26 CFR § 1.901-2 - Income, war profits, or excess profits tax paid or accrued.

§ 1.901-2 Income, war profits, or excess profits tax paid or accrued.

(a) Definition of foreign income tax -

(1) Overview and scope. Paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section define a foreign income tax for purposes of section 901. Paragraph (c) of this section is reserved. Paragraph (d) of this section contains rules describing what constitutes a separate levy. Paragraph (e) of this section provides rules for determining the amount of foreign income tax paid by a taxpayer. Paragraph (f) of this section contains rules for determining by whom foreign income tax is paid. Paragraph (g) of this section defines the terms used in this section, and in particular provides that the term “paid” means “paid” or “accrued,” depending on the taxpayer's method of accounting for foreign income taxes. Paragraph (h) of this section provides the applicability date for this section.

(i) In general. Section 901 allows a credit for the amount of income, war profits, and excess profits taxes paid during the taxable year to any foreign country, and section 903 provides that for purposes of Part III of subchapter N of the Code and sections 164(a) and 275(a), such taxes include a tax paid in lieu of a tax on income, war profits or excess profits that is otherwise generally imposed by a foreign country (collectively, for purposes of this section, a “foreign income tax”). Whether a foreign levy is a foreign income tax is determined independently for each separate levy. A foreign tax either is or is not a foreign income tax, in its entirety, for all persons subject to the foreign tax.

(ii) Requirements. A foreign levy is a foreign income tax only if -

(A) It is a foreign tax; and

(B) Either:

(1) The foreign tax is a net income tax, as defined in paragraph (a)(3) of this section; or

(2) The foreign tax is a tax in lieu of an income tax, as defined in § 1.903-1(b).

(iii) Coordination with treaties. A foreign levy that is treated as an income tax under the relief from double taxation article of an income tax treaty entered into by the United States and the foreign country imposing the levy is a foreign income tax if the levy is, as determined under such income tax treaty, paid by a citizen or resident of the United States that elects benefits under the treaty. In addition, a foreign levy (including a foreign levy paid by a controlled foreign corporation) that is modified by an applicable income tax treaty to which the foreign country imposing the levy is a party may qualify as a foreign income tax notwithstanding that the unmodified foreign levy does not satisfy the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section or the requirements of § 1.903-1(b) if the levy, as modified by such treaty, satisfies the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section or the requirements of § 1.903-1(b). See paragraph (d)(1)(iv) of this section for rules treating as a separate levy a foreign tax that is limited in its application or otherwise modified by the terms of an income tax treaty to which the foreign country imposing the tax is a party.

(2) Tax -

(i) In general. A foreign levy is a tax if it requires a compulsory payment pursuant to the authority of a foreign country to levy taxes. A penalty, fine, interest, or similar obligation is not a tax, nor is a customs duty a tax. Whether a foreign levy requires a compulsory payment pursuant to a foreign country's authority to levy taxes is determined by principles of U.S. law and not by principles of law of the foreign country. Therefore, the assertion by a foreign country that a levy is pursuant to the foreign country's authority to levy taxes is not determinative that, under U.S. principles, it is pursuant thereto. Notwithstanding any assertion of a foreign country to the contrary, a foreign levy is not pursuant to a foreign country's authority to levy taxes, and thus is not a tax, to the extent a person subject to the levy receives (or will receive), directly or indirectly, a specific economic benefit (as defined in paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(B) of this section) from the foreign country in exchange for payment pursuant to the levy. Rather, to that extent, such levy requires a compulsory payment in exchange for such specific economic benefit. If, applying U.S. principles, a foreign levy requires a compulsory payment pursuant to the authority of a foreign country to levy taxes and also requires a compulsory payment in exchange for a specific economic benefit, the levy is considered to have two distinct elements: A tax and a requirement of compulsory payment in exchange for such specific economic benefit. In such a situation, these two distinct elements of the foreign levy (and the amount paid pursuant to each such element) must be separated. No credit is allowable for a payment pursuant to a foreign levy by a dual capacity taxpayer (as defined in paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(A) of this section) unless the person claiming such credit establishes the amount that is paid pursuant to the distinct element of the foreign levy that is a tax. See paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section and § 1.901-2A.

(ii) Dual capacity taxpayers -

(A) In general. For purposes of this section and §§ 1.901-2A and 1.903-1, a person who is subject to a levy of a foreign state or of a possession of the United States or of a political subdivision of such a state or possession and who also, directly or indirectly (within the meaning of paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(E) of this section) receives (or will receive) a specific economic benefit from the state or possession or from a political subdivision of such state or possession or from an agency or instrumentality of any of the foregoing is referred to as a “dual capacity taxpayer.” Dual capacity taxpayers are subject to the special rules of § 1.901-2A.

(B) Specific economic benefit. For purposes of this section and §§ 1.901-2A and 1.903-1, the term “specific economic benefit” means an economic benefit that is not made available on substantially the same terms to substantially all persons who are subject to the income tax that is generally imposed by the foreign country, or, if there is no such generally imposed income tax, an economic benefit that is not made available on substantially the same terms to the population of the country in general. Thus, a concession to extract government-owned petroleum is a specific economic benefit, but the right to travel or to ship freight on a government-owned airline is not, because the latter, but not the former, is made generally available on substantially the same terms. An economic benefit includes property; a service; a fee or other payment; a right to use, acquire or extract resources, patents or other property that a foreign country owns or controls (within the meaning of paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(D) of this section); or a reduction or discharge of a contractual obligation. It does not include the right or privilege merely to engage in business generally or to engage in business in a particular form.

(C) Pension, unemployment, and disability fund payments. A foreign levy imposed on individuals to finance retirement, old-age, death, survivor, unemployment, illness, or disability benefits, or for some substantially similar purpose, is not a requirement of compulsory payment in exchange for a specific economic benefit, as long as the amounts required to be paid by the individuals subject to the levy are not computed on a basis reflecting the respective ages, life expectancies or similar characteristics of such individuals.

(D) Control of property. A foreign country controls property that it does not own if the country exhibits substantial indicia of ownership with respect to the property, for example, by both regulating the quantity of property that may be extracted and establishing the minimum price at which it may be disposed of.

(E) Indirect receipt of a benefit. A person is considered to receive a specific economic benefit indirectly if another person receives a specific economic benefit and that other person -

(1) Owns or controls, directly or indirectly, the first person or is owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by the first person or by the same persons that own or control, directly or indirectly, the first person; or

(2) Engages in a transaction with the first person under terms and conditions such that the first person receives, directly or indirectly, all or part of the value of the specific economic benefit.

(3) Net income tax. A foreign tax is a net income tax only if the foreign tax meets the net gain requirement in paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) Net gain requirement -

(1) In general. A foreign tax satisfies the net gain requirement only if the tax satisfies the realization, gross receipts, cost recovery, and attribution requirements in paragraphs (b)(2), (3), (4), and (5) of this section, respectively, or if the foreign tax is a surtax described in paragraph (b)(6) of this section. Paragraphs (b)(2) through (6) of this section are applied with respect to a foreign tax solely on the basis of the foreign tax law governing the calculation of the foreign taxable base, unless otherwise provided, and without any consideration of the rate of tax imposed on the foreign taxable base.

(2) Realization requirement -

(i) In general. A foreign tax satisfies the realization requirement if it is imposed upon one or more of the events described in paragraphs (b)(2)(i)(A) through (C) of this section. If a foreign tax meets the realization requirement in paragraphs (b)(2)(i)(A) through (C) of this section except with respect to one or more specific and defined classes of nonrealization events (such as, for example, imputed rental income from a personal residence used by the owner), and as judged based on the application of the foreign tax to all taxpayers subject to the foreign tax, the incidence and amounts of gross receipts attributable to such nonrealization events is insignificant relative to the incidence and amounts of gross receipts attributable to events covered by the foreign tax that do meet the realization requirement, then the foreign tax is treated as meeting the realization requirement in paragraph (b)(2) of this section (despite the fact that the foreign tax is also imposed on the basis of some nonrealization events, and that some persons subject to the foreign tax may only be taxed on nonrealization events).

(A) Realization events. The foreign tax is imposed upon or after the occurrence of events (“realization events”) that result in the realization of income under the income tax provisions of the Internal Revenue Code.

(B) Pre-realization recapture events. The foreign tax is imposed upon the occurrence of an event before a realization event (a “pre-realization event”) that results in the recapture (in whole or part) of a tax deduction, tax credit, or other tax allowance previously accorded to the taxpayer (for example, the recapture of an incentive tax credit if required investments are not completed within a specified period).

(C) Pre-realization timing difference events. The foreign tax is imposed upon the occurrence of a pre-realization event, other than one described in paragraph (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section, but only if the foreign country does not, upon the occurrence of a later event, impose tax under the same or a separate levy (a “second tax”) on the same taxpayer (for purposes of this paragraph (b)(2)(i)(C), treating a disregarded entity as defined in § 301.7701-3(b)(2)(i)(C) of this chapter as a taxpayer separate from its owner), with respect to the income on which tax is imposed by reason of such pre-realization event (or, if it does impose a second tax, a credit or other comparable relief is available against the liability for such a second tax for tax paid on the occurrence of the pre-realization event) and -

(1) The imposition of the tax upon such pre-realization event is based on the difference in the fair market value of property at the beginning and end of a period;

(2) The pre-realization event is the physical transfer, processing, or export of readily marketable property (as defined in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section) and the imposition of the tax upon the pre-realization event is based on the fair market value of such property; or

(3) The pre-realization event relates to a deemed distribution (for example, by a corporation to a shareholder) or inclusion (for example, under a controlled foreign corporation inclusion regime) of amounts (such as earnings and profits) that meet the realization requirement in paragraph (b)(2) of this section in the hands of the person that, under foreign tax law, is deemed to distribute such amounts.

(ii) Readily marketable property. Property is readily marketable if -

(A) It is stock in trade or other property of a kind that properly would be included in inventory if on hand at the close of the taxable year or if it is held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, and

(B) It can be sold on the open market without further processing or it is exported from the foreign country.

(iii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraph (b)(2) of this section:

(A) Example 1. Residents of Country X are subject to a tax of 10 percent on the aggregate net appreciation in fair market value during the calendar year of all shares of stock held by them at the end of the year. In addition, all such residents are subject to a Country X tax that qualifies as a net income tax within the meaning of paragraph (a)(3) of this section. Included in the base of the net income tax are gains and losses realized on the sale of stock, and the basis of stock for purposes of determining such gain or loss is its cost. The operation of the stock appreciation tax and the net income tax as applied to sales of stock is exemplified as follows: A, a resident of Country X, purchases stock in June of Year 1 for 100u (units of Country X currency) and sells it in May of Year 3 for 160u. On December 31, Year 1, the stock is worth 120u and on December 31, Year 2, it is worth 155u. Pursuant to the stock appreciation tax, A pays 2u for Year 1 (10 percent of (120u−100u)), 3.5u for Year 2 (10 percent of (155u−120u)), and nothing for Year 3 because no stock was held at the end of that year. For purposes of the net income tax, A must include 60u (160u−100u) in his income for Year 3, the year of sale. Pursuant to paragraph (b)(2)(i)(C) of this section, the stock appreciation tax does not satisfy the realization requirement because Country X imposes a second tax upon the occurrence of a later event (that is, the sale of stock) with respect to the income that was taxed by the stock appreciation tax and no credit or comparable relief is available against such second tax for the stock appreciation tax paid.

(B) Example 2. The facts are the same as those in paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(A) of this section (the facts in Example 1), except that if stock was held on the December 31 last preceding the date of its sale, the basis of such stock for purposes of computing gain or loss under the net income tax is the value of the stock on such December 31. Thus, in Year 3, A includes only 5u (160u−155u) as income from the sale for purposes of the net income tax. Because the net income tax imposed upon the occurrence of a later event (the sale) does not impose a tax with respect to the income that was taxed by the stock appreciation tax, under paragraph (b)(2)(i)(C) of this section, the stock appreciation tax satisfies the realization requirement. The result would be the same if, instead of a basis adjustment to reflect taxation pursuant to the stock appreciation tax, the Country X net income tax allowed a credit (or other comparable relief) to take account of the stock appreciation tax. If a credit mechanism is used, see also paragraph (e)(4)(i) of this section.

(C) Example 3. Country X imposes a tax on the realized net income of corporations that do business in Country X. Country X also imposes a branch profits tax on corporations organized under the law of a country other than Country X that do business in Country X. The branch profits tax is imposed when realized net income is remitted or deemed to be remitted by branches in Country X to home offices outside of Country X. Because the branch profits tax is imposed subsequent to the occurrence of events that would result in realization of income by corporations subject to such tax under the income tax provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, under paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A) of this section the branch profits tax satisfies the realization requirement.

(D) Example 4. Country X imposes a tax on the realized net income of corporations that do business in Country X (the “Country X corporate tax”). Country X also imposes a separate tax on shareholders of such corporations (the “Country X shareholder tax”). The Country X shareholder tax is imposed on the sum of the actual distributions received during the taxable year by such a shareholder from the corporation's realized net income for that year (that is, income from past years is not taxed in a later year when it is actually distributed) plus the distributions deemed to be received by such a shareholder. Deemed distributions are defined as a shareholder's pro rata share of the corporation's realized net income for the taxable year, less such shareholder's pro rata share of the corporation's Country X corporate tax for that year, less actual distributions made by such corporation to such shareholder from such net income. A shareholder's receipt of actual distributions is a realization event within the meaning of paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A) of this section. The deemed distributions are not realization events, but they are described in paragraph (b)(2)(i)(C)(3) of this section. Accordingly, the Country X shareholder tax satisfies the realization requirement.

(3) Gross receipts requirement -

(i) Rule. A foreign tax satisfies the gross receipts requirement if it is imposed on the basis of the amounts described in paragraphs (b)(3)(i)(A) through (D) of this section.

(A) Actual gross receipts.

(B) In the case of either an insignificant nonrealization event described in the second sentence of paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section or a realization event described in paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A) of this section that does not result in actual gross receipts, deemed gross receipts in an amount that is reasonably calculated to produce an amount that is not greater than fair market value.

(C) Deemed gross receipts in the amount of a tax deduction that is recaptured by reason of a pre-realization recapture event described in paragraph (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section.

(D) The amount of deemed gross receipts arising from pre-realization timing difference events described in paragraph (b)(2)(i)(C) of this section.

(ii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section.

(A) Example 1: Cost-plus tax -

(1) Facts. Country X imposes a “cost-plus tax” on Country X corporations that serve as regional headquarters companies for affiliated nonresident corporations, and this tax is a separate levy (within the meaning of paragraph (d)(1) of this section). A headquarters company for purposes of this tax is a corporation that performs administrative, management or coordination functions solely for nonresident affiliated entities. Due to the difficulty of determining on a case-by-case basis the arm's length gross receipts that headquarters companies would charge affiliates for such services, gross receipts of a headquarters company are deemed, for purposes of this tax, to equal 110 percent of the business expenses incurred by the headquarters company.

(2) Analysis. Because the cost-plus tax is based on costs and not on actual gross receipts, the cost-plus tax does not satisfy the gross receipts requirement of paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section.

(B) Example 2: Actual gross receipts determined under appropriate transfer pricing methodology -

(1) Facts. Country X imposes a tax on resident corporations that meets the attribution requirement of paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section. The Country X tax is based on actual gross receipts, including gross receipts recorded on the taxpayer's books and records as due from related and unrelated persons. Corporation A, a resident of Country X, properly determines the arm's length transfer price for services provided to related persons using a cost-plus methodology, recording on its books and records receivables for the arm's length amounts due from those related persons and using those amounts to determine the realized gross receipts included in the base of the Country X tax.

(2) Analysis. Because the Country X tax is based on actual gross receipts, it satisfies the gross receipts requirement of paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section.

(C) Example 3: Petroleum taxed on extraction -

(1) Facts. Country X imposes a tax that is a separate levy (within the meaning of paragraph (d)(1) of this section) on income from the extraction of petroleum. Under the terms of that tax, gross receipts from extraction income are deemed to equal 105 percent of the fair market value of petroleum extracted.

(2) Analysis. Because it is imposed on deemed gross receipts that exceed the fair market value of the petroleum extracted, the tax on extraction income does not satisfy the gross receipts requirement of paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section.

(4) Cost recovery requirement -

(i) Costs and expenses that must be recovered -

(A) In general. A foreign tax satisfies the cost recovery requirement if the base of the tax is computed by reducing gross receipts (as described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section) to permit recovery of the significant costs and expenses (including capital expenditures) described in paragraph (b)(4)(i)(C) of this section attributable, under reasonable principles, to such gross receipts. A foreign tax need not permit recovery of significant costs and expenses, such as certain personal expenses, that are not attributable, under reasonable principles, to gross receipts included in the foreign taxable base. A foreign tax whose base is gross receipts, with no reduction for costs and expenses, satisfies the cost recovery requirement only if there are no significant costs and expenses attributable to the gross receipts included in the foreign tax base that must be recovered under the rules of paragraph (b)(4)(i)(C)(1) of this section. See paragraph (b)(4)(iv)(A) of this section (Example 1). A foreign tax that provides an alternative cost allowance satisfies the cost recovery requirement only as provided in paragraph (b)(4)(i)(B) of this section. See paragraph (b)(4)(i)(D) of this section for rules regarding principles for attributing costs and expenses to gross receipts.

(B) Alternative cost allowances -

(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(4)(i)(B)(2) of this section, if foreign tax law does not permit recovery of one or more significant costs and expenses in computing the base of the foreign tax but provides an alternative cost allowance, the foreign tax satisfies the cost recovery requirement only if the alternative allowance permits recovery of an amount that by its terms may be greater, but can never be less, than the actual amounts of such significant costs and expenses (for example, under a provision identical to percentage depletion allowed under section 613). If foreign tax law provides an optional alternative cost allowance or an election to recover costs and expenses under an alternative method, the foreign tax satisfies the cost recovery requirement if the foreign tax law also expressly provides an option to recover actual costs and expenses. See § 1.901-2(e)(5) for rules limiting the amount of foreign income tax paid to the amount due under the option that minimizes the taxpayer's liability for foreign income tax over time. If foreign tax law provides an alternative cost allowance that does not by its terms permit recovery of an amount equal to or greater than the actual amounts of significant costs and expenses, the foreign tax does not satisfy the cost recovery requirement, even if, in practice, the amounts recovered under the alternative allowance equal or exceed the amount of actual costs and expenses.

(2) Small business exception. If foreign tax law provides an alternative method for determining the amount of costs and expenses allowed in computing the taxable base of small business enterprises, the foreign tax satisfies the cost recovery requirement if the foreign tax law contains reasonable limits on the maximum size of business enterprises to which the alternative cost allowance applies (for example, business enterprises having asset values or annual gross revenues below specified thresholds). See paragraph (b)(4)(iv)(B) of this section (Example 2).

(C) Significant costs and expenses -

(1) Amounts that must be recovered. Whether a cost or expense is significant for purposes of this paragraph (b)(4)(i) is determined based on whether, for all taxpayers in the aggregate to which the foreign tax applies, the item of cost or expense constitutes a significant portion of the taxpayers' total costs and expenses. Costs and expenses (as characterized under foreign law) related to capital expenditures, interest, rents, royalties, wages or other payments for services, and research and experimentation are always treated as significant costs or expenses for purposes of this paragraph (b)(4)(i). Significant costs and expenses (such as interest expense) are not considered to be recovered by reason of the time value of money attributable to the acceleration of a tax benefit or other economic benefit attributable to the timing of the recovery of other costs and expenses (such as the current expensing of debt-financed capital expenditures). Foreign tax law is considered to permit recovery of significant costs and expenses even if recovery of all or a portion of certain costs or expenses is disallowed, if such disallowance is consistent with any principle underlying the disallowances required under the Internal Revenue Code, including the principles of limiting base erosion or profit shifting and public policy concerns. For example, a foreign tax is considered to permit recovery of significant costs and expenses if the foreign tax law limits interest deductions based on a measure of taxable income (determined either before or after depreciation and amortization), disallows deductions in connection with hybrid transactions, disallows deductions attributable to gross receipts that in whole or in part are excluded, exempt or eliminated from taxable income, or disallows certain deductions based on public policy considerations similar to those underlying the disallowances contained in section 162. See paragraph (b)(4)(iv)(C) of this section (Example 3).

(2) Amounts that need not be recovered. A foreign tax is considered to permit recovery of significant costs and expenses even if the foreign tax law does not permit recovery of any costs and expenses attributable to wage income or to investment income that is not derived from a trade or business. In addition, in determining whether a foreign tax (the “tested foreign tax”) meets the cost recovery requirement, it is immaterial whether the tested foreign tax allows a deduction for other taxes that would qualify as foreign income taxes (determined without regard to whether such other tax allows a deduction for the tested foreign tax). See paragraph (b)(4)(iv)(D) and (E) of this section (Examples 4 and 5).

(3) Timing of recovery. A foreign tax law permits recovery of significant costs and expenses even if such costs and expenses are recovered earlier or later than they are recovered under the Internal Revenue Code unless the time of recovery is so much later as effectively to constitute a denial of such recovery. The amount of costs and expenses that is recovered under the foreign tax law is neither discounted nor augmented by taking into account the time value of money attributable to any acceleration or deferral of a tax benefit resulting from the foreign law cost recovery method compared to when tax would be paid under the Internal Revenue Code. Therefore, a foreign tax satisfies the cost recovery requirement if items deductible under the Internal Revenue Code are capitalized under the foreign tax law and recovered either immediately, on a recurring basis over time, or upon the occurrence of some future event (for example, upon the property becoming worthless or being disposed of), or if the recovery of items capitalized under the Internal Revenue Code occurs more or less rapidly than under the foreign tax law.

(D) Attribution of costs and expenses to gross receipts. Principles used in the foreign tax law to attribute costs and expenses to gross receipts may be reasonable even if they differ from principles that apply under the Internal Revenue Code (for example, principles that apply under section 265, 465 or 861(b) of the Internal Revenue Code). See also paragraph (b)(5) of this section for additional requirements relating to foreign tax law rules for attributing costs and expenses to gross receipts.

(ii) Consolidation of profits and losses. In determining whether a foreign tax satisfies the cost recovery requirement, one of the factors to be taken into account is whether, in computing the base of the tax, a loss incurred in one activity (for example, a contract area in the case of oil and gas exploration) in a trade or business is allowed to offset profit earned by the same person in another activity (for example, a separate contract area) in the same trade or business. If such an offset is allowed, it is immaterial whether the offset may be made in the taxable period in which the loss is incurred or only in a different taxable period, unless the period is such that under the circumstances there is effectively a denial of the ability to offset the loss against profit. In determining whether a foreign tax satisfies the cost recovery requirement, it is immaterial that no such offset is allowed if a loss incurred in one such activity may be applied to offset profit earned in that activity in a different taxable period, unless the period is such that under the circumstances there is effectively a denial of the ability to offset such loss against profit. In determining whether a foreign tax satisfies the cost recovery requirement, it is immaterial whether a person's profits and losses from one trade or business (for example, oil and gas extraction) are allowed to offset its profits and losses from another trade or business (for example, oil and gas refining and processing), or whether a person's business profits and losses and its passive investment profits and losses are allowed to offset each other in computing the base of the foreign tax. Moreover, it is immaterial whether foreign tax law permits or prohibits consolidation of profits and losses of related persons, unless foreign tax law requires separate entities to be used to carry on separate activities in the same trade or business. If foreign tax law requires that separate entities carry on such separate activities, the determination whether the cost recovery requirement is satisfied is made by applying the same considerations as if such separate activities were carried on by a single entity.

(iii) Carryovers. In determining whether a foreign tax satisfies the cost recovery requirement, it is immaterial, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section, whether losses incurred during one taxable period may be carried over to offset profits incurred in different taxable periods.

(iv) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraph (b)(4) of this section.

(A) Example 1: Tax on gross interest income of certain residents; no deductions allowed -

(1) Facts. Country X imposes a net income tax on corporations resident in Country X. Country X imposes a second tax (the “bank tax”) of 1 percent on the gross amount of interest income derived by banks resident in Country X; no deductions are allowed in determining the base of the bank tax. Banks resident in Country X incur substantial costs and expenses, including interest expense, attributable to their interest income.

(2) Analysis. Because the terms of the bank tax do not permit recovery of significant costs and expenses attributable to the gross receipts included in the tax base, the bank tax does not satisfy the cost recovery requirement of paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section.

(B) Example 2: Small business alternative allowance -

(1) Facts. Country X imposes a tax on the income of corporations resident in Country X. Under Country X tax law, corporations are generally allowed to deduct actual costs and expenses attributable to the realized gross receipts included in the Country X tax base. However, in lieu of deductions for actual costs and expenses, businesses with gross revenues of less than the Country X currency equivalent of $500,000 are allowed a flat cost allowance of 50 percent of gross revenues.

(2) Analysis. Under paragraph (b)(4)(i)(B)(2) of this section, the alternative cost allowance for small businesses provided under Country X tax law satisfies the cost recovery requirement.

(C) Example 3: Permissible deduction disallowance -

(1) Facts. Country X imposes a tax on the income of corporations resident in Country X. Under Country X tax law, deductions for the significant costs and expenses attributable to the gross receipts included in the Country X tax base are allowed, except that deductions for interest expense incurred by corporations are limited to 30 percent of the corporation's earnings before income taxes, depreciation, and amortization, and unused interest expense may be carried forward for a period of 5 years. In addition, Country X tax law contains anti-hybrid rules that deny deductions for interest, royalties, rents, and services payments made by a Country X resident to a related entity outside Country X that is treated as a transparent entity in the jurisdiction in which it is organized but as a separate entity in the jurisdiction of the entity's owners (a “reverse hybrid entity”) to the extent that the payment is not included in the income of the reverse hybrid entity or its owners.

(2) Analysis. Under paragraph (b)(4)(i)(C)(1) of this section, costs and expenses related to interest, rents, royalties, and payments for services are treated as significant costs or expenses that must be recoverable under Country X tax law. However, because the interest expense limitation rule and the anti-hybrid rules in Country X tax law are consistent with the principles underlying the disallowances required under the Internal Revenue Code (namely, section 163(j) and section 267A), the Country X tax satisfies the cost recovery requirement.

(D) Example 4:Gross basis tax on wages -

(1) Facts. A foreign country imposes payroll tax on resident employees at the rate of 10 percent of the amount of gross wages; no deductions are allowed in computing the base of the payroll tax.

(2) Analysis. Although the foreign tax law does not allow for the recovery of any costs and expenses attributable to gross receipts included in the taxable base, under paragraph (b)(4)(i)(C)(2) of this section, because the only gross receipts included in the taxable base are from wages, the payroll tax satisfies the cost recovery requirement.

(E) Example 5: No deduction for another net income tax -

(1) Facts. Each of Country X and Province Y (a political subdivision of Country X) imposes a tax on resident corporations, called the “Country X income tax” and the “Province Y income tax,” respectively. Each tax has an identical base, which is computed by reducing a corporation's realized gross receipts by deductions that, based on the laws of Country X and Province Y, generally permit recovery of the significant costs and expenses (including significant capital expenditures) that are attributable under reasonable principles to such gross receipts. However, the Country X income tax does not allow a deduction for the Province Y income tax for which a taxpayer is liable, nor does the Province Y income tax allow a deduction for the Country X income tax for which a taxpayer is liable.

(2) Analysis. Under paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, each of the Country X income tax and the Province Y income tax is a separate levy. Without regard to whether the Province Y income tax may allow a deduction for the Country X income tax, and without regard to whether the Country X income tax may allow a deduction for the Province Y income tax, both taxes would qualify as net income taxes under paragraph (a)(3) of this section. Therefore, under paragraph (b)(4)(i)(C)(2) of this section the fact that neither levy's base allows a deduction for the other levy is immaterial, and both levies satisfy the cost recovery requirement.

(5) Attribution requirement. A foreign tax satisfies the attribution requirement if the amount of gross receipts and costs that are included in the base of the foreign tax are determined based on rules described in paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section (with respect to a separate levy imposed on nonresidents of the foreign country) or paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section (with respect to a separate levy imposed on residents of the foreign country).

(i) Tax on nonresidents. The gross receipts and costs attributable to each of the items of income of nonresidents of a foreign country that is included in the base of the foreign tax must satisfy the requirements of paragraph (b)(5)(i)(A), (B), or (C) of this section.

(A) Income attribution based on activities. The gross receipts and costs that are included in the base of the foreign tax are limited to gross receipts and costs that are attributable, under reasonable principles, to the nonresident's activities within the foreign country imposing the foreign tax (including the nonresident's functions, assets, and risks located in the foreign country). For purposes of the preceding sentence, attribution of gross receipts under reasonable principles includes rules similar to those for determining effectively connected income under section 864(c) but does not include rules that take into account as a significant factor the mere location of customers, users, or any other similar destination-based criterion, or the mere location of persons from whom the nonresident makes purchases in the foreign country. In addition, for purposes of the first sentence of this paragraph (b)(5)(i)(A), reasonable principles do not include rules that deem the existence of a trade or business or permanent establishment based on the activities of another person (other than an agent or other person acting on behalf of the nonresident or a pass-through entity of which the nonresident is an owner), or that attribute gross receipts or costs to a nonresident based upon the activities of another person (other than an agent or other person acting on behalf of the nonresident or a pass-through entity of which the nonresident is an owner).

(B) Income attribution based on source. The amount of gross income arising from gross receipts (other than gross receipts from sales or other dispositions of property) that is included in the base of the foreign tax on the basis of source (instead of on the basis of activities or the situs of property as described in paragraphs (b)(5)(i)(A) and (C) of this section) is limited to gross income arising from sources within the foreign country that imposes the tax, and the sourcing rules of the foreign tax law are reasonably similar to the sourcing rules that apply under the Internal Revenue Code. A foreign tax law's application of such sourcing rules need not conform in all respects to the application of those sourcing rules for Federal income tax purposes. For purposes of determining whether the sourcing rules of the foreign tax law are reasonably similar to the sourcing rules that apply under the Internal Revenue Code, the character of gross income arising from gross receipts is determined under the foreign tax law (except as provided in paragraph (b)(5)(i)(B)(3) of this section), and the following rules apply:

(1) Services. Under the foreign tax law, gross income from services must be sourced based on where the services are performed, as determined under reasonable principles (which do not include determining the place of performance of the services based on the location of the service recipient).

(2) Royalties. A foreign tax on gross income from royalties must be sourced based on the place of use of, or the right to use, the intangible property.

(3) Sales of property. Gross income arising from gross receipts from sales or other dispositions of property (including copyrighted articles sold through an electronic medium) must be included in the foreign tax base on the basis of the rules in paragraph (b)(5)(i)(A) or (C) of this section, and not on the basis of source. In the case of sales of copyrighted articles (as determined under rules similar to § 1.861-18), a foreign tax satisfies the attribution requirement of paragraph (b)(5) of this section only if the transaction is treated as a sale of tangible property and not as a license of intangible property.

(C) Attribution based on situs of property. A foreign tax on gains of nonresidents from the sale or disposition of property, including shares in a corporation or an interest in a partnership or other pass-through entity, based on the situs of property satisfies the attribution requirement only as provided in this paragraph (b)(5)(i)(C). The amount of gross receipts from the sale or disposition of property that is included in the base of the foreign tax on the basis of the situs of real property (instead of on the basis of activities as described in paragraph (b)(5)(i)(A) of this section) may only include gross receipts that are attributable to the disposition of real property situated in the foreign country imposing the foreign tax (or an interest in a resident corporation or other entity that owns such real property) under rules reasonably similar to the rules in section 897. The amount of gross receipts from the sale or disposition of property other than shares in a corporation, including an interest in a partnership or other pass-through entity, that is included in the base of the foreign tax on the basis of the situs of property other than real property may only include gross receipts that are attributable to property forming part of the business property of a taxable presence in the foreign country imposing the foreign tax under rules that are reasonably similar to the rules in section 864(c).

(ii) Tax on residents. The base of a foreign tax imposed on residents of the foreign country imposing the foreign tax may include all of the worldwide gross receipts of the resident. The foreign tax law must provide that any allocation to or from the resident of income, gain, deduction, or loss with respect to transactions between such resident and organizations, trades, or businesses owned or controlled directly or indirectly by the same interests (that is, any allocation made pursuant to the foreign country's transfer pricing rules) is determined under arm's length principles, without taking into account as a significant factor the location of customers, users, or any other similar destination-based criterion.

(iii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(A) Example 1 -

(1) Facts. Country X imposes a separate levy on nonresident companies that furnish, from a location outside of Country X, specified types of electronically supplied services to users located in Country X (the “ESS tax”). The base of the ESS tax is computed by taking the nonresident company's overall net income related to supplying electronically supplied services, and deeming a portion of such net income to be attributable to a deemed permanent establishment of the nonresident company in Country X. The amount of the nonresident company's net income attributable to the deemed permanent establishment is determined on a formulary basis based on the percentage of the nonresident company's total users that are located in Country X.

(2) Analysis. The taxable base of the ESS tax is not computed based on a nonresident company's activities located in Country X, but instead takes into account the location of the nonresident company's users. Therefore, the ESS tax does not meet the requirement in paragraph (b)(5)(i)(A) of this section. The ESS tax also does not meet the requirement in paragraph (b)(5)(i)(B) of this section because it is not imposed on the basis of source, and it does not meet the requirement in paragraph (b)(5)(i)(C) of this section because it is not imposed on the sale or other disposition of property.

(B) Example 2 -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as those in paragraph (b)(5)(iii)(A)(1) of this section (the facts in Example 1), except that instead of imposing the ESS tax by deeming nonresident companies to have a permanent establishment in Country X, Country X treats gross income from electronically supplied services provided to users located in Country X as sourced in Country X. The gross income sourced to Country X is reduced by costs that are reasonably attributed to such gross income, to arrive at the taxable base of the ESS tax. The amount of the nonresident's gross income and costs that are sourced to Country X is determined by multiplying the nonresident's total gross income and costs by the percentage of its total users that are located in Country X.

(2) Analysis. Country X tax law's rule for sourcing electronically supplied services is not based on where the services are performed and is instead based on the location of the service recipient. Therefore, the ESS tax, which is imposed on the basis of source, does not meet the requirement in paragraph (b)(5)(i)(B) of this section. The ESS tax also does not meet the requirement in paragraph (b)(5)(i)(A) of this section because it is not imposed on the basis of a nonresident's activities located in Country X, and it does not meet the requirement in paragraph (b)(5)(i)(C) of this section because it is not imposed on the sale or other disposition of property.

(6) Surtax on net income tax. A foreign tax satisfies the net gain requirement in this paragraph (b) if the base of the foreign tax is the amount of a net income tax. For example, if a tax (surtax) is computed as a percentage of a separate levy that is itself a net income tax, then such surtax is considered to satisfy the net gain requirement.

(c) [Reserved]

(d) Separate levies -

(1) In general. Each foreign levy must be analyzed separately to determine whether it is a net income tax within the meaning of paragraph (a)(3) of this section and whether it is a tax in lieu of an income tax within the meaning of § 1.903-1(b)(2). Whether a single levy or separate levies are imposed by a foreign country depends on U.S. principles and not on whether foreign tax law imposes the levy or levies pursuant to a single or separate statutes. A foreign levy is a separate levy described in this paragraph (d)(1) if it is described in paragraph (d)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), or (iv) of this section. In the case of levies that apply to dual capacity taxpayers, see also § 1.901-2A(a).

(i) Taxing authority. A levy imposed by one taxing authority (for example, the national government of a foreign country) is always separate from a levy imposed by another taxing authority (for example, a political subdivision of that foreign country), even if the base of the levy is the same.

(ii) Different taxable base. Where the base of a foreign levy is computed differently for different classes of persons subject to the levy, the levy is considered to impose separate levies with respect to each such class of persons. For example, foreign levies identical to the taxes imposed by sections 1, 11, 541, 871(a), 871(b), 881, 882, 3101 and 3111 of the Internal Revenue Code are each separate levies, because the levies are imposed on different classes of taxpayers, and the base of each of those levies contains different items than the base of each of the others. A taxable base of a separate levy may consist of a particular type of income (for example, wage income, investment income, or income from self-employment). The taxable base of a separate levy may also consist of an amount unrelated to income (for example, wage expense or assets). A separate levy may provide that items included in the base of the tax are computed separately merely for purposes of a preliminary computation and are then combined as a single taxable base. Income included in the taxable base of a separate levy may also be included in the taxable base of another levy (which may or may not also include other items of income); separate levies are considered to be imposed if the taxable bases are not combined as a single taxable base, even if the taxable bases are determined using the same computational rules. For example, a foreign levy identical to the tax imposed by section 1 is a separate levy from a foreign levy identical to the tax imposed by section 1411, because tax is imposed under each levy on a separate taxable base that is not combined with the other as a single taxable base. Where foreign tax law imposes a levy that is the sum of two or more separately computed amounts of tax, and each such amount is computed by reference to a different base, separate levies are considered to be imposed. Levies are not separate merely because different rates apply to different classes of taxpayers that are subject to the same provisions in computing the base of the tax. For example, a foreign levy identical to the tax imposed on U.S. citizens and resident alien individuals by section 1 of the Internal Revenue Code is a single levy notwithstanding that the levy has graduated rates and applies different rate schedules to unmarried individuals, married individuals who file separate returns, and married individuals who file joint returns. In addition, in general, levies are not separate merely because some provisions determining the base of the levy apply, by their terms or in practice, to some, but not all, persons subject to the levy. For example, a foreign levy identical to the tax imposed by section 11 of the Internal Revenue Code is a single levy even though some provisions apply by their terms to some but not all corporations subject to the section 11 tax (for example, section 465 is by its terms applicable to corporations described in sections 465(a)(1)(B), but not to other corporations), and even though some provisions apply in practice to some but not all corporations subject to the section 11 tax (for example, section 611 does not, in practice, apply to any corporation that does not have a qualifying interest in the type of property described in section 611(a)).

(iii) Tax imposed on nonresidents. A foreign levy imposed on nonresidents is always treated as a separate levy from that imposed on residents, even if the base of the tax as applied to residents and nonresidents is the same, and even if the levies are treated as a single levy under foreign tax law. In addition, a withholding tax (as defined in section 901(k)(1)(B)) that is imposed on gross income of nonresidents is treated as a separate levy as to each separate class of income described in section 61 (for example, interest, dividends, rents, or royalties) subject to the withholding tax. If two or more subsets of a separate class of income are subject to a withholding tax based on different income attribution rules (for example, if technical services are subject to tax based on the residence of the payor and other services are subject to tax based on where the services are performed), separate levies are considered to be imposed with respect to each subset of that separate class of income.

(iv) Foreign levy modified by an applicable income tax treaty. A foreign levy that is limited in its application by, or is otherwise modified by, an income tax treaty to which the foreign country imposing the levy is a party is a separate levy from the levy imposed under the domestic law (without regard to the treaty) of the foreign country, and is also a separate levy from the foreign levy as modified by a different income tax treaty to which the foreign country imposing the levy is a party, even if the two treaties modify the foreign levy in exactly the same manner. Accordingly, a foreign levy paid by taxpayers that qualify for and claim benefits under an income tax treaty is a separate levy from the levy as applied to taxpayers that are ineligible for, or that do not claim, benefits under that treaty, even if the two foreign levies would apply in the same manner to a particular taxpayer, and regardless of whether the unmodified foreign levy is a foreign income tax within the meaning of paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section.

(2) Contractual modifications. Notwithstanding paragraph (d)(1) of this section, if foreign tax law imposing a levy is modified for one or more persons subject to the levy by a contract entered into by such person or persons and the foreign country, then the foreign tax law is considered for purposes of sections 901 and 903 to impose a separate levy for all persons to whom such contractual modification of the levy applies, as contrasted to the levy as applied to all persons to whom such contractual modification does not apply.

(3) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraph (d)(1) of this section.

(i) Example 1: Separate taxable bases -

(A) Facts. A foreign statute imposes a levy on corporations equal to the sum of 15% of the corporation's realized net income plus 3% of its net worth.

(B) Analysis. As the levy is the sum of two separately computed amounts, each of which is computed by reference to a separate base, under paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section each of the portion of the levy based on income and the portion of the levy based on net worth is considered, for purposes of sections 901 and 903, to be a separate levy.

(ii) Example 2: Separate taxable bases -

(A) Facts. A foreign statute imposes a levy on nonresident alien individuals analogous to the taxes imposed by section 871 of the Internal Revenue Code.

(B) Analysis. As the levy is imposed on separately computed amounts, each of which is computed by reference to a separate taxable base and portions of which comprise withholding tax on gross income of nonresidents, under paragraphs (d)(1)(ii) and (iii) of this section, each of the portions of the foreign levy imposed on each separate class of gross income analogous to the tax imposed by section 871(a) and the portion of the foreign levy analogous to the tax imposed by sections 871(b) and 1 is considered, for purposes of sections 901 and 903, to be a separate levy.

(iii) Example 3: Separate taxable bases -

(A) Facts.

(1) A single foreign statute or separate foreign statutes impose a foreign levy that is the sum of the products of specified rates applied to specified bases, as follows:

Table 1 to paragraph (d)(3)(iii)(A)(1)

Base Rate
(percent)
Net income from mining 45
Net income from manufacturing 50
Net income from technical services 50
Net income from other services 45
Net income from investments 15
All other net income 50

(2) In computing each such base, deductible expenditures are allocated to the type of income they generate. If allocated deductible expenditures exceed the gross amount of a specified type of income, the excess may not be applied against income of a different specified type.

(B) Analysis. The levy is the sum of several separately computed amounts, each of which is computed by reference to a separate base. Accordingly, under paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section, each of the levies on mining net income, manufacturing net income, technical services net income, other services net income, investment net income and other net income is considered, for purposes of sections 901 and 903, to be a separate levy.

(iv) Example 4: Combined taxable base after preliminary separate computation -

(A) Facts. The facts are the same as those in paragraph (d)(3)(iii)(A) of this section (the facts in Example 3), except that excess deductible expenditures allocated to one type of income are applied against other types of income to which the same rate applies.

(B) Analysis. Under paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section, the levies on mining net income and other services net income together are considered, for purposes of sections 901 and 903, to be a single levy since, despite a separate preliminary computation of the bases, by reason of the permitted application of excess allocated deductible expenditures the bases are not separately computed. For the same reason, the levies on manufacturing net income, technical services net income and other net income together are considered, for purposes of sections 901 and 903, to be a single levy. The levy on investment net income is considered, for purposes of sections 901 and 903, to be a separate levy. These results are not dependent on whether the application of excess allocated deductible expenditures to a different type of income is permitted in the same taxable period in which the expenditures are taken into account for purposes of the preliminary computation, or only in a different (for example, later) taxable period.

(v) Example 5: Combined taxable base with income subject to different rates -

(A) Facts. The facts are the same as those in paragraph (d)(3)(iii)(A) of this section (the facts in Example 3), except that excess deductible expenditures allocated to any type of income other than investment income are applied against the other types of income (including investment income) according to a specified set of priorities of application. Excess deductible expenditures allocated to investment income are not applied against any other type of income.

(B) Analysis. For the same reasons as those set forth in paragraph (d)(3)(iv)(B) of this section (the analysis in Example 4), all of the levies are together considered, for purposes of sections 901 and 903, to be a single levy.

(vi) Example 6: Minimum Tax -

(A) Facts. Country X imposes a net income tax (“Income Tax”) and a minimum tax (“Minimum Tax”) on its residents. Under Country X tax law, alternative minimum taxable income for purposes of the Minimum Tax equals the taxable income under the Income Tax increased by certain disallowed deductions. The Minimum Tax equals the excess, if any, of the alternative minimum taxable income times the Minimum Tax rate over the amount of the Income Tax.

(B) Analysis. Under paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section, the Minimum Tax is a separate levy from the Income Tax, because the taxable base of each levy is separately computed and not combined as a single taxable base. The result would be the same if under Country X tax law the Minimum Tax equaled the alternative minimum taxable income times the Minimum Tax rate, and residents of Country X were required to pay the greater of the Income Tax or the Minimum Tax (rather than the Income Tax plus the excess, if any, of the Minimum Tax over the Income Tax).

(vii) Example 7: Diverted Profits Tax -

(A) Facts. Country X imposes a 20% net income tax (“Income Tax”) and a 25% “Diverted Profits Tax” on nonresident corporations. Under Country X tax law, taxable income under the Diverted Profits Tax is determined first by attributing gross receipts of the nonresident corporation to a hypothetical permanent establishment in Country X. Country X applies the same computational rules that apply under the Income Tax to determine the taxable income attributable to a hypothetical permanent establishment under the Diverted Profits Tax.

(B) Analysis. Under paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section, the Diverted Profits Tax is a separate levy from the Income Tax, because the taxable income under the Diverted Profits Tax is not combined with the taxable income under the Income Tax as a single taxable base.

(viii) Example 8: Modified Income Tax -

(A) Facts. Country X imposes a net income tax (“Income Tax”) on nonresident corporations that carry on a trade or business in Country X through a permanent establishment. Under Country X tax law, the taxable base of the Income Tax as initially enacted is determined by attributing profits of the nonresident corporation to its permanent establishment in Country X based upon rules similar to Articles 5 and 7 of the 2016 U.S. Model Income Tax Convention. However, Country X later amends the Income Tax to provide that nonresident corporations that are engaged in certain digital transactions in Country X and earning revenues above certain thresholds are deemed to have a permanent establishment; under the Income Tax as originally enacted, such activities would not have created a permanent establishment in Country X.

(B) Analysis. Under paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section, the Income Tax as applied to nonresident corporations engaged in digital transactions and deemed to have a permanent establishment under the modified Income Tax is not a separate levy from the Income Tax as applied to the same or other nonresident corporations that would have permanent establishments under the Income Tax as originally enacted, because income attributable to both actual and deemed permanent establishments is combined as a single taxable base.

(ix) Example 9: Disallowed deductions -

(A) Facts. Country X imposes a net income tax (“Income Tax”) on resident corporations. In determining the taxable base for the Income Tax, Country X tax law has a cap on allowed interest deductions for companies engaged in the extraction, production, or refinement of oil or natural gas.

(B) Analysis. Under paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section, the Income Tax as applied to corporations engaged in the extraction, production, or refinement of oil or natural gas is not a separate levy from the Income Tax as applied to other corporations subject to the levy. The Income Tax is a single levy even though the cap on allowed interest expense deductions applies by its terms to some, but not all, corporations subject to the Income Tax.

(x) Example 10: Different taxable base for class of taxpayers -

(A) Facts. Country X imposes a net income tax (“Income Tax”) and an oil tax. The oil tax applies only to resident corporations engaged in the extraction, production, or refinement of oil, and resident corporations subject to the oil tax are not subject to the Income Tax. The taxable base under the oil tax is the taxable income under the Income Tax increased by disallowed interest expense.

(B) Analysis. Under paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section, the oil tax is a separate levy from the Income Tax, because the taxable income under the oil tax is not combined with the taxable income under the Income Tax as a single taxable base. The levies are imposed on different classes of taxpayers (resident taxpayers engaged in the extraction, production, or refinement of oil, in the case of the oil tax, and all other resident corporations, in the case of the Income Tax), and the base of each of those levies contains different items.

(e) Amount of foreign income tax that is creditable -

(1) In general. Credit is allowed under section 901 for the amount of foreign income tax that is paid by the taxpayer. Under paragraph (g) of this section, the term “paid” means “paid” or “accrued,” depending on the taxpayer's method of accounting for such taxes. The amount of foreign income tax paid by the taxpayer is determined separately for each taxpayer under the rules in this paragraph (e).

(2) Refunds and credits -

(i) Refundable amounts. An amount remitted to a foreign country is not an amount of foreign income tax paid to the extent that it is reasonably certain that the amount will be refunded, rebated, abated, or forgiven. It is reasonably certain that an amount will be refunded, rebated, abated, or forgiven to the extent the amount exceeds a reasonable approximation of final foreign income tax liability to the foreign country. See section 905(c) and § 1.905-3 for the required redeterminations if amounts claimed as a credit (on either the cash or accrual basis) exceed the amount of the final foreign income tax liability.

(ii) Credits. Except as provided in paragraph (e)(2)(iii) of this section, an amount of foreign income tax liability is not an amount of foreign income tax paid to the extent the foreign income tax liability is reduced, satisfied, or otherwise offset by a tax credit, including a tax credit that under the foreign tax law is payable in cash only to the extent it exceeds the taxpayer's liability for foreign income tax or a tax credit acquired from another taxpayer.

(iii) Exception for overpayments and other fully refundable credits. An amount of foreign income tax paid is not reduced (or treated as constructively refunded) solely by reason of the fact that a credit is allowed (or may be allowed) for the amount paid to reduce the amount of a different separate levy owed by the taxpayer. See paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (e)(4) of this section. However, under paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section (and taking into account any redetermination required under section 905(c) and § 1.905-3), an amount remitted with respect to a separate levy for a foreign taxable period that constitutes an overpayment of the taxpayer's final liability for that levy for that period, and that is refundable in cash at the taxpayer's option, is not an amount of tax paid. Therefore, if such an overpayment of one tax is applied as a credit against a different foreign income tax liability of the taxpayer for the same or a different taxable period, the credited amount of the overpayment may qualify as an amount paid of that different foreign income tax, if the credited amount does not exceed a reasonable approximation of the taxpayer's final foreign income tax liability for the taxable period to which the overpayment is applied. Similarly, if under the foreign tax law, the full amount of a tax credit is payable in cash at the taxpayer's option, the taxpayer's choice to apply all or a portion of the tax credit in satisfaction of a foreign income tax liability of the taxpayer is treated as a constructive payment of cash to the taxpayer in the amount so applied, followed by a constructive payment of the foreign income tax liability against which the credit is applied. An overpayment or other tax credit that under the foreign tax law is otherwise fully payable in cash at the taxpayer's option and that is applied in part in satisfaction of a foreign income tax liability is treated as an amount of foreign income tax paid notwithstanding that a portion of the amount otherwise payable in cash to the taxpayer is subject to a lien or otherwise seized in order to satisfy a different, pre-existing liability of the taxpayer to the foreign government or to a third party.

(iv) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraph (e)(2) of this section.

(A) Example 1. The domestic law of Country X imposes a 25 percent tax described in § 1.903-1(b) on the gross amount of interest from sources in Country X that is received by a nonresident of Country X. Country X imposes the tax on the nonresident recipient and requires any resident of Country X that pays such interest to a nonresident to withhold and pay over to Country X 25 percent of such interest, which is applied to offset the recipient's liability for the 25 percent tax. A tax treaty between the United States and Country X modifies domestic law of Country X and provides that Country X may not tax interest received by a resident of the United States from a resident of Country X at a rate in excess of 10 percent of the gross amount of such interest. A resident of the United States may claim the benefit of the treaty only by applying for a refund of the excess withheld amount (15 percent of the gross amount of interest income) after the end of the taxable year. A, a resident of the United States, receives a gross amount of 100u (units of Country X currency) of interest income from a resident of Country X from sources in Country X in Year 1, from which 25u of Country X tax is withheld. A files a timely claim for refund of the 15u excess withheld amount. 15u of the amount withheld (25u − 10u) is reasonably certain to be refunded; therefore, under paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section 15u is not considered an amount of foreign income tax paid to Country X.

(B) Example 2. A's initial foreign income tax liability under Country X tax law is 100u (units of Country X currency). However, under Country X tax law A's initial income tax liability is reduced in order to compute A's final tax liability by an investment credit of 15u and a credit for charitable contributions of 5u. Under paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section, the amount of foreign income tax paid by A is 80u.

(C) Example 3. A computes foreign income tax liability in Country X for Year 1 of 100u (units of Country X currency), files a tax return on that basis, and remits 100u of tax. The day after A files that return, A files a claim for refund of 90u. The difference between the 100u of liability reflected in A's original return and the 10u of liability reflected in A's refund claim depends on whether a particular expenditure made by A is nondeductible or deductible, respectively. Based on an analysis of the Country X tax law, A's Country X tax advisors have advised A that it is not clear whether or not that expenditure is deductible. In view of the uncertainty as to the proper treatment of the item in question under Country X tax law, no portion of the 100u paid by A is reasonably certain to be refunded. If A receives a refund, A must treat the refund as required by section 905(c) of the Internal Revenue Code.

(D) Example 4. A levy of Country X, which qualifies as a foreign income tax within the meaning of paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section, provides that each person who makes payment to Country X pursuant to the levy will receive a bond to be issued by Country X with an amount payable at maturity equal to 10 percent of the amount paid pursuant to the levy. A remits 38,000u (units of Country X currency) to Country X and is entitled to receive a bond with an amount payable at maturity of 3,800u. It is reasonably certain that a refund in the form of property (the bond) will be made. The amount of that refund is equal to the fair market value of the bond. Therefore, only the portion of the 38,000u payment in excess of the fair market value of the bond is an amount of foreign income tax paid.

(3) Subsidies -

(i) General rule. An amount of foreign income tax is not an amount of foreign income tax paid by a taxpayer to a foreign country to the extent that -

(A) The amount is used, directly or indirectly, by the foreign country imposing the tax to provide a subsidy by any means (including, but not limited to, a rebate, a refund, a credit, a deduction, a payment, a discharge of an obligation, or any other method) to the taxpayer, to a related person (within the meaning of section 482), to any party to the transaction, or to any party to a related transaction; and

(B) The subsidy is determined, directly or indirectly, by reference to the amount of the tax or by reference to the base used to compute the amount of the tax.

(ii) Subsidy. The term “subsidy” includes any benefit conferred, directly or indirectly, by a foreign country to one of the parties enumerated in paragraph (e)(3)(i)(A) of this section. Substance and not form shall govern in determining whether a subsidy exists. The fact that the U.S. taxpayer may derive no demonstrable benefit from the subsidy is irrelevant in determining whether a subsidy exists.

(iii) Official exchange rate. A subsidy described in paragraph (e)(3)(i)(B) of this section does not include the actual use of an official foreign government exchange rate converting foreign currency into dollars where a free exchange rate also exists if -

(A) The economic benefit represented by the use of the official exchange rate is not targeted to or tied to transactions that give rise to a claim for a foreign tax credit;

(B) The economic benefit of the official exchange rate applies to a broad range of international transactions, in all cases based on the total payment to be made without regard to whether the payment is a return of principal, gross income, or net income, and without regard to whether it is subject to tax; and

(C) Any reduction in the overall cost of the transaction is merely coincidental to the broad structure and operation of the official exchange rate.

(iv) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraph (e)(3) of this section.

(A) Example 1 -

(1) Facts. Country X imposes a 30 percent tax on nonresident lenders with respect to interest which the nonresident lenders receive from borrowers who are residents of Country X, and it is established that this tax is a tax in lieu of an income tax within the meaning of § 1.903-1(b). Country X provides the nonresident lenders with receipts upon their payment of the 30 percent tax. Country X remits to resident borrowers an incentive payment for engaging in foreign loans, which payment is an amount equal to 20 percent of the interest paid to nonresident lenders.

(2) Analysis. Because the incentive payment is based on the interest paid, it is determined by reference to the base used to compute the tax that is imposed on the nonresident lender. The incentive payment is a subsidy under paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section since it is provided to a party (the borrower) to the transaction and is based on the amount of tax that is imposed on the lender with respect to the transaction. Therefore, two-thirds (20 percent/30 percent) of the amount withheld by the resident borrower from interest payments to the nonresident lender is not an amount of foreign income tax paid.

(B) Example 2 -

(1) Facts. A U.S. bank lends money to a development bank in Country X. The development bank relends the money to companies resident in Country X. A withholding tax is imposed by Country X on the U.S. bank with respect to the interest that the development bank pays to the U.S. bank, and appropriate receipts are provided. On the date that the tax is withheld, fifty percent of the tax is credited by Country X to an account of the development bank. Country X requires the development bank to transfer the amount credited to the borrowing companies.

(2) Analysis. The amount successively credited to the account of the development bank and then to the account of the borrowing companies is determined by reference to the amount of the tax and the tax base. Since the amount credited to the borrowing companies is a subsidy provided to a party (the borrowing companies) to a related transaction and is based on the amount of tax and the tax base, under paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section it is not an amount of foreign income tax paid.

(C) Example 3 -

(1) Facts. A U.S. bank lends dollars to a Country X borrower. Country X imposes a withholding tax on the lender with respect to the interest. The tax is to be paid in Country X currency, although the interest is payable in dollars. Country X has a dual exchange rate system, comprised of a controlled official exchange rate and a free exchange rate. Priority transactions such as exports of merchandise, imports of merchandise, and payments of principal and interest on foreign currency loans payable abroad to foreign lenders are governed by the official exchange rate which yields more dollars per unit of Country X currency than the free exchange rate. The Country X borrower remits the net amount of dollar interest due to the U.S. bank (interest due less withholding tax), pays the tax withheld in Country X currency to the Country X government, and provides to the U.S. bank a receipt for payment of the Country X taxes.

(2) Analysis. Under paragraph (e)(3)(iii) of this section, the use of the official exchange rate by the U.S. bank to determine foreign taxes with respect to interest is not a subsidy described in paragraph (e)(3)(i)(B) of this section. The official exchange rate is not targeted to or tied to transactions that give rise to a claim for a foreign tax credit. The use of the official exchange rate applies to the interest paid and to the principal paid. Any benefit derived by the U.S. bank through the use of the official exchange rate is merely coincidental to the broad structure and operation of the official exchange rate.

(D) Example 4 -

(1) Facts. B, a U.S. corporation, is engaged in the production of oil and gas in Country X pursuant to a production sharing agreement among B, Country X, and the state petroleum authority of Country X. The agreement is approved and enacted into law by the Legislature of Country X. Both B and the petroleum authority are subject to the Country X income tax. Each entity files an annual income tax return and pays, to the tax authority of Country X, the amount of income tax due on its annual income. B is a dual capacity taxpayer as defined in § 1.901-2(a)(2)(ii)(A). Country X has agreed to return to the petroleum authority one-half of the income taxes paid by B by allowing it a credit in calculating its own tax liability to Country X.

(2) Analysis. The petroleum authority is a party to a transaction with B and the amount returned by Country X to the petroleum authority is determined by reference to the amount of the tax imposed on B. Therefore, under paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section the amount returned is a subsidy, and one-half of the tax imposed on B is not an amount of foreign income tax paid.

(E) Example 5 -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as those in paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D)(1) of this section (the facts in Example 4), except that the state petroleum authority of Country X does not receive amounts from Country X related to tax paid by B. Instead, the authority of Country X receives a general appropriation from Country X which is not calculated with reference to the amount of tax paid by B.

(2) Analysis. Because the general appropriation is not calculated with reference to the amount of tax paid by B, it is not a subsidy described in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section.

(4) Multiple levies -

(i) In general. If, under foreign law, a taxpayer's tentative liability for one levy (the “reduced levy”) is or can be reduced by the amount of the taxpayer's liability for a different levy (the “applied levy”), then the amount considered paid by the taxpayer to the foreign country pursuant to the applied levy is an amount equal to its entire liability for that applied levy (which is not considered to be reduced by the amount applied against the reduced levy), and the remainder of the total amount paid, if any, is considered paid pursuant to the reduced levy. See also paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section.

(ii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (iii) and (e)(4)(i) of this section.

(A) Example 1: Tax reduced by credits -

(1) Facts. A's tentative liability for foreign income tax imposed by Country X is 100u (units of Country X currency). However, under Country X tax law, in determining A's final foreign income tax liability, its tentative liability is reduced by a 15u credit for a separate Country X levy that does not qualify as a foreign income tax and that A accrued and paid on its gross services income and is also reduced by a 5u credit for charitable contributions. Under Country X tax law, the amount of the charitable contributions credit is refundable in cash to the extent the credit exceeds the taxpayer's Country X income tax liability after applying the credit for the tax on gross services income. A timely remits the 80u due to Country X.

(2) Analysis. Under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (e)(4) of this section, the amount of Country X income tax paid by A is 80u (100u tentative liability − 20u tax credits), and the amount of Country X tax on gross services income paid by A is 15u.

(B) Example 2: Tax paid by credit for overpayment -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as those in paragraph (e)(4)(ii)(A)(1) of this section (the facts in Example 1), except that A's final Country X income tax liability of 80u is satisfied by applying a credit for an otherwise refundable 60u overpayment from the previous taxable year of A's liability for a separate levy imposed by Country X that is also a foreign income tax and remitting the balance due of 20u.

(2) Analysis. The result is the same as in paragraph (e)(4)(ii)(A)(2) of this section (the analysis in Example 1). Under paragraph (e)(2)(iii) of this section, the portion of A's Country X income tax liability that was satisfied by applying the 60u overpayment of A's different foreign income tax liability for the previous taxable year qualifies as an amount of Country X income tax paid, because that refundable overpayment exceeded (and so is not treated as a payment of) A's different foreign income tax liability for the previous taxable year.

(5) Noncompulsory amounts -

(i) In general. An amount remitted to a foreign country (a “foreign payment”) is not a compulsory payment, and thus is not an amount of foreign income tax paid, to the extent that the foreign payment exceeds the amount of liability for foreign income tax under the foreign tax law (as defined in paragraph (g) of this section). A foreign payment does not exceed the amount of such liability if the foreign payment is determined by the taxpayer in a manner that is consistent with a reasonable interpretation and application of the substantive and procedural provisions of foreign tax law (including applicable tax treaties) in such a way as to reduce, over time, the taxpayer's reasonably expected liability under foreign tax law for foreign income tax, and if the taxpayer exhausts all effective and practical remedies, including invocation of competent authority procedures available under applicable tax treaties, to reduce, over time, the taxpayer's liability for foreign income tax (including liability pursuant to a foreign tax audit adjustment). See paragraphs (e)(5)(ii) through (v) of this section. Whether a taxpayer has satisfied its obligation to minimize the aggregate amount of its liability for foreign income taxes over time is determined without regard to the present value of a deferred tax liability or other time value of money considerations. However, a taxpayer is not required to reduce its foreign income tax liability to the extent the reasonably expected, arm's length costs of reducing the liability would exceed the amount by which the liability could be reduced. For this purpose, such costs may include an additional liability for a different foreign tax (but not U.S. taxes) that is not a foreign income tax only to the extent the amount of the additional liability is determined in a manner consistent with the rules of this paragraph (e)(5). A taxpayer is not required to alter its form of doing business, its business conduct, or the form of any business transaction in order to reduce its liability under foreign law for foreign income tax.

(ii) Reasonable application of foreign tax law. An interpretation or application of foreign tax law is not reasonable if there is actual notice or constructive notice (for example, a published court decision) to the taxpayer that the interpretation or application is likely to be erroneous. In interpreting foreign tax law, a taxpayer may generally rely on advice obtained in good faith from competent foreign tax advisors to whom the taxpayer has disclosed the relevant facts. Except as provided in paragraphs (e)(5)(i) and (e)(5)(iv) of this section, voluntarily forgoing a tax benefit to which a taxpayer is entitled under the foreign tax law results in a foreign payment in excess of the taxpayer's liability for foreign income tax.

(iii) Effect of foreign tax law elections -

(A) In general. Where foreign tax law includes options or elections whereby a taxpayer's foreign income tax liability may be shifted, in whole or part, to a different year or years, the taxpayer's use or failure to use such options or elections does not result in a foreign payment in excess of the taxpayer's liability for foreign income tax. Except as provided in paragraph (e)(5)(iii)(B) of this section, where foreign tax law provides a taxpayer with options or elections in computing its liability for foreign income tax whereby a taxpayer's foreign income tax liability may be permanently decreased in the aggregate over time, the taxpayer's failure to use such options or elections results in a foreign payment in excess of the taxpayer's liability for foreign income tax.

(B) Exception for certain options or elections -

(1) Entity classification elections. If foreign tax law provides an option or election to treat an entity as fiscally transparent or non-fiscally transparent, a taxpayer's decision to use or not use such option or election is not considered to increase the taxpayer's liability for foreign income tax over time for purposes of this paragraph (e)(5).

(2) Foreign consolidation, group relief, or other loss sharing regime. If foreign tax law provides an option or election for one foreign entity to join in the filing of a consolidated return with another foreign entity, or to surrender its loss in order to offset the income of another foreign entity pursuant to a foreign group relief or other loss-sharing regime, a taxpayer's decision whether to file a consolidated return, whether to surrender a loss, or whether to use a surrendered loss, is not considered to increase the taxpayer's liability for foreign income tax over time for purposes of this paragraph (e)(5).

(C) Alternative creditable levies. If under foreign tax law a taxpayer has the option to determine its foreign income tax liability under only one of multiple separate levies, each of which qualifies as a foreign income tax, then the amount of foreign income tax paid equals the smallest liability of the amounts that would be due under each of the alternative levies, regardless of which levy the taxpayer uses to determine its foreign income tax liability.

(iv) Exception for increase in liability in connection with anti-hybrid rules -

(A) In general. If a taxpayer (the “first taxpayer”) that makes a payment to another taxpayer (the “second taxpayer”) is permitted to increase the first taxpayer's liability for foreign income tax (for example, by waiving an otherwise allowable deduction), and doing so results in a greater decrease in the amount of liability for foreign income tax of the second taxpayer by reason of the deactivation of a hybrid mismatch rule that would otherwise apply to the second taxpayer, then the increase in the first taxpayer's liability is not considered to result in a foreign payment in excess of the first taxpayer's liability for foreign income tax for purposes of this paragraph (e)(5).

(B) Definition of hybrid mismatch rule. The term hybrid mismatch rule means foreign tax law rules substantially similar to sections 245A(e) and 267A and includes rules the purpose of which is to eliminate the deduction/no-inclusion outcome of hybrid and branch mismatch arrangements. Examples of such rules include rules based on, or substantially similar to, the recommendations contained in OECD/G-20, Neutralising the Effects of Hybrid Mismatch Arrangements, Action 2: 2015 Final Report (October 2015), and OECD/G-20, Neutralising the Effects of Branch Mismatch Arrangements, Action 2: Inclusive Framework on BEPS (July 2017).

(v) Exhaustion of remedies. In determining whether a taxpayer has exhausted all effective and practical remedies, a remedy is effective and practical only if the cost of pursuing it (including the reasonably expected risk of incurring an offsetting or additional foreign income tax or other tax liability) is reasonable considering the amount at issue and the likelihood of success. An available remedy is considered effective and practical if an economically rational taxpayer would pursue it whether or not a compulsory payment of the amount at issue would be eligible for a U.S. foreign tax credit. A settlement by a taxpayer of two or more issues will be evaluated on an overall basis, not on an issue-by-issue basis, in determining whether an amount is a compulsory payment.

(vi) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraph (e)(5) of this section.

(A) Example 1. A, a corporation organized and doing business solely in the United States, owns all of the stock of B, a corporation organized in Country X. In Year 1, A buys merchandise from unrelated persons for $1,000,000, and shortly thereafter resells that merchandise to B for $600,000. Later in Year 1, B resells the merchandise to unrelated persons for $1,200,000. Under the Country X income tax, which is a net income tax within the meaning of paragraph (a)(3) of this section, all corporations organized in Country X are subject to a tax equal to 3 percent of their net income. In computing its Year 1 Country X income tax liability, B reports $600,000 ($1,200,000 − $600,000) of profit from the purchase and resale of merchandise. The Country X tax law requires that transactions between related persons be reported at arm's length prices, and a reasonable interpretation of this requirement, as it has been applied in Country X, would consider B's arm's length purchase price of the merchandise purchased from A to be $1,050,000. When it computes its Country X tax liability B is aware that $600,000 is not an arm's length price (by Country X standards). B's knowing use of a non-arm's length price (by Country X standards) of $600,000, instead of a price of $1,050,000 (an arm's length price under Country X's law), is not consistent with a reasonable interpretation and application of Country X tax law, determined in such a way as to reduce over time B's reasonably expected liability for Country X income tax. Accordingly, $13,500 (3 percent of $450,000 ($1,050,000 − $600,000)), the amount of Country X income tax remitted by B to Country X that is attributable to the purchase of the merchandise from B's parent at less than an arm's length price, is in excess of the amount of B's liability for Country X income tax, and thus is not an amount of foreign income tax paid.

(B) Example 2. A, a corporation organized and doing business solely in the United States, owns all of the stock of B, a corporation organized in Country X. Country X has in force an income tax treaty with the United States. The tax treaty provides that the profits of related persons shall be determined as if the persons were not related. A and B deal extensively with each other. A and B, with respect to a series of transactions involving both of them, treat A as having $300,000 of income and B as having $700,000 of income for purposes of A's United States income tax and B's Country X income tax, respectively. B has no actual or constructive notice that its treatment of these transactions under Country X tax law is likely to be erroneous. Subsequently, the Internal Revenue Service reallocates $200,000 of this income from B to A under the authority of section 482 and the tax treaty. This reallocation constitutes actual notice to A and constructive notice to B that B's interpretation and application of Country X's tax law and the tax treaty is likely to be erroneous. B does not exhaust all effective and practical remedies to obtain a refund of the amount remitted by B to Country X that is attributable to the reallocated $200,000 of income. Under paragraph (e)(5)(i) of this section, this amount is in excess of the amount of B's liability for Country X income tax and thus is not an amount of foreign income tax paid.

(C) Example 3. The facts are the same as those in paragraph (e)(5)(vi)(B) of this section (the facts in Example 2), except that B files a claim for refund (an administrative proceeding) of Country X tax and A or B invokes the competent authority procedures of the tax treaty, the cost of which is reasonable in view of the amount at issue and the likelihood of success. Nevertheless, B does not obtain any refund of Country X income tax. The cost of pursuing any judicial remedy in Country X would be unreasonable in light of the amount at issue and the likelihood of B's success, and B does not pursue any such remedy. Under paragraph (e)(5)(i) of this section, the entire amount paid by B to Country X is a compulsory payment and thus is an amount of foreign income tax paid by B.

(D) Example 4. The facts are the same as those in paragraph (e)(5)(vi)(B) of this section (the facts in Example 2), except that, when the Internal Revenue Service makes the reallocation, the Country X statute of limitations on refunds has expired, and neither the internal law of Country X nor the tax treaty authorizes the Country X tax authorities to pay a refund that is barred by the statute of limitations. B does not file a claim for refund, and neither A nor B invokes the competent authority procedures of the tax treaty. Because the Country X tax authorities would be barred by the statute of limitations from paying a refund, B has no effective and practical remedies. Under paragraph (e)(5)(i) of this section, the entire amount paid by B to Country X is a compulsory payment and thus is an amount of foreign income tax paid by B.

(E) Example 5. A is a U.S. person doing business in Country X. In computing its income tax liability to Country X, A is permitted, at its election, to recover the cost of machinery used in its business either by deducting that cost in the year of acquisition or by depreciating that cost on the straight-line method over a period of 2, 4, 6 or 10 years. A elects to depreciate machinery over 10 years. This election merely shifts A's tax liability to different years (compared to the timing of A's tax liability under a different depreciation period); it does not result in a payment in excess of the amount of A's liability for Country X income tax in any year since the amount of Country X income tax paid by A is consistent with a reasonable interpretation of Country X tax law in such a way as to reduce over time A's reasonably expected liability for Country X income tax. Because the standard of paragraph (e)(5)(i) of this section refers to A's reasonably expected liability, not its actual liability, events actually occurring in subsequent years (for example, whether A has sufficient profit in such years so that such depreciation deductions actually reduce A's Country X tax liability or whether the Country X tax rates change) are immaterial.

(F) Example 6. The domestic law of Country X imposes a 25 percent tax described in § 1.903-1(b) on the gross amount of interest from sources in Country X that is received by a nonresident of Country X. Country X tax law imposes the tax on the nonresident recipient and requires any resident of Country X that pays such interest to a nonresident to withhold and pay over to Country X 25 percent of such interest, which is applied to offset the recipient's liability for the 25 percent tax. A tax treaty between the United States and Country X overrides domestic law of Country X and provides that Country X may not tax interest received by a resident of the United States from a resident of Country X at a rate in excess of 10 percent of the gross amount of such interest. A resident of the United States may claim the benefit of the tax treaty only by applying for a refund of the excess withheld amount (15 percent of the gross amount of interest income) after the end of the taxable year. A, a resident of the United States, receives a gross amount of 100u (units of Country X currency) of interest income from a resident of Country X from sources in Country X in Year 1, from which 25u of Country X tax is withheld. A does not file a timely claim for refund. Under paragraph (e)(5)(i) of this section, 15u of the amount withheld (25u − 10u) is not a compulsory payment and thus is not an amount of foreign income tax paid.

(G) Example 7: Reasonable steps to minimize creditable tax - larger noncreditable tax cost -

(1) Facts. Corporations resident in Country X are subject to a 20% generally applicable net income tax, which qualifies as a foreign income tax under paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section (“Income Tax”), and a separate levy equal to 25% of certain deductible payments above a specified threshold made to related parties that are not residents of Country X, which does not qualify as a foreign income tax under paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section (“Base Erosion Tax”). CFC, a Country X corporation, makes payments to nonresident related parties that exceed the specified threshold of the Base Erosion Tax by 100u (units of Country X currency), which if claimed as deductions would result in a Base Erosion Tax of 25u (.25 × 100u), and would also result in 300u of taxable income for purposes of the Income Tax, thus resulting in Income Tax of 60u (.20 × 300u). If in computing its liability for Income Tax CFC does not claim deductions for the 100u of excess related party payments, its liability for the Base Erosion Tax would be zero, and its liability for Income Tax would be 80u (.20 × 400u).

(2) Analysis. If CFC chooses not to deduct the 100u of excess related party payments that would subject it to the Base Erosion Tax and pays 80u of Income Tax, the amount of foreign income tax paid under paragraph (e)(5) of this section is 80u. Under paragraph (e)(5)(i) of this section, although CFC could reduce its liability for Income Tax from 80u to 60u by claiming the deductions, no portion of the Income Tax remitted is a noncompulsory payment because reducing the Income Tax by 20u would incur a Base Erosion Tax of 25u, which exceeds the amount of the potential reduction.

(H) Example 8: Reasonable steps to minimize creditable tax - smaller noncreditable tax cost -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as those in paragraph (e)(5)(vi)(G)(1) of this section (the facts in Example 7) except that the rate of the Base Erosion Tax is 20% and the rate of the Income Tax is 25%. Accordingly, if CFC claims the 100u of excess deductions its liability for Base Erosion Tax would be 20u (.20 × 100u), and its liability for Income Tax would be 75u (.25 × 300u). If CFC chooses not to claim the 100u of excess deductions its liability for Base Erosion Tax would be zero, and its liability for Income Tax would be 100u (.25 × 400u).

(2) Analysis. If CFC chooses not to claim the 100u of excess deductions in computing its liability for Income Tax and pays 100u of Income Tax, the amount of foreign income tax paid under paragraph (e)(5) of this section is 75u. CFC's additional payment of 25u is not an amount of Income Tax paid, because CFC could have reduced its Income Tax liability by 25u by claiming the excess deductions and paying 20u of Base Erosion Tax.

(I) Example 9: Alternative creditable taxes -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as those in paragraph (e)(5)(vi)(G)(1) of this section (the facts in Example 7), except that Country X does not have a Base Erosion Tax, and it allows resident corporations to elect to pay either the Income Tax or a separate levy using an alternative cost allowance (the “Alternative Tax”), which qualifies as a tax in lieu of an income tax under § 1.903-1(b)(2). CFC's liability under the Income Tax is 80u, and its liability under the Alternative Tax is 100u. CFC chooses to pay the 100u of Alternative Tax rather than the 80u of Income Tax.

(2) Analysis. Under paragraph (e)(5)(iii)(C) of this section, the amount of foreign income tax paid by CFC is 80u, the smaller of the amounts due under the two alternative foreign income taxes.

(vii) Structured passive investment arrangements -

(A) In general. Notwithstanding paragraph (e)(5)(i) of this section, an amount paid to a foreign country (a “foreign payment”) is not a compulsory payment, and thus is not an amount of foreign income tax paid, if the foreign payment is attributable (within the meaning of paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(1)(ii) of this section) to a structured passive investment arrangement (as described in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B) of this section).

(B) Conditions. An arrangement is a structured passive investment arrangement if all of the following conditions are satisfied:

(1) Special purpose vehicle (SPV). An entity that is part of the arrangement meets the following requirements:

(i) Substantially all of the gross income (for U.S. tax purposes) of the entity, if any, is passive investment income, and substantially all of the assets of the entity are assets held to produce such passive investment income.

(ii) There is a foreign payment attributable to income of the entity (as determined under the laws of the foreign country to which such foreign payment is made), including the entity's share of income of a lower-tier entity that is a branch or pass-through entity under the laws of such foreign country, that, if the foreign payment were an amount of foreign income tax paid, would be paid in a U.S. taxable year in which the entity meets the requirements of paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(1)(i) of this section. A foreign payment attributable to income of an entity includes a foreign payment attributable to income that is required to be taken into account by an owner of the entity, if the entity is a branch or pass-through entity under the laws of such foreign country. A foreign payment attributable to income of the entity also includes a withholding tax (within the meaning of section 901(k)(1)(B)) imposed on a dividend or other distribution (including distributions made by a pass-through entity or an entity that is disregarded as an entity separate from its owner for U.S. tax purposes) with respect to the equity of the entity.

(2) U.S. party. A person would be eligible to claim a credit under section 901(a) (including a credit for foreign taxes deemed paid under section 960) for all or a portion of the foreign payment described in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(1)(ii) of this section if the foreign payment were an amount of foreign income tax paid.

(3) Direct investment. The U.S. party's proportionate share of the foreign payment or payments described in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(1)(ii) of this section is (or is expected to be) substantially greater than the amount of credits, if any, that the U.S. party reasonably would expect to be eligible to claim under section 901(a) for foreign income taxes attributable to income generated by the U.S. party's proportionate share of the assets owned by the SPV if the U.S. party directly owned such assets. For this purpose, direct ownership shall not include ownership through a branch, a permanent establishment or any other arrangement (such as an agency arrangement or dual resident status) that would result in the income generated by the U.S. party's proportionate share of the assets being subject to tax on a net basis in the foreign country to which the payment is made. A U.S. party's proportionate share of the assets of the SPV shall be determined by reference to such U.S. party's proportionate share of the total value of all of the outstanding interests in the SPV that are held by its equity owners and creditors. A U.S. party's proportionate share of the assets of the SPV, however, shall not include any assets that produce income subject to gross basis withholding tax.

(4) Foreign tax benefit. The arrangement is reasonably expected to result in a credit, deduction, loss, exemption, exclusion or other tax benefit under the laws of a foreign country that is available to a counterparty or to a person that is related to the counterparty (determined under the principles of paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(C)(7) of this section by applying the tax laws of a foreign country in which the counterparty is subject to tax on a net basis). However, a foreign tax benefit in the form of a credit is described in this paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(4) only if the amount of any such credit corresponds to 10 percent or more of the amount of the U.S. party's share (for U.S. tax purposes) of the foreign payment referred to in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(1)(ii) of this section. In addition, a foreign tax benefit in the form of a deduction, loss, exemption, exclusion or other tax benefit is described in this paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(4) only if such amount corresponds to 10 percent or more of the foreign base with respect to which the U.S. party's share (for U.S. tax purposes) of the foreign payment is imposed. For purposes of the preceding two sentences, if an arrangement involves more than one U.S. party or more than one counterparty or both, the aggregate amount of foreign tax benefits available to all of the counterparties and persons related to such counterparties is compared to the aggregate amount of all of the U.S. parties' shares of the foreign payment or foreign base, as the case may be. Where a U.S. party indirectly owns interests in an SPV that are treated as equity interests for both U.S. and foreign tax purposes, a foreign tax benefit available to a foreign entity in the chain of ownership that begins with the SPV and ends with the first-tier entity in the chain does not correspond to the U.S. party's share of the foreign payment attributable to income of the SPV to the extent that such benefit relates to earnings of the SPV that are distributed with respect to equity interests in the SPV that are owned directly or indirectly by the U.S. party for purposes of both U.S. and foreign tax law.

(5) Counterparty. The arrangement involves a counterparty. A counterparty is a person that, under the tax laws of a foreign country in which the person is subject to tax on the basis of place of management, place of incorporation or similar criterion or otherwise subject to a net basis tax, directly or indirectly owns or acquires equity interests in, or assets of, the SPV. However, a counterparty does not include the SPV or a person with respect to which for U.S. tax purposes the same domestic corporation, U.S. citizen or resident alien individual directly or indirectly owns more than 80 percent of the total value of the stock (or equity interests) of each of the U.S. party and such person. A counterparty also does not include a person with respect to which for U.S. tax purposes the U.S. party directly or indirectly owns more than 80 percent of the total value of the stock (or equity interests), but only if the U.S. party is a domestic corporation, a U.S. citizen or a resident alien individual. In addition, a counterparty does not include an individual who is a U.S. citizen or resident alien.

(6) Inconsistent treatment. The United States and an applicable foreign country treat one or more of the aspects of the arrangement listed in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(6)(i) through (iv) of this section differently under their respective tax systems, and for one or more tax years when the arrangement is in effect one or both of the following two conditions applies; either the amount of income attributable to the SPV that is recognized for U.S. tax purposes by the SPV, the U.S. party or parties, and persons related to a U.S. party or parties is materially less than the amount of income that would be recognized if the foreign tax treatment controlled for U.S. tax purposes; or the amount of credits claimed by the U.S. party or parties (if the foreign payment described in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(1)(ii) of this section were an amount of foreign income tax paid) is materially greater than it would be if the foreign tax treatment controlled for U.S. tax purposes:

(i) The classification of the SPV (or an entity that has a direct or indirect ownership interest in the SPV) as a corporation or other entity subject to an entity-level tax, a partnership or other flow-through entity or an entity that is disregarded for tax purposes.

(ii) The characterization as debt, equity or an instrument that is disregarded for tax purposes of an instrument issued by the SPV (or an entity that has a direct or indirect ownership interest in the SPV) to a U.S. party, a counterparty or a person related to a U.S. party or a counterparty.

(iii) The proportion of the equity of the SPV (or an entity that directly or indirectly owns the SPV) that is considered to be owned directly or indirectly by a U.S. party and a counterparty.

(iv) The amount of taxable income that is attributable to the SPV for one or more tax years during which the arrangement is in effect.

(C) Definitions. The following definitions apply for purposes of paragraph (e)(5)(vii) of this section.

(1) Applicable foreign country. An applicable foreign country means each foreign country to which a foreign payment described in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(1)(ii) of this section is made or which confers a foreign tax benefit described in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(4) of this section.

(2) Counterparty. The term counterparty means a person described in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(5) of this section.

(3) Entity. The term entity includes a corporation, trust, partnership or disregarded entity described in § 301.7701-2(c)(2)(i).

(4) Indirect ownership. Indirect ownership of stock or another equity interest (such as an interest in a partnership) shall be determined in accordance with the principles of section 958(a)(2), regardless of whether the interest is owned by a U.S. or foreign entity.

(5) Passive investment income -

(i) In general. The term passive investment income means income described in section 954(c), as modified by this paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(C)(5)(i) and paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(C)(5)(ii) of this section. In determining whether income is described in section 954(c), paragraphs (c)(1)(H), (c)(3), and (c)(6) of section 954 shall be disregarded. Sections 954(c), 954(h), and 954(i) shall be applied at the entity level as if the entity (as defined in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(C)(3) of this section) were a controlled foreign corporation (as defined in section 957(a)). For purposes of determining if sections 954(h) and 954(i) apply for purposes of this paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(C)(5)(i) and paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(C)(5)(ii) of this section, any income of an entity attributable to transactions that, assuming the entity is an SPV, are with a person that is a counterparty, or with persons that are related to a counterparty within the meaning of paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(4) of this section, shall not be treated as qualified banking or financing income or as qualified insurance income, and shall not be taken into account in applying sections 954(h) and 954(i) for purposes of determining whether other income of the entity is excluded from section 954(c)(1) under section 954(h) or 954(i), but only if any such person (or a person that is related to such person within the meaning of paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(4) of this section) is eligible for a foreign tax benefit described in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(4) of this section. In addition, in applying section 954(h) for purposes of this paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(C)(5)(i) and paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(C)(5)(ii) of this section, section 954(h)(3)(E) shall not apply, section 954(h)(2)(A)(ii) shall be satisfied only if the entity conducts substantial activity with respect to its business through its own employees, and the term “any foreign country” shall be substituted for “home country” wherever it appears in section 954(h).

(ii) Income attributable to lower-tier entities; holding company exception. Income of an upper-tier entity that is attributable to an equity interest in a lower-tier entity, including dividends, an allocable share of partnership income, and income attributable to the ownership of an interest in an entity that is disregarded as an entity separate from its owner is passive investment income unless substantially all of the upper-tier entity's assets consist of qualified equity interests in one or more lower-tier entities, each of which is engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business and derives more than 50 percent of its gross income from such trade or business, and substantially all of the upper-tier entity's opportunity for gain and risk of loss with respect to each such interest in a lower-tier entity is shared by the U.S. party (or persons that are related to a U.S. party) and, assuming the entity is an SPV, a counterparty (or persons that are related to a counterparty) (“holding company exception”). If an arrangement involves more than one U.S. party or more than one counterparty or both, then substantially all of the upper-tier entity's opportunity for gain and risk of loss with respect to its interest in any lower-tier entity must be shared (directly or indirectly) by one or more U.S. parties (or persons related to such U.S. parties) and, assuming the upper-tier entity is an SPV, one or more counterparties (or persons related to such counterparties). Substantially all of the upper-tier entity's opportunity for gain and risk of loss with respect to its interest in any lower-tier entity is not shared if the opportunity for gain and risk of loss is borne (directly or indirectly) by one or more U.S. parties (or persons related to such U.S. party or parties) or, assuming the upper-tier entity is an SPV, by one or more counterparties (or persons related to such counterparty or counterparties). Whether and the extent to which a person is considered to share in an upper-tier entity's opportunity for gain and risk of loss is determined based on all the facts and circumstances, provided, however, that a person does not share in an upper-tier entity's opportunity for gain and risk of loss if its equity interest in the upper-tier entity was acquired in a sale-repurchase transaction or if its interest is treated as debt for U.S. tax purposes. If a U.S. party owns an interest in an entity indirectly through a chain of entities, the application of the holding company exception begins with the lowest-tier entity in the chain that may satisfy the holding company exception and proceeds upward; provided, however, that the opportunity for gain and risk of loss borne by any upper-tier entity in the chain that is a counterparty shall be disregarded to the extent borne indirectly by a U.S. party. An upper-tier entity that satisfies the holding company exception is itself considered to be engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business and to derive more than 50 percent of its gross income from such trade or business for purposes of applying the holding company exception to the owners of such entity. A lower-tier entity that is engaged in a banking, financing, or similar business shall not be considered to be engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business unless the income derived by such entity would be excluded from section 954(c)(1) under section 954(h) or 954(i) as modified by paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(C)(5)(i) of this section.

(6) Qualified equity interest. With respect to an interest in a corporation, the term qualified equity interest means stock representing 10 percent or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote and 10 percent or more of the total value of the stock of the corporation or disregarded entity, but does not include any preferred stock (as defined in section 351(g)(3)). Similar rules shall apply to determine whether an interest in an entity other than a corporation is a qualified equity interest.

(7) Related person. Two persons are related if -

(i) One person directly or indirectly owns stock (or an equity interest) possessing more than 50 percent of the total value of the other person; or

(ii) The same person directly or indirectly owns stock (or an equity interest) possessing more than 50 percent of the total value of both persons.

(8) Special purpose vehicle (SPV). The term SPV means the entity described in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(1) of this section.

(9) U.S. party. The term U.S. party means a person described in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(2) of this section.

(D) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraph (e)(5)(vii) of this section. No inference is intended as to whether a taxpayer would be eligible to claim a credit under section 901(a) if a foreign payment were an amount of foreign income tax paid. The examples set forth below do not limit the application of other principles of existing law to determine the proper tax consequences of the structures or transactions addressed in the regulations.

(1) Example 1: U.S. borrower transaction -

(i) Facts. A domestic corporation (USP) forms a Country M corporation (Newco), contributing $1.5 billion in exchange for 100% of the stock of Newco. Newco, in turn, loans the $1.5 billion to a second Country M corporation (FSub) wholly owned by USP. USP then sells its entire interest in Newco to a Country M corporation (FP) for the original purchase price of $1.5 billion, subject to an obligation to repurchase the interest in five years for $1.5 billion. The sale has the effect of transferring ownership of the Newco stock to FP for Country M tax purposes. Assume the sale-repurchase transaction is structured in a way that qualifies as a collateralized loan for U.S. tax purposes. Therefore, USP remains the owner of the Newco stock for U.S. tax purposes. All of FSub's income is subpart F income. In Year 1, FSub pays Newco $120 million of interest. Newco pays $36 million to Country M with respect to such interest income and distributes the remaining $84 million to FP. Under Country M law, the $84 million distribution is excluded from FP's income. None of FP's stock is owned, directly or indirectly, by USP or any shareholders of USP that are domestic corporations, U.S. citizens, or resident alien individuals. Under an income tax treaty between Country M and the United States, Country M does not impose Country M tax on interest received by U.S. residents from sources in Country M.

(ii) Result. The $36 million payment by Newco to Country M is not a compulsory payment, and thus is not an amount of foreign income tax paid because the foreign payment is attributable to a structured passive investment arrangement. First, Newco is an SPV because all of Newco's income is passive investment income described in paragraph (e)(5)(iv)(C)(5) of this section; Newco's only asset, a note, is held to produce such income; the payment to Country M is attributable to such income; and if the payment were an amount of foreign income tax paid it would be paid in a U.S. taxable year in which Newco meets the requirements of paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(1)(i) of this section. Second, if the foreign payment were treated as an amount of foreign income tax paid, USP would be deemed to pay the foreign payment under section 960(a) and, therefore, would be eligible to claim a credit for such payment under section 901(a). Third, USP would not pay any Country M tax if it directly owned Newco's loan receivable. Fourth, the distribution from Newco to FP is exempt from tax under Country M law, and the exempt amount corresponds to more than 10% of the foreign base with respect to which USP's share (which is 100% under U.S. tax law) of the foreign payment was imposed. Fifth, FP is a counterparty because FP owns stock of Newco under Country M law and none of FP's stock is owned by USP or shareholders of USP that are domestic corporations, U.S. citizens, or resident alien individuals. Sixth, FP is the owner of 100% of Newco's stock for Country M tax purposes, while USP is the owner of 100% of Newco's stock for U.S. tax purposes, and the amount of credits claimed by USP if the payment to Country M were an amount of foreign income tax paid is materially greater than it would be if Country M tax treatment controlled for U.S. tax purposes such that FP, rather than USP, owned 100% of Newco's stock. Because the payment to Country M is not an amount of foreign income tax paid, USP is not deemed to pay any Country M tax under section 960(a). USP includes $84 million in income under subpart F with respect to Newco and also has interest expense of $84 million. FSub's income and earnings and profits are reduced by $120 million of interest expense.

(2) Example 2: U.S. borrower transaction -

(i) Facts. The facts are the same as those in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(D)(1)(i) of this section (the facts in Example 1), except that FSub is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Newco. In addition, assume FSub is engaged in the active conduct of manufacturing and selling widgets and derives more than 50% of its gross income from such business.

(ii) Result. The result is the same as in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(D)(1)(ii) of this section (the result in Example 1), except that Newco's income is tested income rather than subpart F income, and if the $36 million foreign payment were an amount of foreign income tax paid USP would be deemed to pay a portion of the foreign payment under section 960(d), rather than 960(a). Although Newco wholly owns FSub, which is engaged in the active conduct of manufacturing and selling widgets and derives more than 50% of its income from such business, Newco's income that is attributable to Newco's equity interest in FSub is passive investment income because the sale-repurchase transaction limits FP's interest in Newco and its assets to that of a creditor, so that substantially all of Newco's opportunity for gain and risk of loss with respect to its stock in FSub is borne by USP. See paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(C)(5)(ii) of this section. Accordingly, Newco's stock in FSub is held to produce passive investment income. Thus, Newco is an SPV because all of Newco's income is passive investment income described in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(C)(5) of this section, Newco's assets are held to produce such income, the payment to Country M is attributable to such income, and if the payment were an amount of foreign income tax paid it would be paid in a U.S. taxable year in which Newco meets the requirements of paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(1)(i) of this section.

(3) Example 3: U.S. borrower transaction -

(i) Facts. A domestic corporation (USP) loans $750 million to its wholly-owned domestic subsidiary (Sub). USP and Sub form a Country M partnership (Partnership) to which each contributes $750 million. Partnership loans all of its $1.5 billion of capital to Issuer, a wholly-owned Country M affiliate of USP, in exchange for a note and coupons providing for the payment of interest at a fixed rate over a five-year term. Partnership sells all of the coupons to Coupon Purchaser, a Country N partnership owned by a Country M corporation (Foreign Bank) and a wholly-owned Country M subsidiary of Foreign Bank, for $300 million. At the time of the coupon sale, the fair market value of the coupons sold is $290 million and, pursuant to section 1286(b)(3), Partnership's basis allocated to the coupons sold is $290 million. Several months later and prior to any interest payments on the note, Foreign Bank and its subsidiary sell all of their interests in Coupon Purchaser to an unrelated Country O corporation for $280 million. None of Foreign Bank's stock or its subsidiary's stock is owned, directly or indirectly, by USP or Sub or by any shareholders of USP or Sub that are domestic corporations, U.S. citizens, or resident alien individuals. Assume that both the United States and Country M respect the sale of the coupons for tax law purposes. In the year of the coupon sale, for Country M tax purposes USP's and Sub's shares of Partnership's profits total $300 million, a payment of $60 million to Country M is made with respect to those profits, and Foreign Bank and its subsidiary, as partners of Coupon Purchaser, are entitled to deduct the $300 million purchase price of the coupons from their taxable income. For U.S. tax purposes, USP and Sub recognize their distributive shares of the $10 million premium income and claim a direct foreign tax credit for their shares of the $60 million payment to Country M. Country M imposes no additional tax when Foreign Bank and its subsidiary sell their interests in Coupon Purchaser. Country M also does not impose Country M tax on interest received by U.S. residents from sources in Country M.

(ii) Result. The payment to Country M is not a compulsory payment, and thus is not an amount of foreign income tax paid, because the foreign payment is attributable to a structured passive investment arrangement. First, Partnership is an SPV because all of Partnership's income is passive investment income described in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(C)(5) of this section; Partnership's only asset, Issuer's note, is held to produce such income; the payment to Country M is attributable to such income; and if the payment were an amount of foreign income tax paid, it would be paid in a U.S. taxable year in which Partnership meets the requirements of paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(1)(i) of this section. Second, if the foreign payment were an amount of tax paid, USP and Sub would be eligible to claim a credit for such payment under section 901(a). Third, USP and Sub would not pay any Country M tax if they directly owned Issuer's note. Fourth, for Country M tax purposes, Foreign Bank and its subsidiary deduct the $300 million purchase price of the coupons and are exempt from Country M tax on the $280 million received upon the sale of Coupon Purchaser, and the deduction and exemption correspond to more than 10% of the $300 million base with respect to which USP's and Sub's 100% share of the foreign payments was imposed. Fifth, Foreign Bank and its subsidiary are counterparties because they indirectly acquired assets of Partnership, the interest coupons on Issuer's note, and are not directly or indirectly owned by USP or Sub or shareholders of USP or Sub that are domestic corporations, U.S. citizens, or resident alien individuals. Sixth, the amount of taxable income of Partnership for one or more years is different for U.S. and Country M tax purposes, and the amount of income attributable to USP and Sub for U.S. tax purposes is materially less than the amount of income they would recognize if the Country M tax treatment of the coupon sale controlled for U.S. tax purposes. Because the payment to Country M is not an amount of foreign income tax paid, USP and Sub are not considered to pay tax under section 901. USP and Sub have income of $10 million in the year of the coupon sale.

(4) Example 4: Active business; no SPV -

(i) Facts. A, a domestic corporation, wholly owns B, a Country X corporation engaged in the manufacture and sale of widgets. On January 1, Year 1, C, also a Country X corporation, loans $400 million to B in exchange for an instrument that is debt for U.S. tax purposes and equity in B for Country X tax purposes. As a result, C is considered to own stock of B for Country X tax purposes. B loans $55 million to D, a Country Y corporation wholly owned by A. In year 1, B has $166 million of net income attributable to its sales of widgets and $3.3 million of interest income attributable to the loan to D. Substantially all of B's assets are used in its widget business. Country Y does not impose tax on interest paid to nonresidents. B makes a payment of $50.8 million to Country X with respect to B's net income. Country X does not impose tax on dividend payments between Country X corporations. None of C's stock is owned, directly or indirectly, by A or by any shareholders of A that are domestic corporations, U.S. citizens, or resident alien individuals.

(ii) Result. B is not an SPV within the meaning of paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(1) of this section because the amount of interest income received from D does not constitute substantially all of B's income and the $55 million note from D does not constitute substantially all of B's assets. Accordingly, the $50.8 million payment to Country X is not attributable to a structured passive investment arrangement.

(5) Example 5: U.S. lender transaction -

(i) Facts. A Country X corporation (Foreign Bank) contributes $2 billion to a newly-formed Country X company (Newco) in exchange for 90% of the common stock of Newco and securities that are treated as debt of Newco for U.S. tax purposes and preferred stock of Newco for Country X tax purposes. A domestic corporation (USP) contributes $1 billion to Newco in exchange for 10% of Newco's common stock and securities that are treated as preferred stock of Newco for U.S. tax purposes and debt of Newco for Country X tax purposes. Newco loans the $3 billion to a wholly-owned, Country X subsidiary of Foreign Bank (FSub) in return for a $3 billion, seven-year note paying interest currently. The Newco securities held by USP represent more than 50% of the voting power in Newco and more than 50% of the value of the securities in Newco that are treated as equity for U.S. tax purposes. The Newco securities held by USP entitle the holder to fixed distributions of $4 million per year, and the Newco securities held by Foreign Bank entitle the holder to receive $82 million per year, payable only on maturity of the $3 billion FSub note in Year 7. At the end of Year 5, pursuant to a prearranged plan, Foreign Bank acquires USP's Newco stock and securities for a prearranged price of $1 billion. Country X does not impose tax on dividends received by one Country X corporation from a second Country X corporation. Under an income tax treaty between Country X and the United States, Country X does not impose Country X tax on interest received by U.S. residents from sources in Country X. None of Foreign Bank's stock is owned, directly or indirectly, by USP or any shareholders of USP that are domestic corporations, U.S. citizens, or resident alien individuals. In each of Years 1 through 7, FSub pays Newco $124 million of interest on the $3 billion note. Newco distributes $4 million to USP in each of Years 1 through 5. The distributions are deductible for Country X tax purposes, and Newco pays Country X $36 million with respect to $120 million of taxable income from the FSub note in each year. For U.S. tax purposes, in each year Newco's subpart F income and earnings and profits are increased by $124 million of interest income and reduced by accrued interest expense with respect to the Newco securities held by Foreign Bank.

(ii) Result. The $36 million payment to Country X is not a compulsory payment, and thus is not an amount of foreign income tax paid, because the foreign payment is attributable to a structured passive investment arrangement. First, Newco is an SPV because all of Newco's income is passive investment income described in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(C)(5) of this section; Newco's only asset, a note of FSub, is held to produce such income; the payment to Country X is attributable to such income; and if the payment were an amount of foreign income tax paid it would be paid in a U.S. taxable year in which Newco meets the requirements of paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(1)(i) of this section. Second, if the foreign payment were an amount of foreign income tax paid, USP would be deemed to pay its pro rata share of the foreign payment under section 960(a) in each of Years 1 through 5 and, therefore, would be eligible to claim a credit under section 901(a). Third, USP would not pay any Country X tax if it directly owned its proportionate share of Newco's assets, a note of FSub. Fourth, for Country X tax purposes, Foreign Bank is eligible to receive a tax-free distribution of $82 million attributable to each of Years 1 through 5, and that amount corresponds to more than 10% of the foreign base with respect to which USP's share of the foreign payment was imposed. Fifth, Foreign Bank is a counterparty because it owns stock of Newco for Country X tax purposes and none of Foreign Bank's stock is owned, directly or indirectly, by USP or shareholders of USP that are domestic corporations, U.S. citizens, or resident alien individuals. Sixth, the United States and Country X treat various aspects of the arrangement differently, including whether the Newco securities held by Foreign Bank and USP are debt or equity. The amount of credits claimed by USP if the payment to Country X were an amount of foreign income tax paid is materially greater than it would be if the Country X tax treatment controlled for U.S. tax purposes such that the securities held by USP were treated as debt or the securities held by Foreign Bank were treated as equity, and the amount of income recognized by Newco for U.S. tax purposes is materially less than the amount of income recognized for Country X tax purposes. Because the payment to Country X is not an amount of foreign income tax paid, USP is not deemed to pay any Country X tax under section 960(a). USP has a subpart F inclusion of $4 million in each of Years 1 through 5.

(6) Example 6: Holding company; no SPV -

(i) Facts. A, a Country X corporation, and B, a domestic corporation, each contribute $1 billion to a newly-formed Country X entity (C) in exchange for 50% of the common stock of C. C is treated as a corporation for Country X purposes and a partnership for U.S. tax purposes. C contributes $1.95 billion to a newly-formed Country X corporation (D) in exchange for 100% of D's common stock. C loans its remaining $50 million to D. Accordingly, C's sole assets are stock and debt of D. D uses the entire $2 billion to engage in the business of manufacturing and selling widgets. In Year 1, D derives $300 million of income from its widget business and derives $2 million of interest income. Also in Year 1, C has dividend income of $200 million and interest income of $3.2 million with respect to its investment in D. Country X does not impose tax on dividends received by one Country X corporation from a second Country X corporation. C makes a payment of $960,000 to Country X with respect to C's net income.

(ii) Result. C qualifies for the holding company exception described in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(C)(5)(ii) of this section because C holds a qualified equity interest in D, D is engaged in an active trade or business and derives more than 50% of its gross income from such trade or business, C's interest in D constitutes substantially all of C's assets, and A and B share in substantially all of C's opportunity for gain and risk of loss with respect to D. As a result, C's dividend income from D is not passive investment income and C's stock in D is not held to produce such income. Accordingly, C is not an SPV within the meaning of paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(1) of this section, and the $960,000 payment to Country X is not attributable to a structured passive investment arrangement.

(7) Example 7: Holding company; no SPV -

(i) Facts. The facts are the same as those in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(D)(6)(i) of this section (the facts in Example 6), except that instead of loaning $50 million to D, C contributes the $50 million to E in exchange for 10% of the stock of E. E is a Country Y corporation that is not engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business. Also in Year 1, D pays no dividends to C, E pays $3.2 million in dividends to C, and C makes a payment of $960,000 to Country X with respect to C's net income.

(ii) Result. C qualifies for the holding company exception described in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(C)(5)(ii) of this section because C holds a qualified equity interest in D, D is engaged in an active trade or business and derives more than 50% of its gross income from such trade or business, C's interest in D constitutes substantially all of C's assets, and A and B share in substantially all of C's opportunity for gain and risk of loss with respect to D. As a result, less than substantially all of C's assets are held to produce passive investment income. Accordingly, C is not an SPV because it does not meet the requirements of paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(1) of this section, and the $960,000 payment to Country X is not attributable to a structured passive investment arrangement.

(8) Example 8: Holding company; no SPV -

(i) Facts. The facts are the same as those in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(D)(6)(i) of this section (the facts in Example 6), except that B's $1 billion investment in C consists of 30% of C's common stock and 100% of C's preferred stock. A's $1 billion investment in C consists of 70% of C's common stock. B sells its preferred stock to F, a Country X corporation, subject to a repurchase obligation. Assume that under Country X tax law, but not U.S. tax law, F is treated as the owner of the preferred shares and receives a distribution in Year 1 of $50 million. The remaining earnings are distributed 70% to A and 30% to B.

(ii) Result. C qualifies for the holding company exception described in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(C)(5)(ii) of this section because C holds a qualified equity interest in D, D is engaged in an active trade or business and derives more than 50% of its gross income from such trade or business, and C's interest in D constitutes substantially all of C's assets. Additionally, although F does not share in C's opportunity for gain and risk of loss with respect to C's interest in D because F acquired its interest in C in a sale-repurchase transaction, B (the U.S. party) and in the aggregate A and F (who would be counterparties assuming C were an SPV) share in substantially all of C's opportunity for gain and risk of loss with respect to D and such opportunity for gain and risk of loss is not borne exclusively either by B or by A and F in the aggregate. Accordingly, C's shares in D are not held to produce passive investment income and the $200 million dividend from D is not passive investment income. C is not an SPV within the meaning of paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(1) of this section, and the $960,000 payment to Country X is not attributable to a structured passive investment arrangement.

(9) Example 9: Asset holding transaction -

(i) Facts. A domestic corporation (USP) contributes $6 billion of Country Z debt obligations to a Country Z entity (DE) in exchange for all of the class A and class B stock of DE. DE is a disregarded entity for U.S. tax purposes and a corporation for Country Z tax purposes. A corporation unrelated to USP and organized in Country Z (FC) contributes $1.5 billion to DE in exchange for all of the class C stock of DE. DE uses the $1.5 billion contributed by FC to redeem USP's class B stock. The terms of the class C stock entitle its holder to all income from DE, but FC is obligated immediately to contribute back to DE all distributions on the class C stock. USP and FC enter into a contract under which USP agrees to buy after five years the class C stock for $1.5 billion and an agreement under which USP agrees to pay FC periodic payments on $1.5 billion. The transaction is structured in such a way that, for U.S. tax purposes, there is a loan of $1.5 billion from FC to USP, and USP is the owner of the class C stock and the class A stock. In Year 1, DE earns $400 million of interest income on the Country Z debt obligations. DE makes a payment to Country Z of $100 million with respect to such income and distributes the remaining $300 million to FC. FC contributes the $300 million back to DE. None of FC's stock is owned, directly or indirectly, by USP or shareholders of USP that are domestic corporations, U.S. citizens, or resident alien individuals. Assume that Country Z imposes a withholding tax on interest income derived by U.S. residents. Country Z treats FC as the owner of the class C stock. Pursuant to Country Z tax law, FC is required to report the $400 million of income with respect to the $300 million distribution from DE, but is allowed to claim credits for DE's $100 million payment to Country Z. For Country Z tax purposes, FC is entitled to current deductions equal to the $300 million contributed back to DE.

(ii) Result. The payment to Country Z is not a compulsory payment, and thus is not an amount of foreign income tax paid, because the payment is attributable to a structured passive investment arrangement. First, DE is an SPV because all of DE's income is passive investment income described in paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(C)(5) of this section; all of DE's assets are held to produce such income; the payment to Country Z is attributable to such income; and if the payment were an amount of tax paid it would be paid in a U.S. taxable year in which DE meets the requirements of paragraph (e)(5)(vii)(B)(1)(i) of this section. Second, if the payment were an amount of foreign income tax paid, USP would be eligible to claim a credit for such amount under section 901(a). Third, USP's proportionate share of DE's foreign payment of $100 million is substantially greater than the amount of credits USP would be eligible to claim if it directly held its proportionate share of DE's assets, excluding any assets that would produce income subject to gross basis withholding tax if directly held by USP. Fourth, FC is entitled to claim a credit under Country Z tax law for the payment and recognizes a deduction for the $300 million contributed to DE under Country Z law. The credit claimed by FC corresponds to more than 10% of USP's share (for U.S. tax purposes) of the foreign payment and the deductions claimed by FC correspond to more than 10% of the base with respect to which USP's share of the foreign payment was imposed. Fifth, FC is a counterparty because FC is considered to own equity of DE under Country Z law and none of FC's stock is owned, directly or indirectly, by USP or shareholders of USP that are domestic corporations, U.S. citizens, or resident alien individuals. Sixth, the United States and Country Z treat certain aspects of the transaction differently, including the proportion of equity owned in DE by USP and FC, and the amount of credits claimed by USP if the Country Z payment were an amount of tax paid is materially greater than it would be if the Country Z tax treatment controlled for U.S. tax purposes such that FC, rather than USP, owned the class C stock. Because the payment to Country Z is not an amount of foreign income tax paid, USP is not considered to pay tax under section 901. USP has $400 million of interest income.