26 CFR 1.884-5 - Qualified resident.

§ 1.884-5 Qualified resident.

(a)Definition of qualified resident. A foreign corporation is a qualified resident of a foreign country with which the United States has an income tax treaty in effect if, for the taxable year, the foreign corporation is a resident of that country (within the meaning of such treaty) and either -

(1) Meets the requirements of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section (relating to stock ownership and base erosion);

(2) Meets the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section (relating to publicly-traded corporations);

(3) Meets the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section (relating to the conduct of an active trade or business); or

(4) Obtains a ruling as provided in paragraph (f) of this section that it shall be treated as a qualified resident of its country of residence.

(b)Stock ownership requirement -

(1)General rule -

(i)Ownership by qualifying shareholders. A foreign corporation satisfies the stock ownership requirement of this paragraph (b) for the taxable year if more than 50 percent of its stock (by value) is beneficially owned (or is treated as beneficially owned by reason of paragraph (b)(2) of this section) during at least half of the number of days in the foreign corporation's taxable year by one or more qualifying shareholders. A person shall be treated as a qualifying shareholder only if such person meets the requirements of paragraph (b)(3) of this section and is either -

(A) An individual who is either a resident of the foreign country of which the foreign corporation is a resident or a citizen or resident of the United States;

(B) The government of the country of which the foreign corporation is a resident (or a political subdivision or local authority of such country), or the United States, a State, the District of Columbia, or a political subdivision or local authority of a State;

(C) A corporation that is a resident of the foreign country of which the foreign corporation is a resident and whose stock is primarily and regularly traded on an established securities market (within the meaning of paragraph (d) of this section) in that country or the United States or a domestic corporation whose stock is primarily and regularly traded on an established securities market (within the meaning of paragraph (d) of this section) in the United States;

(D) A not-for profit organization described in paragraph (b)(1)(iv) of this section that is not a pension fund as defined in paragraph (b)(8)(i)(A) of this section and that is organized under the laws of the foreign country of which the foreign corporation is a resident or the United States; or

(E) A beneficiary of certain pension funds (as defined in paragraph (b)(8)(i)(A) of this section) administered in or by the country in which the foreign corporation is a resident to the extent provided in paragraph (b)(8) of this section.

Beneficial owners of an association taxable as a corporation shall be treated as shareholders of such association for purposes of this paragraph (b)(1). If stock of a foreign corporation is owned by a corporation that is treated as a qualifying shareholder under paragraph (b)(1)(i)(C) of this section, such stock shall not also be treated as owned, directly or indirectly, by any qualifying shareholders of such corporation for purposes of this paragraph (b). Notwithstanding the above, a foreign corporation will not be treated as a qualified resident unless it obtains the documentation described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section to show that the requirements of this paragraph (b)(1)(i) have been met and maintains the documentation as provided in paragraph (b)(9) of this section. See also paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section, which treats certain publicly-traded classes of stock as owned by qualifying shareholders.

(ii)Special rules relating to qualifying shareholders. For purposes of applying paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section -

(A) Stock owned on any day shall be taken into account only if the beneficial owner is a qualifying shareholder on that day or, in the case of a corporation or not-for-profit organization that is a qualifying shareholder under paragraph (b)(1)(i) (C) or (D) of this section, for a one-year period that includes such day; and

(B) An individual, corporation or not-for-profit organization is a resident of a foreign country if it is a resident of that country for purposes of the income tax treaty between the United States and that country.

(iii)Publicly-traded class of stock treated as owned by qualifying shareholders. A class of stock of a foreign corporation shall be treated as owned by qualifying shareholders if -

(A) The class of stock is listed on an established securities market in the United States or in the country of residence of the foreign corporation seeking qualified resident status; and

(B) The class of stock is primarily and regularly traded on such market (within the meaning of paragraphs (d) (3) and (4) of this section, applied as if the class of stock were the sole class of stock relied on to meet the requirements of paragraph (d)(4)(i)(A)).

For purposes of this paragraph (b), stock in such class shall not also be treated as owned by any qualifying shareholders who own such stock, either directly or indirectly.

(iv)Special rule for not-for-profit organizations. A not-for-profit organization is described in paragraph (b)(1)(iv) of this section if it meets the following requirements -

(A) It is a corporation, association taxable as a corporation, trust, fund, foundation, league or other entity operated exclusively for religious, charitable, educational, or recreational purposes, and it is not organized for profit;

(B) It is generally exempt from tax in its country of organization by virtue of its not-for-profit status; and

(C) Either -

(1) More than 50 percent of its annual support is expended on behalf of persons described in paragraphs (b)(1)(i)(A) through (E) of this section or on qualified residents of the country in which the organization is organized; or

(2) More than 50 percent of its annual support is derived from persons described in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) (A) through (E) of this section or from persons who are qualified residents of the country in which the organization is organized.

For purposes of meeting the requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(iv)(C) of this section, a not-for-profit organization may rely on the addresses of record of its individual beneficiaries and supporters to determine if such persons are resident in the country in which the not-for-profit organization is organized, provided that the addresses of record are not nonresidential addresses such as a post office box or in care of a financial intermediary, and the officers, directors or administrators of the organization do not know or have reason to know that the individual beneficiaries or supporters do not reside at that address.

(2)Rules for determining constructive ownership -

(i)General rules for attribution. For purposes of this section, stock owned by a corporation, partnership, trust, estate, or mutual insurance company or similar entity shall be treated as owned proportionately by its shareholders, partners, beneficiaries, grantors or other interest holders as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) through (v) of this section. The proportionate interest rules of this paragraph (b)(2) shall apply successively upward through a chain of ownership, and a person's proportionate interest shall be computed for the relevant days or period that is taken into account in determining whether a foreign corporation is a qualified resident. Except as otherwise provided, stock treated as owned by a person by reason of this paragraph (b)(2) shall, for purposes of applying this paragraph (b)(2), be treated as actually owned by such person.

(ii)Partnerships. A partner shall be treated as having an interest in stock of a foreign corporation owned by a partnership in proportion to the least of -

(A) The partner's percentage distributive share of the partnership's dividend income from the stock;

(B) The partner's percentage distributive share of gain from disposition of the stock by the partnership;

(C) The partner's percentage distributive share of the stock (or proceeds from the disposition of the stock) upon liquidation of the partnership.

For purposes of this paragraph (b)(2)(ii), however, all qualifying shareholders that are partners of a partnership shall be treated as one partner. Thus, the percentage distributive shares of dividend income, gain and liquidation rights of all qualifying shareholders that are partners in a partnership are aggregated prior to determining the least of the three percentages.

(iii)Trusts and estates -

(A)Beneficiaries. In general, a person shall be treated as having an interest in stock of a foreign corporation owned by a trust or estate in proportion to the person's actuarial interest in the trust or estate, as provided in section 318(a)(2)(B)(i), except that an income beneficiary's actuarial interest in the trust will be determined as if the trust's only asset were the stock. The interest of a remainder beneficiary in stock will be equal to 100 percent minus the sum of the percentages of any interest in the stock held by income beneficiaries. The ownership of an interest in stock owned by a trust shall not be attributed to any beneficiary whose interest cannot be determined under the preceding sentence, and any such interest, to the extent not attributed by reason of this paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(A), shall not be considered owned by a beneficiary unless all potential beneficiaries with respect to the stock are qualifying shareholders. In addition, a beneficiary's actuarial interest will be treated as zero to extent that a grantor is treated as owning the stock under paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(B) of this section. A substantially separate and independent share of a trust, within the meaning of section 663(c), shall be treated as a separate trust for purposes of this paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(A), provided that payment of income, accumulated income or corpus of a share of one beneficiary (or group of beneficiaries) cannot affect the proportionate share of income, accumulated income or corpus of another beneficiary (or group of beneficiaries).

(B)Grantor trusts. A person is treated as the owner of stock of a foreign corporation owned by a trust to the extent that the stock is included in the portion of the trust that is treated as owned by the person under sections 671 to 679 (relating to grantors and others treated as substantial owners).

(iv)Corporations that issue stock. A shareholder of a corporation that issues stock shall be treated as owning stock of a foreign corporation that is owned by such corporation on any day in a proportion that equals the value of the stock owned by such shareholder to the value of all stock of such corporation. If there is an agreement, express or implied, that a shareholder of a corporation will not receive distributions from the earnings of stock owned by the corporation, the shareholder will not be treated as owning that stock owned by the corporation.

(v)Mutual insurance companies and similar entities. Stock held by a mutual insurance company, mutual savings bank, or similar entity (including an association taxable as a corporation that does not issue stock interests) shall be considered owned proportionately by the policy holders, depositors, or other owners in the same proportion that such persons share in the surplus of such entity upon liquidation or dissolution.

(vi)Pension funds. See paragraphs (b)(8) (ii) and (iii) of this section for the attribution of stock owned by a pension fund (as defined in paragraph (b)(8)(i)(A)) to beneficiaries of the fund.

(vii)Examples. The rules of paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section are illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1. Stock held solely by qualifying shareholders through a partnership.
A and B, residents of country X, are qualifying shareholders, within the meaning of paragraphs (b)(1)(i) (A) through (E) of this section, and the sole partners of partnership P. P's only asset is the stock of foreign corporation Z, a country X corporation seeking qualified resident status under this section. A's distributive share of P's income and gain on the disposition of P's assets is 80 percent, but A's distributive share of P's assets (or the proceeds therefrom) on P's liquidation is 20 percent. B's distributive share of P's income and gain is 20 percent and B is entitled to 80 percent of the assets (or proceeds therefrom) on P's liquidation. Under the attribution rules of paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, A and B will be treated as a single partner owning in the aggregate 100 percent of the stock of Z owned by P.
Example 2. Stock held by both qualifying and non-qualifying shareholders through a partnership.
Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that C, an individual who is not a qualifying shareholder, is also a partner in P and that C's distributive share of P's income is 60 percent. The distributive shares of A and B are the same as in Example 1 except that A's distributive share of income is 20 percent. Under the attribution rules of paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, A and B will be treated as a single partner owning in the aggregate 40 percent of the stock of Z owned by P (i.e., the least of A and B's aggregate distributive shares of dividend income (40 percent), gain (100 percent), and liquidation rights (100 percent) with respect to the Z stock).
Example 3. Stock held through tiered partnerships.
Assume the same facts as in Example 1, except that P does not own the stock of Z directly, but rather is a partner in partnership P1, which owns the stock of Z. Assume that P's distributive share of the dividend income, gain and liquidation rights with respect to the Z stock held by P1 is 40 percent. Assume that of the remaining partners of P1 only D is a qualifying shareholder. D's distributive share of P1's dividend income and gain is 15 percent; D's distributive share of P1's assets on liquidation is 25 percent. Under the attribution rules of paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, A and B, treated as a single partner, will own 40 percent of the Z stock owned by P1 (100 percent X 40 percent) and D will be treated as owning 15 percent of the Z stock owned by P1 (the least of D's dividend income (15 percent), gain (15 percent), and liquidation rights (25 percent) with respect to the Z stock). Thus, 55 percent of the Z stock owned by P1 is treated as owned by qualifying shareholders under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section.

(3)Required documentation -

(i)Ownership statements, certificates of residency and intermediary ownership statements. Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(3)(ii), (iii) and (iv) and paragraph (b)(8) of this section, a person shall only be treated as a qualifying shareholder of a foreign corporation if -

(A) For the relevant period, the person completes an ownership statement described in paragraph (b)(4) of this section and, in the case of an individual who is not a U.S. citizen or resident, also obtains a certificate of residency described in paragraph (b)(5) of this section;

(B) In the case of a person owning stock in the foreign corporation indirectly through one or more intermediaries (including mere legal owners or recordholders acting as nominees), each intermediary completes an intermediary ownership statement described in paragraph (b)(6) of this section; and

(C) Such ownership statements and certificates of residency are received by the foreign corporation on or before the earlier of the date it files its income tax return for the taxable year to which the statements relate or the due date (including extensions) for filing such return or, in the case of a foreign corporation claiming treaty benefits under § 1.884-4(b)(8) (i) or (ii) (relating to branch interest) on or before the date on which such interest is paid.

(ii)Substitution of intermediary verification statement for ownership statements and certificates of residency. If a qualifying shareholder owns stock through an intermediary that is either a domestic corporation, a resident of the United States, or a resident (for treaty purposes) of a country with which the United States has an income tax treaty in effect, the intermediary may provide an intermediary verification statement (as described in paragraph (b)(7) of this section) in place of any relevant ownership statements and certificates of residency from qualifying shareholders, and in place of intermediary ownership statements (or, where applicable, intermediary verification statements) from all intermediaries standing in the chain of ownership between the qualifying shareholders and the intermediary issuing the intermediary verification statement. An intermediary verification statement generally certifies that the verifying intermediary holds the documentation described in the preceding sentence and agrees to make it available to the District Director on request. Such intermediary verification statements, along with an intermediary ownership statement from the verifying intermediary, must be received by the foreign corporation on or before the earlier of the date if files its income tax return for the taxable year to which the statements relate or the due date (including extensions) for filing such return. An indirect owner of a foreign corporation is thus treated as a qualifying shareholder of a foreign corporation if the foreign corporation receives, on or before the time specified above, an intermediary verification statement and an intermediary ownership statement from the verifying intermediary and an intermediary ownership statement from all intermediaries standing in the chain of the verifying intermediary's ownership of its interest in the foreign corporation.

(iii)Special rule for registered shareholders of widely-held corporations. An ownership statement and a certificate of residency shall not be required in the case of an individual who is a shareholder of record of a corporation that has at least 250 shareholders if -

(A) The individual owns less than one percent of the stock (by value) (applying the attribution rules of section 318) of the corporation at all times during the taxable year;

(B) The individual's address of record is in the corporation's country of residence and is not a nonresidential address such as a post office box or in care of a financial intermediary or stock transfer agent; and

(C) The officers and directors of the corporation do not know or have reason to know that the individual does not reside at that address.

The rule in this paragraph (b)(3)(iii) may also be applied with respect to individual owners of mutual insurance companies, mutual savings banks or similar entities, provided that the same conditions set forth in this paragraph (b)(3)(iii) are met with respect to such individuals.

(iv)Special rule for pension funds. See paragraphs (b)(8) (ii) through (v) of this section for special documentation rules applicable to pension funds (as defined in paragraph (b)(8)(i)(A) of this section).

(v)Reasonable cause exception. If a foreign corporation does not obtain the documentation described in this paragraph (b)(3) or (b)(8) of this section in a timely manner but is able to show prior to notification of an examination of the return for the taxable year that the failure was due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, the foreign corporation may perfect the documentation after the deadlines specified in this paragraph (b)(3) or (b)(8) of this section. It may make such a showing by providing a written statement to the District Director having jurisdiction over the taxpayer's return or the Office of the Assistant Commissioner (International), as applicable, setting forth the reasons for the failure to obtain the documentation in a timely manner and describing the documentation that was received after the deadline had passed. Whether a failure to obtain the documentation in a timely manner was due to reasonable cause shall be determined by the District Director or the Office of the Assistant Commissioner (International), as applicable, under all the facts and circumstances.

(4)Ownership statements from qualifying shareholders -

(i)Ownership statements from individuals. An ownership statement from an individual is a written statement signed by the individual under penalties of perjury stating -

(A) The name, permanent address, and country of residence of the individual and, if the individual was not a resident of the country for the entire taxable year of the foreign corporation seeking qualified resident status, the period during which it was a resident of the foreign corporation's country of residence;

(B) If the individual is a direct beneficial owner of stock in the foreign corporation, the name of the corporation, the number of shares in each class of stock of the corporation that are so owned, and the period of time during the taxable year of the foreign corporation during which the individual owned the stock (or, in the case of an association taxable as a corporation, the amount and nature of the owner's interest in such association);

(C) If the individual directly owns an interest in a corporation, partnership, trust, estate or other intermediary that owns (directly or indirectly) stock in the foreign corporation, the name of the intermediary, the number and class of shares or amount and nature of the interest of the individual in such intermediary (that is relevant for purposes of attributing ownership in paragraph (b)(2) of this section), and the period of time during the taxable year of the foreign corporation during which the individual held such interest; and

(D) To the extent known by the individual, a description of the chain of ownership through which the individual owns stock in the foreign corporation, including the name and address of each intermediary standing between the intermediary described in paragraph (b)(4)(i)(C) of this section and the foreign corporation.

(ii)Ownership statements from governments. An ownership statement from a government that is a qualifying shareholder is a written statement signed by either -

(A) An official of the governmental authority, agency or office that has supervisory authority with respect to the government's ownership interest who is authorized to sign such a statement on behalf of the authority, agency or office; or

(B) The competent authority of the foreign country (as defined in the income tax treaty between the United States and the foreign country).

Such statement shall provide the title of the official signing the statement and the name and address of the government agency, and shall provide the information described in paragraphs (b)(4)(i) (B) through (D) of this section (substituting “government” for “individual”) with respect to the government's direct or indirect ownership of stock in the foreign corporation seeking qualified resident status.

(iii)Ownership statements from publicly-traded corporations. An ownership statement from a corporation that is a qualifying shareholder under paragraph (b)(1)(i)(C) of this section is a written statement signed by a person authorized to sign a tax return on behalf of the corporation under penalties of perjury stating -

(A) The name, permanent address, and principal place of business of the corporation (if different from its permanent address);

(B) The information described in paragraphs (b)(4)(i) (B) through (D) of this section (substituting “corporation” for “individual”); and

(C) That the corporation's stock is primarily and regularly traded on an established securities exchange (within the meaning of paragraph (d) of this section) in the United States or its country of residence.

(iv)Ownership statements from not-for-profit organizations. An ownership statement from a not-for-profit organization (other than a pension fund as defined in paragraph (b)(8)(i)(A) of this section) is a written statement signed by a person authorized to sign a tax return on behalf of the organization under penalties of perjury stating -

(A) The name, permanent address, and principal location of the activities of the organization (if different from its permanent address);

(B) The information described in paragraphs (b)(4)(i) (B) through (D) of this section (substituting “not-for-profit organization” for “individual”) with respect to the not-for-profit organization's direct or indirect ownership of stock in the foreign corporation seeking qualified resident status; and

(C) That the not-for-profit organization satisfies the requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(iv) of this section.

(v)Ownership through a nominee. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(4) and paragraph (b)(6) of this section, a person who owns either stock in a foreign corporation seeking qualified resident status or an interest in an intermediary described in paragraph (b)(4)(i)(C) of this section through a nominee shall be treated as owning such stock or interest directly and must, therefore, provide the information described in paragraphs (b)(4) (i) through (iv) of this section, as applicable. Such person must also provide the name and address of the nominee.

(5)Certificate of residency. A certificate of residency must be signed by the relevant authorities (as described below) of the country of residence of the individual shareholder and must state that the individual is a resident of that country for purposes of its income tax laws or, if the authorities do not customarily make such a determination, that the individual has filed a tax return claiming resident status and subjecting the individual's income to tax on a resident basis for the taxable year or period that ends with or within the taxable year for which the corporation is seeking qualified resident status. In the case of an individual who is not legally required to file a tax return in his or her country of residence or in any other country, a certificate of residency of a parent or guardian residing at such individual's address shall be considered sufficient to meet that individual's obligation under this paragraph (b)(5). The relevant authorities shall be the competent authority of the foreign country of which the foreign corporation is a resident, as defined in the income tax treaty between the foreign country and the United States, or such other governmental office of the foreign country (or political subdivision thereof) that customarily provides statements of residence. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Commissioner may consult with the competent authority of a country regarding the procedures set forth in this paragraph (b)(5) and if necessary agree on additional or alternative procedures under which these certificates may be issued.

(6)Intermediary ownership statement. An intermediary ownership statement is a written statement signed under penalties of perjury by the intermediary (if the intermediary is an individual) or a person that would be authorized to sign a tax return on behalf of the intermediary (if the intermediary is not an individual) containing the following information:

(i) The name, address, country of residence, and principal place of business (in the case of a corporation or partnership) of the intermediary and, if the intermediary is a trust or estate, the name and permanent address of all trustees or executors (or equivalent under foreign law);

(ii) The information described in paragraphs (b)(4)(i) (B) through (D) (substituting “intermediary making the ownership statement” for “individual”) with respect to the intermediary's direct or indirect ownership in the stock in the foreign corporation seeking qualified resident status;

(iii) If the intermediary is a nominee for a qualifying shareholder or another intermediary, the name and permanent address of the qualifying shareholder, or the name and principal place of business of such other intermediary;

(iv) If the intermediary is not a nominee for a qualifying shareholder or another intermediary, the proportionate interest in the intermediary of each direct shareholder, partner, beneficiary, grantor, or other interest holder (or if the direct holder is a nominee, of its beneficial shareholder, partner, beneficiary, grantor, or other interest holder) from which the intermediary received an ownership statement and the period of time during the taxable year for which the interest in the intermediary was owned by such shareholder, partner, beneficiary, grantor or other interest holder. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(6)(iv), the proportionate interest of a person in an intermediary is the percentage interest (by value) held by such person, determined using the principles for attributing ownership in paragraph (b)(2) of this section. If an intermediary is not required to receive an ownership statement from its individual registered shareholders or other interest holders by reason of paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section, then it must provide a list of the names and addresses of such registered shareholders or other interest holders and the aggregate proportionate interest in the intermediary of such registered shareholders or other interest holders.

(7)Intermediary verification statement. An intermediary verification statement that may be substituted for certain documentation under paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section is a written statement signed under penalties of perjury by the intermediary (if the intermediary is an individual) or by a person that would be authorized to sign a tax return on behalf of the intermediary (if the verifying intermediary is not an individual) containing the following information -

(i) The name, principal place of business, and country of residence of the verifying intermediary;

(ii) A statement that the verifying intermediary has obtained either -

(A) An ownership statement and, if applicable, a certificate of residency from a qualifying shareholder with respect to the foreign corporation seeking qualified resident status, and an intermediary ownership statement from each intermediary standing in the chain of ownership between the verifying intermediary and the qualifying shareholder; or

(B) An intermediary verification statement substituting for the documentation described in paragraph (b)(7)(ii)(A) and an intermediary ownership statement from such intermediary and each intermediary standing in the chain of ownership between such intermediary and the verifying intermediary;

(iii) The proportionate interest (as computed using the documentation described in paragraph (b)(7)(ii) of this section) in the intermediary owned directly or indirectly by qualifying shareholders;

(iv) An agreement to make available to the Commissioner at such time and place as the Commissioner may request the underlying documentation described in paragraph (b)(7)(ii) of this section; and

(v) A specific and valid waiver of any right to bank secrecy or other secrecy under the laws of the country in which the verifying intermediary is located, with respect to any qualifying shareholder ownership statements, certificates of residency, intermediary ownership statements or intermediary verification statements that the verifying intermediary has obtained pursuant to paragraph (b)(7)(ii) of this section.

A foreign corporation may combine, in a single statement, the information in an intermediary ownership statement and the information in an intermediary verification statement.

(8)Special rules for pension funds -

(i)Definitions -

(A)Pension fund. For purposes of this section, the term “pension fund” shall mean a trust, fund, foundation, or other entity that is established exclusively for the benefit of employees or former employees of one or more employers, the principal purpose of which is to provide retirement, disability, and death benefits to beneficiaries of such entity and persons designated by such beneficiaries in consideration for prior services rendered.

(B)Beneficiary. For purposes of this section, the term “beneficiary” of a pension fund shall mean any person who has made contributions to the pension fund, or on whose behalf contributions have been made, and who is currently receiving retirement, disability, or death benefits from the pension fund or can reasonably be expected to receive such benefits in the future, whether or not the person's right to receive benefits from the fund has vested.

(ii)Government pension funds. An individual who is a beneficiary of a pension fund that would be a controlled entity of a foreign sovereign within the principles of § 1.892-2T(c)(1) of the regulations (relating to pension funds established for the benefit of employees or former employees of a foreign government) shall be treated as a qualifying shareholder of a foreign corporation in which the pension fund owns a direct or indirect interest without having to meet the documentation requirements under paragraph (b)(3)(i)(A) of this section, if the foreign corporation is resident in the country of the foreign sovereign and the trustees, directors, or other administrators of the pension fund provide, with the pension fund's intermediary ownership statement described in paragraph (b)(6) of this section, a written statement that the fund is a controlled entity described in this paragraphs (b)(8)(ii). See paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section regarding an ownership statement from a pension fund that is an integral part of a foreign government.

(iii)Non-government pension funds. For purposes of this section, an individual who is a beneficiary of a pension fund not described in paragraph (b)(8)(ii) of this section shall be treated as a qualifying shareholder of a foreign corporation owned directly or indirectly by such pension fund without having to meet the documentation requirements under paragraph (b)(3)(i)(A) of this section, if -

(A) The pension fund is administered in the foreign corporation's country of residence and is subject to supervision or regulation by a governmental authority (or other authority delegated to perform such supervision or regulation by a governmental authority) in such country;

(B) The pension fund is generally exempt from income taxation in its country of administration;

(C) The pension fund has 100 or more beneficiaries;

(D) The beneficiary's address, as it appears on the records of the fund, is in the foreign corporation's country of residence or the United States and is not a nonresidential address, such as a post office box or in care of a financial intermediary, and none of the trustees, directors or other administrators of the pension fund know, or have reason to know, that the beneficiary is not an individual resident of such foreign country or the United States;

(E) In the case of a pension fund that has fewer than 500 beneficiaries, the beneficiary's employer provides (if the beneficiary is currently contributing to the fund) to the trustees, directors or other administrators a written statement that the beneficiary is currently employed in the country in which the fund is administered or is usually employed in such country but is temporarily employed by the company outside of the country; and

(F) The trustees, directors or other administrators of the pension fund provide, with the pension fund's intermediary ownership statement described in paragraph (b)(6) of this section, a written statement signed under penalties of perjury declaring that the pension fund meets the requirements in paragraphs (b)(8)(iii) (A), (B), and (C) of this section and giving the number of beneficiaries who meet the requirements of paragraph (b)(8)(iii)(D) of this section, and, if applicable, paragraph (b)(8)(iii)(E) of this section.

(iv)Computation of beneficial interests in non-government pension funds. The number of shares in a foreign corporation that are held indirectly by beneficiaries of a pension fund who are qualifying shareholders may be computed based on the ratio of the number of such beneficiaries to all beneficiaries of the pension fund (rather than on the basis of the rules in paragraph (b)(2) of this section) if -

(A) The pension fund meets the requirements of paragraphs (b)(8)(iii) (A), (B), and (C) of this section;

(B) The trustees, directors or other administrators of the pension fund have no knowledge, and no reason to know, that the ratio of the pension fund's beneficiaries who are residents of either the country in which the pension fund is administered or of the United States to all beneficiaries of the pension fund would differ significantly from the ratio of the sum of the actuarial interests of such residents in the pension fund to the actuarial interests of all beneficiaries in the pension fund (or, if the beneficiaries' actuarial interest in the stock held directly or indirectly by the pension fund differs from the beneficiaries' actuarial interest in the pension fund, the ratio of actuarial interests computed by reference to the beneficiaries' actuarial interest in the stock);

(C) Either -

(1) Any overfunding of the pension fund would be payable, pursuant to the governing instrument or the laws of the foreign country in which the pension fund is administered, only to, or for the benefit of, one or more corporations that are qualified residents of the country in which the pension fund is administered, individual beneficiaries of the pension fund or their designated beneficiaries, or social or charitable causes (the reduction of the obligation of the sponsoring company or companies to make future contributions to the pension fund by reason of overfunding shall not itself result in such overfunding being deemed to be payable to or for the benefit of such company or companies); or

(2) The foreign country in which the pension fund is administered has laws that are designed to prevent overfunding of a pension fund and the funding of the pension fund is within the guidelines of such laws; or

(3) The pension fund is maintained to provide benefits to employees in a particular industry, profession, or group of industries or professions and employees of at least 10 companies (other than companies that are owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by the same interests) contribute to the pension fund or receive benefits from the pension fund; and

(D) The trustees, directors or other administrators provide, with the pension fund's intermediary ownership statement described in paragraph (b)(6) of this section, a written statement signed under penalties of perjury certifying that the requirements in paragraphs (b)(8)(iv) (A), (B), and either (C)(1), (C)(2) or (C)(3) of this section have been met.

The statement described in paragraph (b)(8)(iv) (D) of this section may be combined, in a single statement, with the information required in paragraph (b)(8)(iv) (F) of this section.

(v)Time for making determinations. The determinations required to be made under this paragraph (b)(8) shall be made using information shown on the records of the pension fund for a date on or after the beginning of the foreign corporation's taxable year to which the determination is relevant.

(9)Availability of documents for inspection -

(i)Retention of documents by the foreign corporation. The documentation described in paragraphs (b)(3) and (b)(8) of this section must be retained by the foreign corporation until expiration of the period of limitations for the taxable year to which the documentation relates and must be made available for inspection by the District Director at such time and place as the District Director may request.

(ii)Retention of documents by an intermediary issuing an intermediary verification statement. The documentation upon which an intermediary relies to issue an intermediary verification statement under paragraph (b)(7) of this section must be retained by the intermediary for a period of six years from the date of issuance of the intermediary verification statement and must be made available for inspection by the District Director at such time and place as the District Director may request.

(10)Examples. The application of this paragraph (b) is illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1.
Foreign corporation A is a resident of country L, which has an income tax treaty in effect with the United States. Foreign corporation A has one class of stock issued and outstanding consisting of 1,000 shares, which are beneficially owned by the following alien individuals, directly or by application of paragraph (b)(2) of this section:
Individual Shares owned, directly or indirectly by application of paragraph (b)(2) of this section Percentage
T - resident of the U.S 200 20
U - resident of country L 400 40
V - resident of country M 100 10
W - resident of country L 210 21
X - resident of country N 90 9
Total 1,000 100
(i) T owns his 200 shares directly and is a beneficial owner.

(ii) U and V own, respectively, an 80 percent and a 20 percent actuarial interest in foreign trust FT, (which interest does not differ from their respective interests in the stock owned by FT), which beneficially owns 100 percent of the stock of a foreign corporation B with bearer shares, which beneficially owns 500 shares of foreign corporation A. Foreign corporation B is incorporated in a country that does not have an income tax treaty with the United States. The foreign trust has deposited the bearer shares it owns in B with a bank in a foreign country that has an income tax treaty with the United States.

(iii) W beneficially owns all the shares of foreign corporation C, which are registered in the name of individual Z, a nominee, who resides in country L; foreign corporation C beneficially owns a 70 percent interest in foreign corporation D, which beneficially owns 300 shares of A. D's shares are bearer shares that C (not a resident of a country with which the United States has an income tax treaty) has deposited with a bank in a foreign country that has an income tax treaty with the United States.

(iv) X beneficially owns a 30 percent interest in foreign corporation D.

(v) A is a qualified resident of country L if it obtains the applicable documentation described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section either with respect to ownership by individuals U and W or with respect to ownership by individuals T and U, since either combination of qualifying shareholders of foreign corporation A will exceed 50 percent.

Example 2.
Assume the same facts as in Example 1 and assume that foreign corporation A chooses to obtain documentation with respect to individuals T and U.

(i) A must obtain, pursuant to paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section, an ownership statement (as described in paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section) signed by T. T is not required to furnish a certificate of residency because T is a U.S. resident.

(ii) U must provide foreign trust FT with an ownership statement and certificate of residency, as described in paragraphs (b)(4) and (b)(5) of this section. The trustees of FT must provide the depository bank holding foreign corporation B's bearer shares with an intermediary ownership statement concerning its beneficial ownership of B's shares and must attach to it the documentation provided by U. The depository bank must provide B with an intermediary ownership statement regarding its holding of B shares on behalf of FT and has the choice of attaching -

(A) The documentation from U and the intermediary ownership statement from FT; or

(B) An intermediary verification statement described in paragraph (b)(7) of this section, in which case foreign corporation B would not be provided with U's individual documentation or FT's intermediary ownership statement, both of which are retained by the depository bank.

(iii) In either case, B must then provide foreign corporation A with an intermediary ownership statement regarding its direct beneficial ownership of shares in A and, as the case may be, either -

(A) U's documentation and the intermediary ownership statements by FT and the depository bank; or

(B) The depository bank's intermediary ownership and verification statements.

(iv) Thus, with respect to U, A must obtain under paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section the individual documentation regarding U and an intermediary ownership statement from each intermediary standing in the chain of U's indirect beneficial ownership of shares in A, i.e., from FT, the depository bank and B. In the alternative, A must obtain under paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section an intermediary verification statement issued by the depository bank and an intermediary ownership statement from the bank and from B, which, in this example, are the only intermediaries standing in the chain of ownership of the verifying intermediary (i.e., the depository bank).

Example 3.
Assume the same facts as in Example 1. In addition, assume that foreign corporation A chooses to obtain documentation with respect to individuals U and W. With respect to U, A must obtain the same documentation that is described in Example 2. With respect to W, A must obtain, under paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section, individual documentation regarding W and an intermediary ownership statement from each intermediary standing in the chain of W's indirect beneficial ownership of shares in A, i.e., from individual Z, foreign corporation C, the depository bank in the foreign treaty country, and foreign corporation D. In the alternative, A must obtain, under paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section, either -

(i) An intermediary verification statement by the depository bank in the foreign treaty country and an intermediary ownership statement from the bank and from D; or

(ii) An intermediary verification statement from Z and an intermediary ownership statement from Z and from each intermediary standing in the chain of ownership of shares in foreign corporation A, i.e., from C, the depository bank in the foreign treaty country and D. C may not issue an intermediary verification statement because it is not a resident of a country with which the United States has an income tax treaty.

(c)Base erosion. A foreign corporation satisfies the requirement relating to base erosion for a taxable year if it establishes that less than 50 percent of its income for the taxable year is used (directly or indirectly) to make deductible payments in the current taxable year to persons who are not residents (or, in the case of foreign corporations, qualified residents) of the foreign country of which the foreign corporation is a resident and who are not citizens or residents (or, in the case of domestic corporations, qualified residents) of the United States. Whether a domestic corporation is a qualified resident of the United States shall be determined under the principles of this section. For purposes of this paragraph (c), the term “deductible payments” includes payments that would be ordinarily deductible under U.S. income tax principles without regard to other provisions of the Code that may require the capitalization of the expense, or disallow or defer the deduction. Such payments include, for example, interest, rents, royalties and reinsurance premiums. For purposes of this paragraph (c), the income of a foreign corporation means the corporation's gross income for the taxable year (or, if the foreign corporation has no gross income for the taxable year, the average of its gross income for the three previous taxable years) under U.S. tax principles, but not excluding items of income otherwise excluded from gross income under U.S. tax principles.

(d)Publicly-traded corporations -

(1)General rule. A foreign corporation that is a resident of a foreign country shall be treated as a qualified resident of that country for any taxable year in which -

(i) Its stock is primarily and regularly traded (as defined in paragraphs (d) (3) and (4) of this section) on one or more established securities markets (as defined in paragraph (d)(2) of this section) in that country, or in the United States, or both; or

(ii) At least 90 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock of such foreign corporation entitled to vote and at least 90 percent of the total value of the stock of such foreign corporation is owned, directly or by application of paragraph (b)(2) of this section, by a foreign corporation that is a resident of the same foreign country or a domestic corporation and the stock of such parent corporation is primarily and regularly traded on an established securities market in that foreign country or in the United States, or both.

(2)Established securities market -

(i)General rule. For purposes of section 884, the term “established securities market” means, for any taxable year -

(A) A foreign securities exchange that is officially recognized, sanctioned, or supervised by a governmental authority of the country in which the market is located, is the principal exchange in that country, and has an annual value of shares traded on the exchange exceeding $1 billion during each of the three calendar years immediately preceding the beginning of the taxable year;

(B) A national securities exchange that is registered under section 6 of the Securities Act of 1934 ( 15 U.S.C. 78f); and

(C) A domestic over-the-counter market (as defined in paragraph (d)(2)(iv) of this section).

(ii)Exchanges with multiple tiers. If a principal exchange in a foreign country has more than one tier or market level on which stock may be separately listed or traded, each such tier shall be treated as a separate exchange.

(iii)Computation of dollar value of stock traded. For purposes of paragraph (d)(2)(i)(A) of this section, the value in U.S. dollars of shares traded during a calendar year shall be determined on the basis of the dollar value of such shares traded as reported by the International Federation of Stock Exchanges, located in Paris, or, if not so reported, then by converting into U.S. dollars the aggregate value in local currency of the shares traded using an exchange rate equal to the average of the spot rates on the last day of each month of the calendar year.

(iv)Definition of over-the-counter market. An over-the-counter market is any market reflected by the existence of an interdealer quotation system. An interdealer quotation system is any system of general circulation to brokers and dealers that regularly disseminates quotations of stocks and securities by identified brokers or dealers, other than by quotation sheets that are prepared and distributed by a broker or dealer in the regular course of business and that contain only quotations of such broker or dealer.

(v)Discretion to determine that an exchange qualifies as an established securities market. The Commissioner may, in his sole discretion, determine in a published document that a securities exchange that does not meet the requirements of paragraph (d)(2)(i)(A) of this section qualifies as an established securities market. Such a determination will be made only if it is established that -

(A) The exchange, in substance, has the attributes of an established securities market (including adequate trading volume, and comparable listing and financial disclosure requirements);

(B) The rules of the exchange ensure active trading of listed stocks; and

(C) The exchange is a member of the International Federation of Stock Exchanges.

(vi)Discretion to determine that an exchange does not qualify as an established securities market. The Commissioner may, in his sole discretion, determine in a published document that a securities exchange that meets the requirements of paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section does not qualify as an established securities market. Such determination shall be made if, in the view of the Commissioner -

(A) The exchange does not have adequate listing, financial disclosure, or trading requirements (or does not adequately enforce such requirements); or

(B) There is not clear and convincing evidence that the exchange ensures the active trading of listed stocks.

(3)Primarily traded. For purposes of this section, stock of a corporation is “primarily traded” on one or more established securities markets in the corporation's country of residence or in the United States in any taxable year if, with respect to each class described in paragraph (d)(4)(l)(i)(A) of this section (relating to classes of stock relied on to meet the regularly traded test) -

(i) The number of shares in each class that are traded during the taxable year on all established securities markets in the corporation's country of residence or in the United States during the taxable year exceeds

(ii) The number of shares in each such class that are traded during that year on established securities markets in any other single foreign country.

(4)Regularly traded -

(i)General rule. For purposes of this section, stock of a corporation is “regularly traded” on one or more established securities markets in the foreign corporation's country of residence or in the United States for the taxable year if -

(A) One or more classes of stock of the corporation that, in the aggregate, represent 80 percent or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock of such corporation entitled to vote and of the total value of the stock of such corporation are listed on such market or markets during the taxable year;

(B) With respect to each class relied on to meet the 80 percent requirement of paragraph (d)(4)(i)(A) of this section -

(1) Trades in each such class are effected, other than in de minimis quantities, on such market or markets on at least 60 days during the taxable year (or 1/6 of the number of days in a short taxable year); and

(2) The aggregate number of shares in each such class that is traded on such market or markets during the taxable year is at least 10 percent of the average number of shares outstanding in that class during the taxable year (or, in the case of a short taxable year, a percentage that equals at least 10 percent of the number of days in the short taxable year divided by 365).

If stock of a foreign corporation fails the 80 percent requirement of paragraph (d)(4)(i)(A) of this section, but a class of such stock meets the trading requirements of paragraph (d)(4)(i)(B) of this section, such class of stock may be taken into account under paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section as owned by qualifying shareholders for purposes of meeting the ownership test of paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(ii)Classes of stock traded on a domestic established securities market treated as meeting trading requirements. A class of stock that is traded during the taxable year on an established securities market located in the United States shall be treated as meeting the trading requirements of paragraph (d)(4)(i)(B) of this section if the stock is regularly quoted by brokers or dealers making a market in the stock. A broker or dealer makes a market in a stock only if the broker or dealer holds himself out to buy or sell the stock at the quoted price.

(iii)Closely-held classes of stock not treated as meeting trading requirement -

(A)General rule. A class of stock shall not be treated as meeting the trading requirements of paragraph (d)(4)(i)(B) of this section (or the requirements of paragraph (d)(4)(ii) of this section) for a taxable year if, at any time during the taxable year, one or more persons who are not qualifying shareholders (as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section) and who each beneficially own 5 percent or more of the value of the outstanding shares of the class of stock own, in the aggregate, 50 percent or more of the outstanding shares of the class of stock for more than 30 days during the taxable year. For purposes of the preceding sentence, shares shall not be treated as owned by a qualifying shareholder unless such shareholder provides to the foreign corporation, by the time prescribed in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, the documentation described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section necessary to establish that it is a qualifying shareholder. For purposes of this paragraph (d)(4)(iii)(A), shares of stock owned by a pension fund, as defined in paragraph (b)(8)(i)(A) of this section, shall be treated as beneficially owned by the beneficiaries of such fund, as defined in paragraph (b)(8)(i)(B) of this section.

(B)Treatment of related persons. Persons related within the meaning of section 267(b) shall be treated as one person for purposes of this paragraph (d)(4)(iii). In determining whether two or more corporations are members of the same controlled group under section 267(b)(3), a person is considered to own stock owned directly by such person, stock owned with the application of section 1563(e)(1), and stock owned with the application of section 267(c). Further, in determining whether a corporation is related to a partnership under section 267(b)(10), a person is considered to own the partnership interest owned directly by such person and the partnership interest owned with the application of section 267(e)(3).

(iv)Anti-abuse rule. Trades between persons described in section 267(b) (as modified in paragraph (d)(4)(iii)(B) of this section) and trades conducted in order to meet the requirements of paragraph (d)(4)(i)(B) of this section shall be disregarded. A class of stock shall not be treated as meeting the trading requirements of paragraph (d)(4)(i)(B) of this section if there is a pattern of trades conducted to meet the requirements of that paragraph. For example, trades between two persons that occur several times during the taxable year my be treated as an arrangement or a pattern of trades conducted to meet the trading requirements of paragraph (d)(4)(i)(B) of this section.

(5)Burden of proof for publicly-traded corporations. A foreign corporation that relies on this paragraph (d) to establish that it is a qualified resident of a country with which the United States has an income tax treaty shall have the burden of proving all the facts necessary for the corporation to be treated as a qualified resident, except that with respect to paragraphs (d)(4) (iii) and (iv) of this section, a foreign corporation, with either registered or bearer shares, will meet the burden of proof if it has no reason to know and no actual knowledge of facts that would cause the corporation's stock not to be treated as regularly traded under such paragraphs. A foreign corporation that has shareholders of record must also maintain a list of such shareholders and, on request, make available to the District Director such list and any other relevant information known to the foreign corporation.

(e)Active trade or business -

(1)General rule. A foreign corporation that is a resident of a foreign country shall be treated as a qualified resident of that country with respect to any U.S. trade or business if, during the taxable year -

(i) It is engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business (as defined in paragraph (e)(2) of this section) in its country of residence;

(ii) It has a substantial presence (within the meaning of paragraph (e)(3) of this section) in its country of residence; and

(iii) Either -

(A) Such U.S. trade or business is an integral part (as defined in paragraph (e)(4) of this section) of an active trade or business conducted by the foreign corporation in its country of residence; or

(B) In the case of interest received by the foreign corporation for which a treaty exemption or rate reduction is claimed pursuant to § 1.884-4(b)(8)(ii), the interest is derived in connection with, or is incidental to, a trade or business described in paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section.

A foreign corporation may determine whether it is a qualified resident under this paragraph (e) by applying the rules of this paragraph (e) to the entire affiliated group (as defined in section 1504 (a) without regard to section 1504(b) (2) or (3)) of which the foreign corporation is a member rather than to the foreign corporation separately. If a foreign corporation chooses to apply the rules of this paragraph (e) to its entire affiliated group as provided in the preceding sentence, then it must apply such rules consistently to all of its U.S. trades or businesses conducted during the taxable year.

(2)Active conduct of a trade or business. A foreign corporation is engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business only if either -

(i) It is engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business within the meaning of section 367(a)(3) and the regulations thereunder; or

(ii) It qualifies as a banking or financing institution under the laws of the foreign country of which it is a resident, it is licensed to do business with residents of its country of residence, and it is engaged in the active conduct of a banking, financing, or similar business within the meaning of § 1.864-4(c)(5)(i) in its country of residence.

A foreign corporation that is an insurance company within the meaning of § 1.801-3 (a) or (b) is engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business only if it is predominantly engaged in the active conduct of an insurance business within the meaning of section 952(c)(1)(B)(v) and the regulations thereunder.

(3)Substantial presence test -

(i)General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section, a foreign corporation that is engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business in its country of residence has a substantial presence in that country if, for the taxable year, the average of the following three ratios exceeds 25 percent and each ratio is at least equal to 20 percent -

(A) The ratio of the value of the assets of the foreign corporation used or held for use in the active conduct of a trade or business in its country of residence at the close of the taxable year to the value of all assets of the foreign corporation at the close of the taxable year;

(B) The ratio of gross income from the active conduct of the foreign corporation's trade or business in its country of residence that is derived from sources within such country for the taxable year to the worldwide gross income of the foreign corporation for the taxable year; and

(C) The ratio of the payroll expenses in the foreign corporation's country of residence for the taxable year to the foreign corporation's worldwide payroll expenses for the taxable year.

(ii)Special rules -

(A)Asset ratio. For purposes of paragraph (e)(3)(i)(A) of this section, the value of an asset shall be determined using the method used by the taxpayer in keeping its books for purposes of financial reporting in its country of residence. An asset shall be treated as used or held for use in a foreign corporation's trade or business if it meets the requirements of § 1.367(a)-2(d)(5). Stock held by a foreign corporation shall not be treated as an asset of the foreign corporation for purposes of paragraph (e)(3)i)(A) of this section if the foreign corporation owns 10 percent or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock of such corporation entitled to vote. The rules of § 1.954-2T(b)(3) (other than § 1.954-2T(b)(3)(x)) shall apply to determine the location of assets used or held for use in a trade or business. Loans originated or acquired in the course of the normal customer loan activities of a banking, financing or similar institution, and securities and derivative financial instruments held by dealers, traders and insurance companies for use in a trade or business shall be treated as located in the country in which an office or other fixed place of business is primarily responsible for the acquisition of the asset and the realization of income, gain or loss with respect to the asset.

(B)Gross income ratio -

(1)General rule. For purposes of paragraph (e)(3)(i)(B) of this section, the term “gross income” means the gross income of a foreign corporation for purposes of financial reporting in its country of residence. Gross income shall not include, however, dividends, interest, rent, or royalties unless such corporation derives such dividends, interest, rents, or royalties in the active conduct of its trade or business. Gross income shall also not include gain from the disposition of stock if the foreign corporation owns 10 percent or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock of such corporation entitled to vote. Except as provided in this paragraph (e)(3)(ii)(B), the principles of sections 861 through 865 shall apply to determine the amount of gross income of a foreign corporation derived within its country of residence.

(2)Banks, dealers and traders. Dividend income and gain from the sale of securities, or from entering into or disposing of derivative financial instruments by dealers and traders in such securities or derivative financial instruments shall be treated as derived within the country where the assets are located under paragraph (e)(3)(ii)(A) of this section. Other income, including interest and fees, earned in the active conduct of a banking, financing or similar business shall be treated as derived within the country where the payor of such interest or other income resides. For purposes of the preceding sentence, if a branch or similar establishment outside the country in which the payor resides makes a payment of interest or other income, such amounts shall be treated as derived within the country in which the branch or similar establishment is located.

(3)Insurance companies. The gross income of a foreign insurance company shall include only gross premiums received by the country.

(4)Other corporations. Gross income from the performance of services, including transportation services, shall be treated as derived within the country of residence of the person for whom the services are performed. Gross income from the sale of property by a foreign corporation shall be treated as derived within the country in which the purchaser resides.

(5)Anti-abuse rule. The Commissioner may disregard the source of income from a transaction determined under this paragraph (e)(3)(ii)(B) if it is determined that one of the principal purposes of the transaction was to increase the source of income derived within the country of residence of the foreign corporation for purposes of this section.

(C)Payroll ratio. For purposes of paragraph (e)(3)(i)(C) of this section, the payroll expenses of a foreign corporation shall include expenses for “leased employees” (within the meaning of section 414(n)(2) but without regard to subdivision (B) of that section) and commission expenses paid to employees and agents for services performed for or on behalf of the corporation. Payroll expense for an employee, agent or a “leased employee” shall be treated as incurred where the employee, agent or “leased employee” performs services on behalf of the corporation.

(iii)Exception to gross income test for foreign corporations engaged in certain trades or businesses. In determining whether a foreign corporation engaged primarily in selling tangible property or in manufacturing, producing, growing, or extracting tangible property has a substantial presence in its country of residence for purposes of paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section, the foreign corporation may apply the ratio provided in this paragraph (e)(3)(iii) instead of the ratio described in paragraph (e)(3)(i)(B) of this section (relating to the ratio of gross income derived from its country of residence). This ratio shall be the ratio of the direct material costs of the foreign corporation with respect to tangible property manufactured, produced, grown, or extracted in the foreign corporation's country of residence to the total direct material costs of the foreign corporation.

(4)Integral part of an active trade or business in a foreign corporation's country of residence -

(i)In general. A U.S. trade or business of a foreign corporation is an integral part of an active trade or business conducted by a foreign corporation in its country of residence if the active trade or business conducted by the foreign corporation in both its country of residence and in the United States comprise, in principal part, complementary and mutually interdependent steps in the United States and its country of residence in the production and sale or lease of goods or in the provision of services. Subject to the presumption and de minimis rule in paragraphs (e)(4) (iii) and (iv) of this section, if a U.S. trade or business of a foreign corporation sells goods that are not, in principal part, manufactured, produced, grown, or extracted by the foreign corporation in its country of residence, such business shall not be treated as an integral part of an active trade or business conducted in the foreign corporation's country of residence unless the foreign corporation takes physical possession of the goods in a warehouse or other storage facility that is located in its country of residence and in which goods of such type are normally stored prior to sale to customers in such country.

(ii)Presumption for banks. A U.S. trade or business of a foreign corporation that is described in § 1.884-4(a)(2)(iii) shall be presumed to be an integral part of an active banking business conducted by the foreign corporation in its country of residence provided that a substantial part of the business of the foreign corporation in both its country of residence and the United States consists of receiving deposits and making loans and discounts. This paragraph shall be effective for taxable years beginning on or after June 6, 1996.

(iii)Presumption if business principally conducted in country of residence. A U.S. trade or business of a foreign corporation shall be treated as an integral part of an active trade or business of a foreign corporation in its country or residence with respect to the sale or lease of property (or the performance of services) if at least 50 percent of the foreign corporation's worldwide gross income from the sale or lease of property of the type sold in the United States (or from the performance of services of the type performed in the United States) is derived from the sale or lease of such property for consumption, use, or disposition in the foreign corporation's country of residence (or from the performance of such services in the foreign corporation's country of residence). In determining whether property or services are of the same type, a foreign corporation shall follow recognized industry or trade usage or the three-digit major groups (or any narrower classification) of the Standard Industrial Classification as prepared by the Statistical Policy Division of the Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President. The determination of whether income is of the same kind must be made in a consistent manner from year to year.

(iv)De minimis rule. If a foreign corporation is engaged in more than one U.S. trade or business and if at least 80 percent of the sum of the ECEP from the current year and the preceding two years is attributable to one or more trades or businesses that meet the integral part test of this paragraph (e)(4), all of the U.S. trades or businesses of the foreign corporation shall be treated as an integral part of an active or business conducted by the foreign corporation. If a foreign corporation has more than one U.S. trade or business and does not meet the requirements of the preceding sentence but otherwise meets the requirements of this paragraph (e)(4) with regard to one or more trade or business, see § 1.884-1(g)(1) to determine the extent to which treaty benefits apply to such corporation.

(f)Qualified resident ruling -

(1)Basis for ruling. In his or her sole discretion, the Commissioner may rule that a foreign corporation is a qualified resident of its country or residence if the Commissioner determines that individuals who are not residents of the foreign country of which the foreign corporation is a resident do not use the treaty between that country and the United States in a manner inconsistent with the purposes of section 884. The purposes of section 884 include, but are not limited to, the prevention of treaty shopping by an individual with respect to any article of an income tax treaty between the country of residence of the foreign corporation and the United States.

(2)Factors. In order to make this determination, the Commissioner may take into account the following factors, including, but not limited to:

(i) The business reasons for establishing and maintaining the foreign corporation in its country of residence;

(ii) The date of incorporation of the foreign corporation in relation to the date that an income tax treaty between the United States and the foreign corporation's country of residence entered into force;

(iii) The continuity of the historical business and ownership of the foreign corporation;

(iv) The extent to which the foreign corporation meets the requirements of one or more of the tests described in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section;

(v) The extent to which the U.S. trade or business is dependent on capital, assets, or personnel of the foreign trade or business;

(vi) The extent to which the foreign corporation receives special tax benefits in its country of residence;

(vii) Whether the foreign corporation is a member of an affiliated group (as defined in section 1504(a) without regard to section 1504(b) (2) or (3)), that has no members resident outside the country of residence of the foreign corporation; and

(viii) The extent to which the foreign corporation would be entitled to comparable treaty benefits with respect to all articles of an income tax treaty that would apply to that corporation if it had been incorporated in the country or countries of residence of the majority of its shareholders. For purposes of the preceding sentence, shareholders taken into account shall generally be limited to persons described in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section but for the fact that they are not residents of the foreign corporation's country of residence.

(3)Procedural requirements. A request for a ruling under this paragraph (f) must be submitted on or before the due date (including extensions) of the foreign corporation's income tax return for the taxable year for which the ruling is requested. A foreign corporation receiving a ruling will be treated as a qualified resident of its country of residence for the taxable year for which the ruling is requested and for the succeeding two taxable years. If there is a material change in any fact that formed the basis of the ruling, such as the ownership or the nature of the trade or business of the foreign corporation, the foreign corporation must notify the Secretary within 90 days of such change and submit a new private letter ruling request. The Commissioner will then rule whether the change affects the foreign corporation's status as a qualified resident, and such ruling will be valid for the taxable year in which the material change occurred and the two succeeding taxable years, subject to the requirement in the preceding sentence to notify the Commissioner of a material change.

(g)Effective dates. Except as provided in paragraph (e)(4)(ii) of this section, this section is effective for taxable years beginning on or after October 13, 1992. With respect to a taxable year beginning before October 13, 1992, and after December 31, 1986, a foreign corporation may elect to apply this section in lieu of the temporary regulations under 1.884-5T (as contained in the CFR edition revised as of April 1, 1992), but only if the statute of limitations for assessment of a deficiency has not expired for that taxable year. Once an election has been made, an election shall apply to all subsequent taxable years.

(h)Transition rule. If a foreign corporation elects to apply this section in lieu of § 1.884-5T (as contained in the CFR edition revised as of April 1, 1992) as provided in paragraph (g) of this section, and the application of paragraph (b) of this section results in additional documentation requirements in order for the foreign corporation to be treated as a qualified resident, the foreign corporation must obtain the documentation required under that paragraph on or before March 11, 1993.

[T.D. 8432, 57 FR 41666, Sept. 11, 1992; 57 FR 49117, Oct. 29, 1992; 57 FR 60126, Dec. 18, 1992, as amended by T.D. 8657, 61 FR 9343, Mar. 8, 1996; 61 FR 14248, Apr. 1, 1996; T.D. 9803, 81 FR 91030, Dec. 16, 2016]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 16-Jun-2017 03:58

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR Part 1 after this date.

  • 2017-06-30; vol. 82 # 125 - Friday, June 30, 2017
    1. 82 FR 29719 - Regulations Regarding Withholding of Tax on Certain U.S. Source Income Paid to Foreign Persons, Information Reporting and Backup Withholding on Payments Made to Certain U.S. Persons, and Portfolio Interest Treatment; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendment.
        Effective Date: These corrections are effective June 30, 2017. Applicability Date: The corrections to §§ 1.1441-0; 1.1441-1(b)(7)(ii)(B), (e)(3)(iv)(B) and (C), (e)(4)(ii)(B)( 11 ), (e)(4)(ix)(D), (e)(5)(ii) through (e)(5)(ii)(B), (e)(5)(ii)(D) through (e)(5)(v)(B)( 3 ), (e)(5)(v)(B)( 5 ) through (e)(5)(v)(D), and (f) through (f)(4); 1.1441-1T; 1.1441-3(d)(1); 1.1441-4; 1.6045-1(m)(2)(ii) and (n)(12)(ii); and 1.6049-5(c)(1) through (c)(4) are applicable on January 6, 2017.
      26 CFR Part 1

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