foreign income tax are each a separate levy within the meaning of § 1.901-2(d). For Federal income tax purposes, $150x of the distribution is the U.S. dividend amount, $100x is the U.S. return of capital amount, and the remaining $50x is the U.S. capital gain amount. Under section 904(d)(3)(D) and §§ 1.904-4(d) and 1.904-5(c)(4), the $150x of U.S. dividend amount consists solely of general category income in the hands of CFC1. Under section 904(d)(2)(B)(i) and § 1.904-4(b)(2)(i)(A), the $50x of U.S. capital gain amount is passive category income to CFC1.

(ii) Analysis -

(A) In general. Because the $20x of Country A foreign income tax and the $4x of Country A foreign income tax are separate levies, the taxes are allocated and apportioned separately. For purposes of allocating and apportioning each foreign income tax, the relevant item of Country A gross income (the foreign dividend amount or foreign capital gain amount) is first assigned to separate categories. The U.S. dividend amount and U.S. capital gain amount are corresponding U.S. items. However, paragraph (d)(3)(i)(B) of this section (and not paragraph (d)(1) of this section) applies to assign the items of foreign gross income arising from the distribution.

(B) Foreign dividend amount. Under paragraph (d)(3)(i)(B)(2) of this section, the foreign dividend amount ($100x) is, to the extent of the U.S. dividend amount ($150x), assigned to the same separate category from which the distribution of the U.S. dividend amount is made under Federal income tax law. Thus, $100x of foreign gross income that is the foreign dividend amount is assigned to the general category. Additionally, because all of the Country A taxable income included in the base on which the $20x of foreign income tax is imposed is assigned to a single separate category, the $20x of Country A tax on the foreign dividend amount is also allocated to the general category. No apportionment of the $20x is necessary because the class of gross income to which the deduction for foreign income tax is allocated consists entirely of a single statutory grouping, general category income. See also section 245A(d) for rules that may apply to disallow a credit or deduction for certain foreign taxes.

(C) Foreign capital gain amount. Under paragraph (d)(3)(i)(B)(3) of this section, the foreign capital gain amount ($40x) is, to the extent of the U.S. capital gain amount ($50x), assigned to the same separate category to which the U.S. capital gain is assigned under Federal income tax law. Thus, the $40x of foreign gross income that is the foreign capital gain amount is assigned to the passive category. Additionally, because all of the Country A taxable income in the base on which the $4x of foreign income tax is imposed is assigned to a single separate category, the $4x of Country A tax on the foreign dividend amount is also allocated to the passive category. No apportionment of the $4x is necessary because the class of gross income to which the deduction is allocated consists entirely of a single statutory grouping, passive category income.

(6) Example 5: Foreign law distribution -

(i) Facts. USP owns all of the outstanding stock of CFC. In Year 1, for Country A tax purposes, CFC distributes $1,000x of its stock that is treated entirely as a dividend to USP, and Country A imposes a withholding tax on USP of $150x with respect to the $1,000x of foreign gross income. For Federal income tax purposes, the distribution is treated as a stock dividend described in section 305(a) and USP recognizes no U.S. gross income. At the time of the distribution, CFC has $800x of section 965(a) PTEP (as defined in § 1.960-3(c)(2)(vi)) in a single annual PTEP account (as defined in § 1.960-3(c)(1)), and $500x of earnings and profits described in section 959(c)(3). Section 965(g) is the operative section for purposes of this paragraph (g)(6). See § 1.965-5(b)(2). Section 904 is also a relevant operative section, but is not addressed in this paragraph (g)(6).

(ii) Analysis. For purposes of allocating and apportioning the $150x of Country A foreign income tax, the $1,000x of Country A gross income is first assigned to the relevant statutory and residual groupings for purposes of applying section 965(g) as the operative section. Under § 1.965-5(b)(2), the statutory grouping is the portion of the distribution that is attributable to section 965(a) previously taxed earnings and profits and the residual grouping is the portion of the distribution attributable to other earnings and profits. There is no corresponding U.S. item because under section 305(a) USP recognizes no U.S. gross income with respect to the distribution. Under paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(B) of this section, the item of foreign gross income (the $1,000x distribution) is assigned under the rules of paragraph (d)(3)(i)(B) of this section to the same statutory or residual groupings to which the foreign gross income would be assigned if a distribution of the same amount were made for Federal income tax purposes in Year 1 on the date the distribution occurs for foreign law purposes. If recognized for Federal income tax purposes, a $1,000x distribution in Year 1 would result in a U.S. dividend amount of $1,000x. Under paragraph (d)(3)(i)(B)(2) of this section, the foreign dividend amount ($1,000x) is, to the extent of the U.S. dividend amount ($1,000x), assigned to the same statutory or residual groupings from which a distribution of the U.S. dividend amount would be made under Federal income tax law. Thus, $800x of foreign gross income related to the foreign dividend amount is assigned to the statutory grouping for the portion of the distribution attributable to section 965(a) previously taxed earnings and profits and $200x of foreign gross income is assigned to the residual grouping. Under paragraph (f) of this section, $120x ($150x × $800x/$1,000x) of the Country A foreign income tax is apportioned to the statutory grouping and $30x ($150x × $200x/$1,000x) of the Country A foreign income tax is apportioned to the residual grouping. See section 965(g)(2) and § 1.965-5(b) for application of the applicable percentage (as defined in § 1.965-5(d)) to the foreign income tax allocated and apportioned to the statutory grouping.

(7) Example 6: Foreign law inclusion regime, CFC shareholder -

(i) Facts. USP owns all of the outstanding stock of CFC1, which in turn owns all of the outstanding stock of CFC2. CFC2 is organized and conducts business in Country B. Country A has a foreign law inclusion regime that imposes a tax on CFC1 for certain earnings of CFC2, a foreign law CFC. In Year 1, CFC2 earns $400x of interest income and $200x of royalty income. CFC2 incurs no foreign income tax. For Country A tax purposes, the $400x of interest income and $200x of royalty income are each an item of foreign law inclusion regime income of CFC2 that are included in the gross income of CFC1. CFC1 incurs $150x of Country A foreign income tax with respect to the foreign law inclusion regime income. For Federal income tax purposes, with respect to CFC2, the $400x of interest income is passive category income under section 904(d)(2)(B)(i) and the $200x of royalty income is general category income under § 1.904-4(b)(2)(iii).

(ii) Analysis. For purposes of allocating and apportioning CFC1's $150x of Country A foreign income tax, the $600x of Country A gross income is first assigned to separate categories. The $600x of foreign gross income is not included in the U.S. gross income of CFC1, and thus, there is no corresponding U.S. item. Under paragraph (d)(3)(iii) of this section, each item of foreign law inclusion regime income that is included in CFC1's foreign gross income is assigned to the same separate category as the items of foreign gross income of CFC2 that give rise to the foreign law inclusion regime income of CFC1. With respect to CFC2, the $400x of interest income and the $200x of royalty income would be corresponding U.S. items if CFC2 were the taxpayer. Accordingly, $400x of CFC1's foreign gross income is assigned to the passive category and $200x of CFC1's foreign gross income is assigned to the general category. Under paragraph (f) of this section, $100x ($150x × $400x/$600x) of the Country A foreign income tax is apportioned to the passive category and $50x ($150x × $200x/$600x) of the Country A foreign income tax is apportioned to the general category.

(8) Example 7: Foreign law inclusion regime, U.S. shareholder -

(i) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (g)(7)(i) of this section (the facts in Example 6), except that both CFC1 and CFC2 are organized and conduct business in Country B, all of the outstanding stock of CFC1 is owned by Individual X, a U.S. citizen resident in Country A, and Country A imposes tax of $150x on foreign gross income of $600x under its foreign law inclusion regime on Individual X, rather than on CFC1. For Federal income tax purposes, in the hands of CFC2, the $400x of interest income is passive category subpart F income and the $200x of royalty income is general category tested income (as defined in § 1.951A-2(b)(1)). CFC2's $400x of interest income gives rise to a passive category subpart F inclusion under section 951(a)(1)(A), and its $200x of tested income gives rise to a GILTI inclusion amount (as defined in § 1.951A-1(c)(1)) of $200x, with respect to Individual X.

(ii) Analysis. The analysis is the same as in paragraph (g)(7)(ii) of this section (the analysis in Example 6) except that under § 1.904-6(f), because $50x of the Country A foreign income tax is allocated and apportioned under paragraph (d)(3)(iii) of this section to CFC2's general category tested income group to which Individual X's inclusion under section 951A is attributable, the $50x of Country A foreign income tax is allocated and apportioned in the hands of Individual X to the section 951A category.

(9) Example 8: Sale of disregarded entity -

(i) Facts. USP sells FDE, a disregarded entity that is organized and operates a trade or business in Country A, for $500x. FDE owns Asset X and Asset Y in Country A, each having a fair market value of $250x. For Country A tax purposes, FDE has a basis in Asset X of $100x and a basis in Asset Y of $200x, USP's basis in FDE is $100x, and the sale is treated as a sale of stock. Country A imposes foreign income tax of $40x on USP on the Country A gross income of $400x resulting from the sale of FDE, based on its rules for taxing capital gains of nonresidents selling stock of companies operating a trade or business in Country A. For Federal income tax purposes, USP has a basis of $150x in each of Assets X and Y, and so the sale of FDE results in $100x of passive category income with respect to the sale of Asset X and $100x of general category income with respect to the sale of Asset Y.

(ii) Analysis. For purposes of allocating and apportioning USP's $40x of Country A foreign income tax, the $400x of Country A gross income resulting from the sale of FDE is first assigned to separate categories. Under paragraph (d)(3)(iv) of this section, USP's $400x of Country A gross income is assigned among the statutory groupings in the same percentages as the foreign gross income in each grouping that would have resulted if the sale of FDE were treated as an asset sale for Country A tax purposes. Because for Country A tax purposes Asset X had a built-in gain of $150x and Asset Y had a built-in gain of $50x, $300x ($400x × $150x/$200x) of the Country A gross income is assigned to the passive category and $100x ($400x × $50x/$200x) is assigned to the general category. Under paragraph (f) of this section, $30x ($40x × $300x/$400x) of the Country A foreign income tax is apportioned to the passive category, and $10x ($40x × $100x/$400x) of the Country A foreign income tax is apportioned to the general category.

(h) [Reserved]

(i) Applicability date. This section applies to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2019.

[T.D. 9922, 85 FR 72049, Nov. 12, 2020]