26 CFR § 1.863-3 - Allocation and apportionment of income from certain sales of inventory.

§ 1.863-3 Allocation and apportionment of income from certain sales of inventory.

(a) In general -

(1) Scope. Subject to the rules of § 1.865-3, paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section apply to determine the source of income derived from the sale of inventory property (inventory) that a taxpayer produces (in whole or in part) within the United States and sells without the United States, or that a taxpayer produces (in whole or in part) without the United States and sells within the United States (collectively, Section 863(b)(2) Sales). See section 865(i)(1) for the definition of inventory. Paragraph (b) of this section provides that the source of gross income from Section 863(b)(2) Sales is based solely on the production activities with respect to the inventory. Paragraph (c) of this section describes how to determine source based on production activity, including when inventory is produced partly within the United States and partly without the United States. Paragraph (d) of this section determines taxable income from Section 863(b)(2) Sales. Paragraph (e) of this section applies to determine the source of certain income derived from a possession of the United States. Paragraph (f) of this section provides special rules for partnerships for all sales subject to §§ 1.863-1 through 1.863-3. Paragraph (g) of this section provides applicability dates for the rules in this section.

(2) Cross references. To determine the source of income derived from the sale of personal property (including inventory) by a nonresident that is attributable to the nonresident's office or other fixed place of business in the United States under section 865(e)(2) and § 1.865-3(c), the rules of § 1.865-3 apply, and the rules of this section do not apply except to the extent provided in § 1.865-3. To determine the source of income from sales of property produced by the taxpayer, when the property is either produced in whole or in part in space, as defined in § 1.863-8(d)(1)(i), or international water, as defined in § 1.863-8(d)(1)(ii), or is sold in space or international water, the rules of § 1.863-8 apply, and the rules of this section do not apply except to the extent provided in § 1.863-8.

(b) Sourcing based solely on production activities. Subject to the rules of § 1.865-3, all income, gain, or loss derived from Section 863(b)(2) Sales is allocated and apportioned solely on the basis of the production activities with respect to the inventory.

(c) Determination of the source of gross income from production activity -

(1) Production only within the United States or only within foreign countries -

(i) Source of income. For purposes of this section, production activity means an activity that creates, fabricates, manufactures, extracts, processes, cures, or ages inventory. See § 1.864-1. Whether a taxpayer's activities constitute production activity is determined under the principles of § 1.954-3(a)(4) (except for § 1.954-3(a)(4)(iv)). Subject to the provisions in § 1.1502-13 or paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section, the only production activities that are taken into account for purposes of §§ 1.863-1, 1.863-2, and this section are those conducted directly by the taxpayer. Where the taxpayer's production assets are located only within the United States or only outside the United States, gross income is sourced where the taxpayer's production assets are located. For rules regarding the source of income when production assets are located both within the United States and without the United States, see paragraph (c)(2) of this section. For rules regarding the source of income when production takes place, in whole or in part, in space or international water, the rules of § 1.863-8 apply, and the rules of this section do not apply except to the extent provided in § 1.863-8.

(ii) Definition of production assets. Subject to the provisions of § 1.1502-13 and paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section, production assets include only tangible and intangible assets owned directly by the taxpayer that are directly used by the taxpayer to produce inventory described in paragraph (a) of this section. Production assets do not include assets that are not directly used to produce inventory described in paragraph (a) of this section. Thus, production assets do not include such assets as accounts receivables, intangibles not related to production of inventory (e.g., marketing intangibles, including trademarks and customer lists), transportation assets, warehouses, the inventory itself, raw materials, or work-in-process. In addition, production assets do not include cash or other liquid assets (including working capital), investment assets, prepaid expenses, or stock of a subsidiary.

(iii) Location of production assets. For purposes of this section, a tangible production asset will be considered located where the asset is physically located. An intangible production asset will be considered located where the tangible production assets owned by the taxpayer to which it relates are located.

(2) Production both within and without the United States - (i) Source of income. Where the taxpayer's production assets are located both within and without the United States, income from sources without the United States will be determined by multiplying the gross income by a fraction, the numerator of which is the average adjusted basis of production assets that are located outside the United States and the denominator of which is the average adjusted basis of all production assets within and without the United States. The remaining income is treated as from sources within the United States.

(ii) Adjusted basis of production assets -

(A) In general. For purposes of paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, the adjusted basis of an asset is determined by using the alternative depreciation system under section 168(g)(2). The adjusted basis of all production assets for purposes of paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section is determined as though the production assets were subject to the alternative depreciation system set forth in section 168(g)(2) for the entire period that such property has been in service. The adjusted basis of the production assets is determined without regard to the election to expense certain depreciable assets under section 179 and without regard to any additional first-year depreciation provision (for example, section 168(k), (l), and (m), and former sections 1400L(b) and 1400N(d)). The average adjusted basis of assets is computed by averaging the adjusted basis at the beginning and end of the taxable year, unless by reason of changes during the taxable year, as might be the case in the event of a major acquisition or disposition of assets, the average would materially distort the calculation in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section. In this event, the average adjusted basis is determined upon a more appropriate basis that is weighted to reasonably reflect the period for which the assets are held by the taxpayer during the taxable year.

(B) Production assets used to produce other property. If a production asset is used to produce inventory sold in Section 863(b)(2) Sales and also used to produce other property during the taxable year, the portion of its adjusted basis that is included in the fraction described in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section will be determined under any method that reasonably reflects the portion of the asset that produces inventory sold in Section 863(b)(2) Sales. For example, the portion of such an asset that is included in the formula may be determined by multiplying the asset's average adjusted basis by a fraction, the numerator of which is the gross receipts from sales of inventory from Section 863(b)(2) Sales produced by the asset, and the denominator of which is the gross receipts from all property produced by that asset.

(3) Anti-abuse rule. The purpose of paragraph (b) of this section and this paragraph (c) is to attribute the source of the taxpayer's gross income from certain sales of inventory property to the location of the taxpayer's production activity. Therefore, if the taxpayer has entered into or structured one or more transactions with a principal purpose of reducing its U.S. tax liability in a manner inconsistent with the purpose of paragraph (b) of this section or this paragraph (c), the Commissioner may make appropriate adjustments so that the source of the taxpayer's gross income more clearly reflects the location of production activity. For example, a taxpayer may be subject to the rule in this paragraph (c)(3) if domestic production assets are acquired by a related partnership (or a subsidiary of a related partnership) with a principal purpose of reducing its U.S. tax liability by claiming that the taxpayer's income from sales of inventory is subject to section 862(a)(6) rather than section 863(b).

(4) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this paragraph (c):

(i) Example 1. Source of gross income -

(A) Facts. A, a U.S. corporation, produces widgets that are sold both within the United States and within a foreign country. The initial manufacture of all widgets occurs in the United States. The second stage of production of widgets that are sold within a foreign country is completed within the country of sale. A's U.S. plant and machinery which is involved in the initial manufacture of the widgets has an average adjusted basis of $200, as determined using the alternative depreciation system under section 168(g)(2). A also owns warehouses used to store work-in-process. A owns foreign equipment with an average adjusted basis of $25. A's gross receipts from all sales of widgets is $100, and its gross receipts from export sales of widgets is $25. Assume that apportioning average adjusted basis using gross receipts is reasonable. Assume A's cost of goods sold from the sale of widgets in the foreign countries is $13 and thus, its gross income from widgets sold in foreign countries is $12.

(B) Analysis. A determines its gross income from sources without the United States by multiplying A's $12 of gross income from sales of widgets in foreign countries by a fraction, the numerator of which is all relevant foreign production assets, or $25, and the denominator of which is all relevant production assets, or $75 ($25 foreign assets + ($200 U.S. assets × $25 gross receipts from export sales/$100 gross receipts from all sales)). Therefore, A's gross income from sources without the United States is $4 ($12 × ($25/$75)).

(ii) Example 2. Location of intangible property. Assume the same facts as in paragraph (c)(4)(i)(A) of this section (the facts in Example 1), except that A employs a patented process that applies only to the initial production of widgets. In computing the formula used to determine the source of gross income, A's patent, if it has an average adjusted basis, would be located in the United States.

(iii) Example 3. Anti-abuse rule -

(A) Facts. Assume the same facts as in paragraph (c)(4)(i)(A) of this section (the facts in Example 1). A sells its U.S. assets to B, an unrelated U.S. corporation, with a principal purpose of reducing its U.S. tax liability by manipulating the property fraction. A then leases these assets from B. After this transaction, under the general rule of paragraph (c)(2) of this section, all of A's gross income would be considered from sources without the United States, because all of A's relevant production assets are located within a foreign country. Since the leased property is not owned by the taxpayer, it is not included in the fraction.

(B) Analysis. Because A has entered into a transaction with a principal purpose of reducing its U.S. tax liability by manipulating the formula described in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, A's income must be adjusted to more clearly reflect the source of that income. In this case, the Commissioner may redetermine the source of A's gross income by ignoring the sale-leaseback transactions.

(d) Determination of source of taxable income. Once the source of gross income has been determined under paragraph (c) of this section, the taxpayer must properly allocate and apportion its expenses, losses, and other deductions to its respective amounts of gross income from sources within and without the United States from its Section 863(b)(2) Sales. See §§ 1.861-8 through 1.861-14T and 1.861-17.

(e) Income partly from sources within a possession of the United States -

(1) In general. This paragraph (e) relates to certain sales that give rise to income, gain, or loss that is treated as derived partly from sources within the United States and partly from sources within a possession of the United States (Section 863 Possession Sales). This paragraph (e) applies to determine the source of income derived from the sale of inventory produced (in whole or in part) by a taxpayer within the United States and sold within a possession of the United States, or produced (in whole or in part) by a taxpayer in a possession of the United States and sold within the United States (collectively, Possession Production Sales). It also applies to determine the source of income derived from the purchase of personal property within a possession of the United States and its sale within the United States (Possession Purchase Sales). A taxpayer subject to this paragraph (e) must apportion gross income from Section 863 Possession Sales under paragraph (e)(2) of this section (in the case of Possession Production Sales) or under paragraph (e)(3) of this section (in the case of Possession Purchase Sales). The source of taxable income from Section 863 Possession Sales is determined under paragraph (d) of this section.

(2) Allocation or apportionment for Possession Production Sales. The source of gross income from Possession Production Sales is determined under the rules of paragraph (c) of this section, except that the term possession of the United States is substituted for foreign country wherever it appears.

(3) Allocation or apportionment for Possession Purchase Sales -

(i) Determination of source of gross income from Possession Purchase Sales. Gross income from Possession Purchase Sales is allocated in its entirety to the taxpayer's business activity, and is then apportioned between sources within the United States and sources within a possession of the United States under paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section.

(ii) Determination of source of gross income from business activity -

(A) Source of gross income. Gross income from the taxpayer's business activity is sourced in the possession in the same proportion that the amount of the taxpayer's business activity for the taxable year within the possession bears to the amount of the taxpayer's business activity for the taxable year both within the possession and outside the possession, with respect to Possession Purchase Sales. The remaining income is sourced in the United States.

(B) Business activity. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(3)(ii), the taxpayer's business activity is equal to the sum of -

(1) The amounts for the taxable period paid for wages, salaries, and other compensation of employees, and other expenses attributable to Possession Purchase Sales (other than amounts that are nondeductible under section 263A, interest, and research and development);

(2) Cost of goods sold attributable to Possession Purchase Sales during the taxable period; and

(3) Possession Purchase Sales for the taxable period.

(C) Location of business activity. For purposes of determining the location of the taxpayer's business activity within a possession, the following rules apply:

(1) Sales activity. Receipts from gross sales will be attributed to a possession in accordance with the principles of § 1.861-7(c).

(2) Cost of goods sold. Payments for cost of goods sold will be properly attributable to gross receipts from sources within the possession only to the extent that the property purchased was manufactured, produced, grown, or extracted in the possession (within the meaning of section 954(d)(1)(A)).

(3) Expenses. Expenses will be attributed to a possession under the rules of §§ 1.861-8 through 1.861-14T.

(4) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section relating to the determination of source of gross income from business activity:

(i) Example 1. Purchase of goods manufactured in possession -

(A) Facts. U.S. Co. purchases in a possession product X for $80 from A. A manufactures X in the possession. Without further production, U.S. Co. sells X in the United States for $100. Assume U.S. Co. has sales and administrative expenses in the possession of $10.

(B) Analysis. To determine the source of U.S. Co.'s gross income, the $100 gross income from sales of X is allocated entirely to U.S. Co.'s business activity. Forty-seven dollars of U.S. Co.'s gross income is sourced in the possession. [Possession expenses ($10) plus possession purchases (i.e., cost of goods sold) ($80) plus possessions sales ($0), divided by total expenses ($10) plus total purchases ($80) plus total sales ($100).] The remaining $53 is sourced in the United States.

(ii) Example 2. Purchase of goods manufactured outside possession -

(A) Facts. Assume the same facts as in paragraph (e)(4)(i)(A) of this section (the facts in Example 1), except that A manufactures X outside the possession.

(B) Analysis. To determine the source of U.S. Co.'s gross income, the $100 gross income is allocated entirely to U.S. Co.'s business activity. Five dollars of U.S. Co.'s gross income is sourced in the possession. [Possession expenses ($10) plus possession purchases ($0) plus possession sales ($0), divided by total expenses ($10) plus total purchases ($80) plus total sales ($100).] The $80 purchase is not included in the numerator used to determine U.S. Co.'s business activity in the possession, since product X was not manufactured in the possession. The remaining $95 is sourced in the United States.

(5) Special rules for partnerships. In applying the rules of this paragraph (e) to transactions involving partners and partnerships, the rules of paragraph (f) of this section apply.

(f) Special rules for partnerships -

(1) General rule. For purposes of § 1.863-1 and this section, a taxpayer's production activity does not include production activities conducted by a partnership of which the taxpayer is a partner either directly or through one or more partnerships, except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (c)(3) or (f)(2) of this section.

(2) Exceptions -

(i) In general. For purposes of determining the source of the partner's distributive share of partnership income or determining the source of the partner's income from the sale of inventory property which the partnership distributes to the partner in kind, the partner's production activity includes an activity conducted by the partnership. In addition, the production activity of a partnership includes the production activity of a taxpayer that is a partner either directly or through one or more partnerships, to the extent that the partner's production activity is related to inventory that the partner contributes to the partnership in a transaction described under section 721.

(ii) Attribution of production assets to or from a partnership. A partner will be treated as owning its proportionate share of the partnership's production assets only to the extent that, under paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section, the partner's activity includes production activity conducted through a partnership. A partner's share of partnership assets will be determined by reference to the partner's distributive share of partnership income for the year attributable to such production assets. Similarly, to the extent a partnership's activities include the production activities of a partner, the partnership will be treated as owning the partner's production assets related to the inventory that is contributed in kind to the partnership. See paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section for rules apportioning the basis of assets to Section 863 Sales.

(iii) Basis. For purposes of this section, in those cases where the partner is treated as owning its proportionate share of the partnership's production assets, the partner's basis in production assets held through a partnership shall be determined by reference to the partnership's adjusted basis in its assets (including a partner's special basis adjustment, if any, under section 743). Similarly, a partnership's basis in a partner's production assets is determined with reference to the partner's adjusted basis in its assets.

(3) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this paragraph (f):

(i) Example 1. Distributive share of partnership income. A, a U.S. corporation, forms a partnership in the United States with B, a country X corporation. A and B each have a 50 percent interest in the income, gains, losses, deductions and credits of the partnership. The partnership is engaged in the manufacture and sale of widgets. The widgets are manufactured in the partnership's plant located in the United States and are sold by the partnership outside the United States. The partnership owns the manufacturing facility and all other production assets used to produce the widgets. A's distributive share of partnership income includes 50 percent of the sales income from these sales. In applying the rules of section 863 to determine the source of its distributive share of partnership income from the export sales of widgets, A is treated as carrying on the activity of the partnership related to production of these widgets and as owning a proportionate share of the partnership's assets related to production of the widgets, based upon its distributive share of partnership income.

(ii) Example 2. Distribution in kind. Assume the same facts as in paragraph (f)(3)(i) of this section (the facts in Example 1) except that the partnership, instead of selling the widgets, distributes the widgets to A and B. A then further processes the widgets and then sells them outside the United States. In determining the source of the income earned by A on the sales outside the United States, A is treated as conducting the activities of the partnership related to production of the distributed widgets. Thus, the source of gross income on the sale of the widgets is determined under section 863 and this section. In applying paragraph (c) of this section, A is treated as owning its proportionate share of the partnership's production assets based upon its distributive share of partnership income.

(g) Applicability dates. This section applies to taxable years ending on or after December 23, 2019. However, a taxpayer may apply this section in its entirety for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, and ending before December 23, 2019, provided that the taxpayer and all persons related to the taxpayer (within the meaning of section 267 or 707) apply this section and §§ 1.863-1(b), 1.863-2(b), 1.863-8(b)(3)(ii), 1.864-5(a) and (b), 1.864-6(c)(2), and 1.865-3 in their entirety for the taxable year, and once applied, the taxpayer and all persons related to the taxpayer (within the meaning of section 267 or 707) continue to apply these regulations in their entirety for all subsequent taxable years. For regulations generally applicable to taxable years ending before December 23, 2019, see § 1.863-3 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 1, 2020.

[T.D. 9921, 85 FR 79846, Dec. 11, 2020]