26 CFR § 1.904-4 - Separate application of section 904 with respect to certain categories of income.

§ 1.904-4 Separate application of section 904 with respect to certain categories of income.

(a) In general. A taxpayer is required to compute a separate foreign tax credit limitation for income received or accrued in a taxable year that is described in section 904(d)(1)(A) (section 951A category income), 904(d)(1)(B) (foreign branch category income), 904(d)(1)(C) (passive category income), 904(d)(1)(D) (general category income), or paragraph (m) of this section (specified separate categories). For purposes of this section, the definitions in § 1.904-5(a)(4) apply.

(b) Passive category income -

(1) In general. The term passive category income means passive income and specified passive category income.

(2) Passive income -

(i) In general. The term passive income means any -

(A) Income received or accrued by any person that is of a kind that would be foreign personal holding company income (as defined in section 954(c)) if the taxpayer were a controlled foreign corporation, including any amount of gain on the sale or exchange of stock in excess of the amount treated as a dividend under section 1248;

(B) Amount includible in gross income under section 1293;

(C) Distributive shares of partnership income treated as passive category income under paragraph (n)(1) of this section, and income from the sale of a partnership interest treated as passive category income under paragraph (n)(2) of this section; or

(D) Income treated as passive category income under the look-through rules in § 1.904-5.

(ii) Exceptions. Passive income does not include any export financing interest (as defined in paragraph (h) of this section), any high-taxed income (as defined in paragraph (c) of this section), financial services income (as defined in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section), or any active rents and royalties (as defined in paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section). In addition, passive income does not include any income that would otherwise be passive but is excluded from passive category income under § 1.904-5(b)(1) or that is assigned to a separate category other than passive category income under § 1.904-5(c)(4)(iii). See also paragraph (k) of this section for rules relating to income resourced under a tax treaty. In determining whether any income is of a kind that would be foreign personal holding company income, the rules of section 864(d)(5)(A)(i) and (6) (treating related person factoring income of a controlled foreign corporation as foreign personal holding company income that is not eligible for the export financing income exception to the separate limitation for passive income) shall apply only in the case of income of a controlled foreign corporation (as defined in section 957). Thus, income earned directly by a United States person that is related person factoring income may be eligible for the exception for export financing interest.

(iii) Active rents or royalties -

(A) In general. For rents and royalties paid or accrued after September 20, 2004, passive income does not include any rents or royalties that are derived in the active conduct of a trade or business, regardless of whether such rents or royalties are received from a related or an unrelated person. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(B) of this section, the principles of section 954(c)(2)(A) and the regulations under that section shall apply in determining whether rents or royalties are derived in the active conduct of a trade or business. For this purpose, the term taxpayer shall be substituted for the term controlled foreign corporation if the recipient of the rents or royalties is not a controlled foreign corporation.

(B) Active conduct of trade or business. Rents and royalties are considered derived in the active conduct of a trade or business by a United States person or by a controlled foreign corporation (or other entity to which the look-through rules apply) for purposes of section 904 (but not for purposes of section 954) if the requirements of section 954(c)(2)(A) are satisfied by one or more corporations that are members of an affiliated group of corporations (within the meaning of section 1504(a), determined without regard to section 1504(b)(3)) of which the recipient is a member. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(B), an affiliated group includes only domestic corporations and foreign corporations that are controlled foreign corporations in which domestic members of the affiliated group own, directly or indirectly, at least 80 percent of the total voting power and value of the stock. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(B), indirect ownership shall be determined under section 318 and the regulations under that section.

(iv) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (b)(2).

(A) Example 1. For Year 1, USP, a domestic corporation, has a net foreign currency gain that would not constitute foreign personal holding company income if USP were a controlled foreign corporation because the gain is directly related to the business needs of USP. See section 954(c)(1)(D). Under paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A) of this section, the foreign currency gain is, therefore, not passive category income to USP because it is not income of a kind that would be foreign personal holding company income.

(B) Example 2. Controlled foreign corporation, CFC, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of USP, a domestic corporation. CFC is regularly engaged in the restaurant franchise business. USP licenses trademarks, tradenames, certain know-how, related services, and certain restaurant designs for which CFC pays USP an arm's length royalty. USP is regularly engaged in the development and licensing of such property. Some of the franchisees are unrelated to CFC and USP. Other franchisees are related to CFC or USP and use the licensed property outside of CFC's country of incorporation. CFC does not satisfy, but USP does satisfy, the active trade or business requirements of section 954(c)(2)(A). The royalty income earned by CFC from both its related and unrelated franchisees is foreign personal holding company income because CFC does not satisfy the active trade or business requirements of section 954(c)(2)(A) and, in addition, the royalty income from the related franchisees does not qualify for the same country exception of section 954(c)(3) or the look-through exception in section 954(c)(6). However, all of the royalty income earned by CFC is general category income to CFC under § 1.904-4(b)(2)(iii) because USP, a member of CFC's affiliated group, satisfies the active trade or business test (which is applied without regard to whether the royalties are paid by a related person). USP's inclusion under section 951(a)(1)(A) of CFC's royalty income is general category income to USP under § 1.904-5(c)(5) and paragraph (d) of this section. The royalties received by USP are general category income to USP under § 1.904-5(b)(1) and paragraph (d) of this section.

(3) Specified passive category income means -

(i) Dividends from a DISC or former DISC (as defined in section 992(a)) to the extent such dividends are treated as income from sources without the United States;

(ii) Taxable income attributable to foreign trade income (within the meaning of section 923(b)); or

(iii) Distributions from a FSC (or a former FSC) out of earnings and profits attributable to foreign trade income (within the meaning of section 923(b)) or interest or carrying charges (as defined in section 927(d)(1)) derived from a transaction which results in foreign trade income (as defined in section 923(b)).

(c) High-taxed income -

(1) In general. Income received or accrued by a United States person that would otherwise be passive income is not treated as passive income if the income is determined to be high-taxed income. Income is considered to be high-taxed income if, after allocating expenses, losses, and other deductions of the United States person to that income under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, the sum of the foreign income taxes paid or accrued, and deemed paid under section 960, by the United States person with respect to such income (reduced by any portion of such taxes for which a credit is not allowed) exceeds the highest rate of tax specified in section 1 or 11, whichever applies (and with reference to section 15 if applicable), multiplied by the amount of such income (including the amount treated as a dividend under section 78). If, after application of this paragraph (c), income that would otherwise be passive income is determined to be high-taxed income, the income is treated as general category income, foreign branch category income, section 951A category income, or income in a specified separate category, as determined under the rules of this section, and any taxes imposed on that income are considered related to the same separate category of income under § 1.904-6. If, after application of this paragraph (c), passive income is zero or less than zero, any taxes imposed on the passive income are considered related to the same separate category of income to which the passive income (if not reduced to zero or less than zero) would have been assigned had the income been treated as high-taxed income (general category, foreign branch category, section 951A category, or a specified separate category). For additional rules regarding losses related to passive income, see paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Income and taxes shall be translated at the appropriate rates, as determined under sections 986, 987 and 989 and the regulations under those sections, before application of this paragraph (c). For purposes of allocating taxes to groups of income, United States source passive income is treated as any other passive income. In making the determination whether income is high-taxed, however, only foreign source income, as determined under United States tax principles, is relevant.

(2) Grouping of items of income in order to determine whether passive income is high-taxed income

(i) Grouping rules - Initial allocation and apportionment of deductions and taxes. For purposes of determining whether passive income is high-taxed, expenses, losses and other deductions shall be allocated and apportioned initially to each of the groups of passive income (described in paragraphs (c)(3), (4), and (5) of this section) under the rules of §§ 1.861-8 through 1.861-17 and 1.865-1 through 1.865-2. Taxpayers that allocate and apportion interest expense on an asset basis may nevertheless apportion passive interest expense among the groups of passive income on a gross income basis. Foreign taxes are allocated to groups under the rules of § 1.904-6(a)(1)(iii). If a loss on a disposition of property gives rise to foreign tax (i.e., the transaction giving rise to the loss is treated under foreign law as having given rise to a gain), the foreign tax shall be allocated to the group of passive income to which gain on the sale would have been assigned under paragraph (c)(3) or (4) of this section. A determination of whether passive income is high-taxed shall be made only after application of paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section (if applicable).

(ii) Reallocation of loss groups. If, after allocation and apportionment of expenses, losses and other deductions under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, the sum of the allocable deductions exceeds the gross income in one or more groups, the excess deductions shall proportionately reduce income in the other groups (but not below zero).

(iii) Coordination with section 904(b), (f) and (g). The determination of whether foreign source passive income is high-taxed is made before taking into account any adjustments under section 904(b) or any allocation or recapture of a separate limitation loss, overall foreign loss, or overall domestic loss under section 904(f) and (g).

(3) Amounts received or accrued by United States persons. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (c)(5) of this section, all passive income received by a United States person are subject to the rules of this paragraph (c)(3). Paragraph (c)(4) of this section provides additional rules for inclusions under section 951(a)(1) or 951A(a) that are passive income, dividends from a controlled foreign corporation or noncontrolled 10-percent owned foreign corporation that are passive income, and income that is received or accrued by a United States person through a foreign QBU that is passive income. For purposes of this paragraph (c), a foreign QBU is a qualified business unit (as defined in section 989(a)), other than a controlled foreign corporation or noncontrolled 10-percent owned foreign corporation, that has its principal place of business outside the United States. The rules in this paragraph (c)(3) apply whether the income is received from a controlled foreign corporation of which the United States person is a United States shareholder, from a noncontrolled 10-percent owned foreign corporation of which the United States person is a United States shareholder that is a domestic corporation, or from any other person. In applying the rules in this paragraph (c)(3), passive income is not treated as subject to a withholding tax or other foreign tax when a credit is disallowed in full for such foreign tax, for example, under section 901(k). For purposes of determining whether passive income is high-taxed income, the following rules apply:

(i) All passive income received during the taxable year that is subject to a withholding tax of fifteen percent or greater shall be treated as one item of income.

(ii) All passive income received during the taxable year that is subject to a withholding tax of less than fifteen percent (but greater than zero) shall be treated as one item of income.

(iii) All passive income received during the taxable year that is subject to no withholding tax or other foreign tax shall be treated as one item of income.

(iv) All passive income received during the taxable year that is subject to no withholding tax but is subject to a foreign tax other than a withholding tax shall be treated as one item of income.

(4) Dividends and inclusions from controlled foreign corporations, dividends from noncontrolled 10-percent owned foreign corporations, and income attributable to foreign QBUs. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(5) of this section, the rules of this paragraph (c)(4) apply to all dividends and all amounts included in gross income of a United States shareholder under section 951(a)(1) or 951A(a) with respect to the foreign corporation that (after application of the look-through rules of section 904(d)(3) and § 1.904-5) are attributable to passive income received or accrued by a controlled foreign corporation, all dividends from a noncontrolled 10-percent owned foreign corporation that are received or accrued by a United States shareholder that (after application of the look-through rules of section 904(d)(4) and § 1.904-5) are treated as passive income, and all amounts of passive income received or accrued by a United States person through a foreign QBU. The grouping rules of paragraphs (c)(3)(i) through (iv) of this section apply separately to dividends, to inclusions under section 951(a)(1) and to inclusions under section 951A(a) with respect to each controlled foreign corporation of which the taxpayer is a United States shareholder, and to dividends with respect to each noncontrolled 10-percent owned foreign corporation of which the taxpayer is a United States shareholder that is a domestic corporation. The grouping rules of paragraphs (c)(3)(i) through (iv) of this section also apply separately to income attributable to each foreign QBU of a controlled foreign corporation, noncontrolled 10-percent owned foreign corporation, any other look-through entity as defined in § 1.904-5(i), or any United States person.

(5) Special rules -

(i) Certain rents and royalties. All items of rent or royalty income to which an item of rent or royalty expense is directly allocable shall be treated as a single item of income and shall not be grouped with other amounts.

(ii) Treatment of partnership income. A partner's distributive share of income from a foreign or domestic partnership that is treated as passive income under paragraph (n)(1)(ii) of this section (generally providing that a less than 10 percent partner's distributive share of partnership income is passive income) is treated as a single item of income and is not grouped with other amounts. A distributive share of income from a partnership that is treated as passive income under paragraph (n)(1)(i) of this section is grouped according to the rules in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, except that the portion, if any, of the distributive share of income attributable to income earned by a domestic partnership through a foreign QBU is separately grouped under the rules of paragraph (c)(4) of this section.

(iii) Currency gain or loss -

(A) Section 986(c). Any currency gain or loss with respect to a distribution received by a United States shareholder (other than a foreign QBU of that shareholder) of previously taxed earnings and profits that is recognized under section 986(c) and that is treated as an item of passive income shall be subject to the rules provided in paragraph (c)(3)(iii) of this section.

(B) Section 987(3). Any currency gain or loss with respect to remittances or transfers of property between QBUs of a United States shareholder that is recognized under section 987(3)(B) and that is treated as an item of passive income shall be subject to the rules provided in paragraph (c)(3)(iii) of this section.

(C) Example. The following example illustrates the application of this paragraph (c)(5)(iii).

(1) Facts. USP, a domestic corporation, owns all of the stock of CFC, a controlled foreign corporation organized and operating in Country X that uses the “u” as its functional currency. In Year 1, when the highest rate of U.S. tax in section 11 is 21%, CFC earns 100u of passive category foreign personal holding company income subject to no foreign tax. When included in USP's income under section 951(a), the applicable exchange rate is 1u=$1x. Therefore, USP's section 951(a) inclusion is $100x and no foreign taxes are deemed paid by USP with respect to the inclusion. At the end of Year 1, CFC has previously taxed earnings and profits of 100u and USP's basis in those earnings is $100x. In Year 2, CFC has no earnings and profits and distributes 100u to USP. The value of the earnings when distributed is $150x. Assume that under section 986(c), USP must recognize $50x of passive category income attributable to the appreciation of the previously taxed earnings and profits. Country X does not recognize any gain or loss on the distribution, but imposes a 10u withholding tax on USP with respect to the distribution.

(2) Analysis. Because the section 986(c) gain is not subject to any foreign withholding tax or other foreign tax, under paragraph (c)(3)(iii) of this section the section 986(c) gain is grouped with other items of USP's income that are subject to no withholding tax or other foreign tax. Under paragraph (c)(6)(iii) of this section, the 10u withholding tax is related to passive category income. See section 960(c) and § 1.960-4 for rules relating to the increase in limitation in the year of distribution of previously taxed earnings and profits.

(iv) Coordination with section 954(b)(4). For rules relating to passive income of a controlled foreign corporation that is exempt from subpart F treatment because the income is subject to high foreign tax, see section 904(d)(3)(E), § 1.904-4(c)(7)(iii), and § 1.904-5(d)(2).

(6) Application of this paragraph to additional taxes paid or deemed paid in the year of receipt of previously taxed income -

(i) Determination made in year of inclusion. The determination of whether an amount included in gross income under section 951(a)(1) or 951A(a) is high-taxed income is made in the taxable year the income is included in the gross income of the United States shareholder under section 951(a) or 951A(a) (for purposes of this paragraph (c), the year of inclusion). Any increase in foreign taxes paid or accrued, or deemed paid, when the taxpayer receives an amount that is excluded from gross income under section 959(a) and that is attributable to a controlled foreign corporation's earnings and profits relating to the amount previously included in gross income will not be considered in determining whether the amount included in income in the year of inclusion is high-taxed income.

(ii) Exception. Paragraph (c)(6)(i) of this section shall not apply to an increase in tax in a case in which the taxpayer is required to adjust its foreign taxes in the year of inclusion under section 905(c).

(iii) Allocation of foreign taxes imposed on distributions of previously taxed income. If an item of income is considered high-taxed income in the year of inclusion and paragraph (c)(6)(i) of this section applies, then any increase in foreign income taxes imposed with respect to that item are considered to be related to the same separate category to which the income was assigned in the taxable year of inclusion. If an item of income is not considered to be high-taxed income in the year of inclusion and paragraph (c)(6)(i) of this section applies, the following rules shall apply. The taxpayer shall treat an increase in taxes paid or accrued, or deemed paid, on any distribution of the earnings and profits attributable to the amount included in gross income in the year of inclusion as taxes related to passive income to the extent of the excess of the product of the highest rate of tax in section 11 (determined with regard to section 15 and determined as of the year of inclusion) and the amount of the inclusion (after allocation of parent expenses) over the taxes paid or accrued, or deemed paid, in the year of inclusion. The taxpayer shall treat any taxes paid or accrued, or deemed paid, on the distribution in excess of this amount as taxes related to the same category of income to which such inclusion would have been assigned had the income been treated as high-taxed income in the year of inclusion (general category income, section 951A category income, or income in a specified separate category). If these additional taxes are not creditable in the year of distribution, the carryover rules of section 904(c) apply (see section 904(c) and § 1.904-2(a) for rules disallowing carryovers in the section 951A category). For purposes of this paragraph (c)(6), the foreign tax on an inclusion under section 951(a)(1) or 951A(a) is considered increased on distribution of the earnings and profits associated with that inclusion if the total of taxes paid and deemed paid on the inclusion and the distribution (taking into account any reductions in tax and any withholding taxes) exceeds the total taxes deemed paid in the year of inclusion. Any foreign currency loss associated with the earnings and profits that are distributed with respect to the inclusion is not to be considered as giving rise to an increase in tax.

(iv) Increase in taxes paid by successors. If passive earnings and profits previously included in income of a United States shareholder are distributed to a person that was not a United States shareholder of the distributing corporation in the year the earnings were included, any increase in foreign taxes paid or accrued, or deemed paid, on that distribution is treated as taxes related to general category income (or income in a specified separate category, if applicable) in the case of earnings and profits previously included under section 951(a)(1), and is treated as taxes related to section 951A category income (or income in a specified separate category, if applicable) in the case of earnings and profits previously included under section 951A(a), regardless of whether the previously-taxed income was considered high-taxed income under section 904(d)(2)(F) in the year of inclusion.

(7) Application of this paragraph to certain reductions of tax on distributions of income -

(i) In general. If the effective rate of tax imposed by a foreign country on income of a foreign corporation that is included in a taxpayer's gross income would be reduced under foreign law on distribution of such income, the rules of this paragraph (c) apply at the time that the income is included in the taxpayer's gross income without regard to the possibility of subsequent reduction of foreign tax on the distribution. If the inclusion is considered to be high-taxed income, then the taxpayer treats the inclusion as general category income, section 951A category income, or income in a specified separate category as provided in paragraph (c)(1) of this section. When the foreign corporation distributes the earnings and profits to which the inclusion was attributable and the foreign tax on the inclusion is reduced, then the taxpayer shall redetermine whether the inclusion should be considered to be high-taxed income provided that a redetermination of United States tax liability is required under section 905(c). If, taking into account the reduction in foreign tax, the inclusion would not have been considered high-taxed income, then the taxpayer, in redetermining its United States tax liability for the year or years affected, shall treat the inclusion and the associated taxes (as reduced on the distribution) as passive income and taxes. See section 905(c) and the regulations thereunder regarding the method of adjustment. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(7)(i), the foreign tax on an inclusion under section 951(a)(1) or 951A(a) is considered reduced on distribution of the earnings and profits associated with the inclusion if the total taxes paid and deemed paid on the inclusion and the distribution (taking into account any reductions in tax and any withholding taxes) is less than the total taxes deemed paid in the year of inclusion. Any foreign currency gain associated with the earnings and profits that are distributed with respect to the inclusion is not to be considered a reduction of tax.

(ii) Allocation of reductions of foreign tax. For purposes of paragraph (c)(7)(i) of this section, reductions in foreign tax shall be allocated among the separate categories under the same principles as those of § 1.904-6 for allocating taxes among the separate categories. Thus, for purposes of determining to which year's taxes the reduction in taxes relates, foreign law shall apply. If, however, foreign law does not attribute a reduction in taxes to a particular year or years, then the reduction in taxes shall be attributable, on an annual last in-first out (LIFO) basis, to foreign taxes potentially subject to reduction that are associated with previously taxed income, then on a LIFO basis to foreign taxes associated with income that under paragraph (c)(7)(iii) of this section remains as passive income but that was excluded from subpart F income under section 954(b)(4), and finally on a LIFO basis to foreign taxes associated with other earnings and profits. Furthermore, in applying the ordering rules of section 959(c), distributions shall be considered made on a LIFO basis first out of earnings described in section 959(c) (1) and (2), then on a LIFO basis out of earnings and profits associated with income that remains passive income under paragraph (c)(7)(iii) of this section but that was excluded from subpart F under section 954(b)(4), and finally on a LIFO basis out of other earnings and profits. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(7)(ii), foreign law is not considered to attribute a reduction in tax to a particular year or years if foreign law attributes the tax reduction to a pool or group containing income from more than one taxable year and such pool or group is defined based on a characteristic of the income (for example, the rate of tax paid with respect to the income) rather than on the taxable year in which the income is derived.

(iii) Interaction with section 954(b)(4). If the effective rate of tax imposed by a foreign country on income of a foreign corporation is reduced under foreign law on distribution of that income, the rules of section 954(b)(4) shall be applied without regard to the possibility of subsequent reduction of foreign tax. If a taxpayer excludes passive income from a controlled foreign corporation's foreign personal holding company income under these circumstances, then, notwithstanding the general rule of § 1.904-5(d)(2), the income shall be considered to be passive income until distribution of that income. At that time, the rules of this paragraph shall apply to determine whether the income is high-taxed income and, therefore, income in another separate category. For purposes of determining whether a reduction in tax is attributable to taxes on income excluded under section 954(b)(4), the rules of paragraph (c)(7)(ii) of this section apply. The rules of paragraph (c)(7)(ii) of this section shall apply for purposes of ordering distributions to determine whether such distributions are out of earnings and profits associated with such excluded income.

(8) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (c). All of the examples assume that the highest tax rate under section 11 is 21%, unless otherwise noted.

(i) Example 1. CFC, a controlled foreign corporation, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of domestic corporation USP. CFC is a single qualified business unit (QBU) operating in foreign Country X. In Year 1, CFC earns $130x of gross royalty income that is passive income from Country X sources, and incurs $30x of expenses that do not include any payments to USP. CFC's $100x of pre-tax passive income from the royalty is subject to $30x of foreign tax, and is included under section 951(a)(1) in USP's gross income for the taxable year. USP allocates $50x of expenses to the $100x (consisting of the $70x section 951(a)(1) inclusion and $30x section 78 amount), resulting in net passive income of $50x. USP does not elect to exclude from subpart F under section 954(b)(4) the $70x of CFC's net passive income. After application of the high-tax kick-out rules of paragraph (c) of this section, the $50x of USP's net passive income is treated as general category income, and the $30x of taxes deemed paid are treated as taxes imposed on general category income, because the foreign taxes paid and deemed paid on the income exceed the highest U.S. tax rate multiplied by the $50x of net passive income ($30x > $10.5x (21% × $50x)).

(ii) Example 2. CFC, a controlled foreign corporation, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of domestic corporation USP. CFC is incorporated and operating in Country Y and has a branch in Country Z. CFC has two QBUs (QBU Y and QBU Z). In Year 1, CFC earns $65x of gross royalty income that is passive income in Country Y through QBU Y and $65x of gross royalty income that is passive income in Country Z through QBU Z. CFC allocates $15x of expenses to the gross royalty income earned by each QBU, resulting in pre-tax passive income of $50x in each QBU. Country Y imposes $5x of foreign tax on the royalty income earned in Y, and Country Z imposes $10x of tax on royalty income earned in Z. All of CFC's income constitutes foreign personal holding company income that is passive income and is included under section 951(a)(1) in USP's gross income for the taxable year. USP allocates $50x of expenses pro rata to the $100x section 951(a)(1) inclusion attributable to the QBUs (consisting of the $45x section 951(a)(1) inclusion derived through QBU Y, the $5x section 78 amount attributable to QBU Y, the $40x section 951(a)(1) inclusion derived through QBU Z, and the $10x section 78 amount attributable to QBU Z), resulting in net passive income of $50x. Pursuant to paragraph (c)(4) of this section, the high-tax kickout rules must be applied separately to the subpart F inclusion attributable to the income earned by QBU Y and the income earned by QBU Z. After application of the high-tax kickout rules, the $25x of net passive income attributable to QBU Y will be treated as passive category income because the foreign taxes paid and deemed paid on the income do not exceed the highest U.S. tax rate multiplied by the $25x of net passive income ($5x < $5.25x (21% × $25x)). The $25x of net passive income attributable to QBU Z will be treated as general category income because the foreign taxes paid and deemed paid on the income exceed the highest U.S. tax rate multiplied by the $25x of net passive income ($10x > $5.25x (21% × $25x)).

(iii) Example 3. Domestic corporation USP operates in branch form in foreign countries X and Y. The branches are qualified business units (QBUs), within the meaning of section 989(a). In Year 1, QBU X earns passive royalty income, interest income, and rental income. All of the QBU X passive income is from Country Z sources. The royalty income is not subject to a withholding tax, and is not taxed by Country X, and the interest and the rental income are subject to a 4% and 10% withholding tax, respectively. QBU Y earns interest income in Country Y that is not subject to foreign tax. For purposes of determining whether USP's foreign source passive income is high-taxed income, the rental income and the interest income earned in QBU X are treated as one item of income pursuant to paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section. The interest income earned in QBU Y and the royalty income earned in QBU X are each treated as a separate item of income under paragraphs (c)(4) and (c)(3)(iii) of this section. If, after allocation of expenses, QBU X's items of income composed of rental income and interest income are high-taxed income, the income may be treated as foreign branch category income.

(iv) Example 4. CFC, a controlled foreign corporation incorporated in foreign Country R, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of USP, a domestic corporation. USP and CFC have calendar year taxable years for both U.S. and Country R tax purposes. The highest tax rate under section 11 is 34% and 21% in Year 1 and Year 2, respectively. For Year 1, USP is required under section 951(a)(1) to include in gross income $80x (not including the section 78 amount) attributable to the earnings and profits of CFC for such year, all of which is foreign personal holding company income that is passive rent or royalty income. CFC does not make any distributions in Year 1. Foreign income taxes paid by CFC for Year 1 that are deemed paid by USP for such year under section 960(a) with respect to the section 951(a)(1) inclusion equal $20x. USP properly allocates $30x of expenses to the section 951(a)(1) inclusion. The foreign income tax paid with respect to the section 951(a)(1) inclusion does not exceed the highest U.S. tax rate multiplied by the amount of income after allocation of USP's expenses ($20x < $23.80x (34% × $70x)). Thus, USP's section 951(a)(1) inclusion for Year 1 is included in USP's passive category income and the $20x of taxes attributable to that inclusion are treated as taxes related to passive category income. In Year 2, CFC distributes $70x to USP, and under section 959 that distribution is treated as attributable to the earnings and profits with respect to the amount included in income by USP in Year 1 and is excluded from USP's gross income. Foreign Country R imposes a withholding tax of $14x on the distribution in Year 2. Under paragraph (c)(6)(i) of this section, the withholding tax in Year 2 does not affect the characterization of the Year 1 inclusion as passive category income, nor does it affect the characterization of the $20x of taxes paid in Year 1 as taxes paid with respect to passive category income. No further expenses of USP are allocable to the receipt of that distribution. In Year 2, the foreign taxes paid ($14x) exceed the product of the highest U.S. tax rate and the amount of the inclusion reduced by taxes deemed paid in the year of inclusion ($14x > $3.80x ((34% × $70x) − $20x)). Thus, under paragraph (c)(6)(iii) of this section, $3.80x ((34% × $70x) − $20x) of the $14x withholding tax paid in Year 2 is treated as taxes related to passive category income and the remaining $10.20x ($14x − $3.80x) of the withholding tax is treated as related to general category income.

(v)-(viii) [Reserved]

(ix) Example 9. USP, a domestic corporation, earns $100x of passive royalty income from sources within the United States. Under the laws of Country X, however, that royalty is considered to be from sources within Country X, and Country X imposes a 5% withholding tax on the payment of the royalty. USP also earns $100x of foreign source passive dividend income from Country Y subject to a 10% withholding tax to which $15x of expenses are allocated. In determining whether USP's passive income is high-taxed, the $5x withholding tax on USP's royalty income is allocated to passive income, and to the group of passive income described in paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section (passive income subject to a withholding tax of less than 15% (but greater than zero)). For purposes of determining whether the income is high-taxed, however, only the $85x of foreign source dividend income (and not the $100x of U.S. source royalty income) is taken into account. The foreign source dividend income is treated as passive category income because the foreign taxes paid on the passive income in the group ($15x) do not exceed the highest U.S. tax rate multiplied by the $85x of net foreign source income in the group ($15x < $17.85x ($100x − $15x) × 21%).

(x) Example 10. In Year 1, P, a U.S. citizen with a tax home in Country X, earns the following items of gross income: $400x of foreign source, passive interest income not subject to foreign withholding tax but subject to Country X income tax of $100x, $200x of foreign source, passive royalty income subject to a 5% foreign withholding tax (foreign tax paid is $10x), $1,300x of foreign source, passive rental income subject to a 25% foreign withholding tax (foreign tax paid is $325x), $500x of foreign source, general category loss, and $2,000x of U.S. source capital gain that is not subject to any foreign tax. P has a $900x deduction allocable to its passive rental income. P's only other deduction is a $700x capital loss on the sale of stock that is allocated to foreign source passive category income under § 1.865-2(a)(3)(i). The $700x capital loss is initially allocated to the group of passive income described in paragraph (c)(3)(iv) of this section (passive income subject to no withholding tax but subject to foreign tax other than withholding tax). This group comprises the $400x of interest income not subject to foreign withholding tax but subject to Country X income tax. Under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, the $300x amount by which the capital loss exceeds the income in the group must be reallocated to the net income in the other groups described in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, but the $500x general category separate limitation loss is not allocated until the high-tax kickout rules are applied to determine whether the passive income is high-taxed income. P's $200x of royalty income subject to a 5% withholding tax is described in paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section (passive income that is subject to a withholding tax of less than 15%, but greater than zero). P's $1,300x of rental income subject to a 25% withholding tax is described in paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section (passive income that is subject to a withholding tax of 15% or greater). The $1,300x of rental income is reduced by the $900x deduction allocable to such income. Therefore, the total net income in the other groups under paragraph (c)(3) is $600x, the $200x of royalty income and the $400x of rental income. The ($300x) net loss in the net basis tax group thus reduces the royalty income by $100x to $100x ($200x − ($300x × (200x/600x))) and the rental income by $200x to $200x ($400x − ($300x × (400x/600x))). The $100x of net royalty income is not high-taxed and remains passive category income because the foreign taxes of $10x do not exceed the highest U.S. rate of tax on that income, which is 37% for individuals ($10x < $37x (37% × $100x)). Under the high-tax kickout, the $200x of rental income and the $325x of associated foreign tax are assigned to the general category.

(xi) Example 11. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(8)(x) of this section (the facts in Example 10), except the amount of the capital loss that is allocated under § 1.865-2(a)(3)(i) and paragraph (c)(2) of this section to the group of foreign source passive income subject to no withholding tax but subject to foreign tax other than withholding tax is $1,200x. Under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, the excess deductions of $800x must be reallocated to the $200x of net royalty income subject to a 5% withholding tax and the $400x of net rental income subject to a 15% or greater withholding tax. The income in each of these groups is reduced to zero, and the foreign taxes imposed on the rental and royalty income are considered related to general category income. The remaining loss of $200x constitutes a separate limitation loss with respect to passive category income.

(xii) Example 12. In Year 1, USP, a domestic corporation, earns a $100x dividend that is foreign source passive income subject to a 30% withholding tax. The dividend is not paid by a specified 10-percent owned foreign corporation (as defined in section 245A(b)(1)). A foreign tax credit for the withholding tax on the dividend is disallowed under section 901(k). A deduction for the tax is allowed, however, under sections 164 and 901(k)(7). In determining whether USP's passive income is high-taxed, under paragraph (c)(3) of this section the $100x dividend and the $30x deduction are allocated to the group of income described in paragraph (c)(3)(iv) of this section (passive income subject to no withholding tax or other foreign tax).

(d) General category income. The term general category income means all income other than passive category income, foreign branch category income, section 951A category income, and income in a specified separate category. Any item that is excluded from the passive category under paragraph (c) or (h) of this section or § 1.904-5(b)(1) is included in general category income only to the extent that such item does not meet the definition of another separate category. General category income also includes income treated as general category income under the look-through rules referenced in § 1.904-5(a)(2).

(e) Financial services income -

(1) In general -

(i) Treatment of financial services income. Passive income that is characterized as financial services income is not assigned to the passive category but is assigned in accordance with this paragraph (e)(1)(i). Financial services income that meets the definition of foreign branch category income (see paragraph (f)(1) of this section) is treated as income in that category. Financial services income of a controlled foreign corporation that is included in gross income of a United States shareholder under section 951A(a) is treated as section 951A category income in the hands of the United States shareholder. Financial services income that is neither treated as foreign branch category income nor treated as section 951A category income is treated as general category income. Distributions, interest, rents, or royalties received from a related person that is a financial services entity that would be assigned to the passive category under the look-through rules in § 1.904-5, but for the fact such amounts are paid by a financial services entity (and, therefore, not attributable to passive category income of the payor), are assigned to separate categories (other than the passive category) under the rules in this section.

(ii) Definition of financial services income. The term financial services income means income derived by a financial services entity, as defined in paragraph (e)(3) of this section, that is:

(A) Income derived in the active conduct of a banking, insurance, financing, or similar business (active financing income as defined in paragraph (e)(2) of this section);

(B) Passive income as defined in section 904(d)(2)(B) and paragraph (b) of this section as determined before the application of the exception for high-taxed income but after the application of the exception for export financing interest; or

(C) Incidental income as defined in paragraph (e)(4) of this section.

(2) Active financing income -

(i) Income included. For purposes of paragraph (e)(1) and (e)(3) of this section, income is active financing income only if it is described in any of the following subdivisions.

(A) Income that is of a kind that would be insurance income as defined in section 953(a) (including related party insurance income as defined in section 953(c)(2)) and determined without regard to those provisions of section 953(a)(1)(A) that limit insurance income to income from countries other than the country in which the corporation was created or organized.

(B) Income from the investment by an insurance company of its unearned premiums or reserves ordinary and necessary to the proper conduct of the insurance business, income from providing services as an insurance underwriter, income from insurance brokerage or agency services, and income from loss adjuster and surveyor services.

(C) Income from investing funds in circumstances in which the taxpayer holds itself out as providing a financial service by the acceptance or the investment of such funds, including income from investing deposits of money and income earned investing funds received for the purchase of traveler's checks or face amount certificates.

(D) Income from making personal, mortgage, industrial, or other loans.

(E) Income from purchasing, selling, discounting, or negotiating on a regular basis, notes, drafts, checks, bills of exchange, acceptances, or other evidences of indebtedness.

(F) Income from issuing letters of credit and negotiating drafts drawn thereunder.

(G) Income from providing trust services.

(H) Income from arranging foreign exchange transactions, or engaging in foreign exchange transactions.

(I) Income from purchasing stock, debt obligations, or other securities from an issuer or holder with a view to the public distribution thereof or offering or selling stock, debt obligations, or other securities for an issuer or holder in connection with the public distribution thereof, or participating in any such undertaking.

(J) Income earned by broker-dealers in the ordinary course of business (such as commissions) from the purchase or sale of stock, debt obligations, commodities futures, or other securities or financial instruments and dividend and interest income earned by broker dealers on stock, debt obligations, or other financial instruments that are held for sale.

(K) Service fee income from investment and correspondent banking.

(L) Income from interest rate and currency swaps.

(M) Income from providing fiduciary services.

(N) Income from services with respect to the management of funds.

(O) Bank-to-bank participation income.

(P) Income from providing charge and credit card services or for factoring receivables obtained in the course of providing such services.

(Q) Income from financing purchases from third parties.

(R) Income from gains on the disposition of tangible or intangible personal property or real property that was used in the active financing business (as defined in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section) but only to the extent that the property was held to generate or generated active financing income prior to its disposition.

(S) Income from hedging gain with respect to other active financing income.

(T) Income from providing traveller's check services.

(U) Income from servicing mortgages.

(V) Income from a finance lease. For this purpose, a finance lease is any lease that is a direct financing lease or a leveraged lease for accounting purposes and is also a lease for tax purposes.

(W) [Reserved]

(X) Income from providing investment advisory services, custodial services, agency paying services, collection agency services, and stock transfer agency services.

(Y) Any similar item of income that is disclosed in the manner provided in the instructions to the Form 1118 or 1116 or that is designated as a similar item of income in guidance published by the Internal Revenue Service.

(3) Financial services entities -

(i) In general. The term “financial services entity” means an individual or entity that is predominantly engaged in the active conduct of a banking, insurance, financing, or similar business (active financing business) for any taxable Year. Except as provided in paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section, a determination of whether an entity is a financial services entity shall be done on an entity-by-entity basis. An individual or entity is predominantly engaged in the active financing business for any year if for that year at least 80 percent of its gross income is income described in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section. For this purpose, gross income includes all income realized by an individual or entity, whether includible or excludible from gross income under other operative provisions of the Code, but excludes gain from the disposition of stock of a corporation that prior to the disposition of its stock is related to the transferor within the meaning of section 267(b). For this purpose, income received from a related person that is a financial services entity shall be excluded if such income is characterized under the look-through rules of section 904(d)(3) and § 1.904-5. In addition, income received from a related person that is not a financial services entity but that is characterized as financial services income under the look-through rules shall be excluded. Any income received from a related person that is characterized under the look-through rules and that is not otherwise excluded by this paragraph will retain its character either as active financing income or other income in the hands of the recipient for purposes of determining if the recipient is a financial services entity and if the income is financial services income to the recipient. For purposes of this paragraph, related person is defined in § 1.904-5(i)(1).

(ii) Special rule for affiliated groups. In the case of any corporation that is not a financial services entity under paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section, but is a member of an affiliated group, such corporation will be deemed to be a financial services entity if the affiliated group as a whole meets the requirements of paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(3)(ii), affiliated group means an affiliated group as defined in section 1504(a), determined without regard to section 1504(b)(3). In counting the income of the group for purposes of determining whether the group meets the requirements of paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section, the following rules apply. Only the income of group members that are United States corporations or foreign corporations that are controlled foreign corporations in which United States members of the affiliated group own, directly or indirectly, at least 80 percent of the total voting power and value of the stock shall be included. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(3)(ii), indirect ownership shall be determined under section 318 and the regulations under that section. The income of the group will not include any income from transactions with other members of the group. Passive income will not be considered to be active financing income merely because that income is earned by a member of the group that is a financial services entity without regard to the rule of this paragraph (e)(3)(ii).

(iii) Treatment of partnerships and other pass-through entities For purposes of determining whether a partner (including a partnership that is a partner in a second partnership) is a financial services entity, all of the partner's income shall be taken into account, except that income that is excluded under paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section shall not be taken into account. Thus, if a partnership is determined to be a financial services entity none of the income of the partner received from the partnership that is characterized under the look-through rules shall be included for purpose of determining if the partner is a financial services entity. If a partnership is determined not to be a financial services entity, then income of the partner from the partnership that is characterized under the look-through rules will be taken into account (unless such income is financial services income) and such income will retain its character either as active financing income or as other income in the hands of the partner for purposes of determining if the partner is a financial service entity and if the income is financial services income to the partner. If a partnership is a financial services entity and the partner's income from the partnership is characterized as financial services income under the look-through rules, then, for purposes of determining a partner's foreign tax credit limitation, the income from the partnership shall be considered to be financial services income to the partner regardless of whether the partner is itself a financial services entity. The rules of this paragraph (e)(3)(iii) will appIy for purposes of determining whether an owner of an interest in any other pass-through entity the character of the income of which is preserved when such income is included in the income of the owner of the interest is a financial services entity.

(iv) [Reserved]

(4) Definition of incidental income -

(i) In general -

(A) Rule. Incidental income is income that is integrally related to active financing income of a financial services entity. Such income includes, for example, income from precious metals trading and commodity trading that is integrally related to futures income. If securities, shares of stock, or other types of property are acquired by a financial services entity as an ordinary and necessary incident to the conduct of an active financing business, the income from such property will be considered to be financial services income but only so long as the retention of such property remains an ordinary or necessary incident to the conduct of such business. Thus property, including stock, acquired as the result of, or in order to prevent, a loss in an active financing business upon a loan held by the taxpayer in the ordinary course of such business will be considered ordinary and necessary to the conduct of such business, but income from such property will be considered financial services income only so long as the holding of such property remains an ordinary and necessary incident to the conduct of such business. If an entity holds such property for five years or less then the property is considered held incident to the financial services business. If an entity holds such property for more than five years, a presumption will be established that the entity is not holding such property incident to its financial services business. An entity will be able to rebut the presumption by demonstrating that under the facts and circumstances it is not holding the property as an investment. However, the fact that an entity holds the property for more than five years and is not able to rebut the presumption that it is not holding the property incident to its financial services business will not affect the characterization of any income received from the property during the first five years as financial services income.

(B) [Reserved]

(ii) Income that is not incidental income. Income that is attributable to non-financial activity is not incidental income within the meaning of paragraph (e)(4) (i) and (ii) of this section solely because such income represents a relatively small proportion of the taxpayer's total income or that the taxpayer engages in non-financial activity on a sporadic basis. Thus, for example, income from data processing services provided to related or unrelated parties or income from the sale of goods or non-financial services (for example travel services) is not financial services income, even if the recipient is a financial services entity.

(f) Foreign branch category income -

(1) Foreign branch category income -

(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of this section, the term foreign branch category income means income of a United States person, other than a pass-through entity, that is -

(A) Income attributable to foreign branches of the United States person held directly or indirectly through disregarded entities;

(B) A distributive share of partnership income that is attributable to foreign branches held by the partnership directly or indirectly through disregarded entities, or held indirectly by the partnership through another partnership or other pass-through entity that holds the foreign branch directly or indirectly through disregarded entities; and

(C) Income from other pass-through entities determined under principles similar to those described in paragraph (f)(1)(i)(B) of this section.

(ii) Passive category income excluded from foreign branch category income. Income assigned to the passive category under paragraph (b) of this section is not foreign branch category income, regardless of whether the income is described in paragraph (f)(1)(i) of this section. Income that is treated as passive category income under the look-through rules in § 1.904-5 is also excluded from foreign branch category income, regardless of whether the income is attributable to a foreign branch. However, income that would be passive category income but for the application of section 904(d)(2)(B)(iii) (export financing interest and high-taxed income) or 904(d)(2)(C) (financial services income) and also meets the definition of foreign branch category income is foreign branch category income.

(2) Gross income attributable to a foreign branch -

(i) In general. Except as provided in this paragraph (f)(2), gross income is attributable to a foreign branch to the extent the gross income (as adjusted to conform to Federal income tax principles) is reflected on the separate set of books and records (as defined in § 1.989(a)-1(d)(1) and (2)) of the foreign branch. Gross income that is not attributable to the foreign branch and is therefore attributable to the foreign branch owner is income in a separate category (other than the foreign branch category) under the other rules of this section.

(ii) Income attributable to U.S. activities. Except as provided in paragraph (f)(2)(vi) of this section, gross income attributable to a foreign branch does not include items arising from activities carried out in the United States, regardless of whether the items are reflected on the foreign branch's separate books and records.

(iii) Income arising from stock -

(A) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (f)(2)(iii)(B) of this section, gross income attributable to a foreign branch does not include items of income arising from stock of a corporation (whether foreign or domestic), including gain from the disposition of such stock or any inclusion under sections 951(a), 951A(a), 1248, or 1293(a).

(B) Exception for dealer property. Paragraph (f)(2)(iii)(A) of this section does not apply to gain recognized from dispositions of stock in a corporation, if the stock would be dealer property (as defined in § 1.954-2(a)(4)(v)) if the foreign branch were a controlled foreign corporation.

(iv) Disposition of interests in certain entities -

(A) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (f)(2)(iv)(B) of this section, gross income attributable to a foreign branch does not include gain from the disposition of an interest in a partnership or other pass-through entity or an interest in a disregarded entity. See also paragraph (n)(2) of this section for general rules relating to the sale of a partnership interest.

(B) Exception for sales by a foreign branch in the ordinary course of business. The rule in paragraph (f)(2)(iv)(A) of this section does not apply to gain from the sale or exchange of an interest in a partnership or other pass-through entity or an interest in a disregarded entity if the gain is reflected on the books and records of a foreign branch and the interest is held by the foreign branch in the ordinary course of its active trade or business. An interest is considered to be held in the ordinary course of the foreign branch's active trade or business only if the foreign branch -

(1) Directly engages in the same, or a related, trade or business as that partnership, other pass-through entity, or disregarded entity; and

(2) In the case of a partnership or other pass-through entity, the foreign branch owns 10 percent or more of the capital or profits interests in the partnership or other pass-through entity.

(v) Adjustments to items of gross income reflected on the books and records. If a principal purpose of recording or failing to record an item of gross income on the books and records of a foreign branch, or of making or not making a disregarded payment described in paragraph (f)(2)(vi) of this section, is the avoidance of Federal income tax, the purposes of section 904, or the purposes of section 250 (in connection with section 250(b)(3)(A)(i)(VI)), the item must be attributed to one or more foreign branches or the foreign branch owner in a manner that reflects the substance of the transaction. For purposes of this paragraph (f)(2)(v), interest received by a foreign branch from a related person is presumed to be attributable to the foreign branch owner (and not to the foreign branch) unless the interest income meets the definition of financial services income under paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section. For purposes of this paragraph (f)(2)(v), a related person is any person that bears a relationship to the foreign branch owner described in section 267(b) or 707.

(vi) Attribution of gross income to which disregarded payments are allocable -

(A) In general. If a foreign branch makes a disregarded payment to its foreign branch owner and the disregarded payment is allocable to gross income that would be attributable to the foreign branch under the rules in paragraphs (f)(2)(i) through (v) of this section, the gross income attributable to the foreign branch is adjusted downward to reflect the allocable amount of the disregarded payment, and the gross income attributable to the foreign branch owner is adjusted upward by the same amount, translated (if necessary) from the foreign branch's functional currency to U.S. dollars at the spot rate (as defined in § 1.988-1(d)) on the date of the disregarded payment. For rules addressing multiple disregarded payments in a taxable year, see paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(F) of this section. Similarly, if a foreign branch owner makes a disregarded payment to its foreign branch and the disregarded payment is allocable to gross income attributable to the foreign branch owner, the gross income attributable to the foreign branch owner is adjusted downward to reflect the allocable amount of the disregarded payment, and the gross income attributable to the foreign branch is adjusted upward by the same amount, translated (if necessary) from U.S. dollars to the foreign branch's functional currency at the spot rate on the date of the disregarded payment. An adjustment to the attribution of gross income under this paragraph (f)(2)(vi) does not change the total amount, character, or source of the United States person's gross income; does not change the amount of a United States person's income in any separate category other than the foreign branch and general categories (or a specified separate category associated with the foreign branch and general categories); and has no bearing on the analysis of whether an item of gross income is eligible to be resourced under an income tax treaty. The principles of the rules in this paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(A) also apply in the case of disregarded payments between a foreign branch and another foreign branch with the same foreign branch owner if either foreign branch makes a disregarded payment to, or receives a disregarded payment from, the foreign branch owner.

(B) Allocation of disregarded payments -

(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(B)(2) of this section, whether a disregarded payment is allocable to gross income attributable to a foreign branch or gross income attributable to its foreign branch owner, and the source and separate category of the gross income to which the disregarded payment is allocable, is determined under the following rules:

(i) Disregarded payments from a foreign branch owner to its foreign branch are allocable to gross income attributable to the foreign branch owner to the extent a deduction for that payment or any disregarded cost recovery deduction relating to that payment, if regarded, would be allocated and apportioned to gross income attributable to the foreign branch owner under the principles of §§ 1.861-8 through 1.861-14T and 1.861-17 (without regard to exclusive apportionment) by treating foreign source gross income and U.S. source gross income in each separate category (determined prior to the application of this paragraph (f)(2)(vi) to the disregarded payment at issue) each as a statutory grouping; and

(ii) Disregarded payments from a foreign branch to its foreign branch owner are allocable to gross income attributable to the foreign branch to the extent a deduction for that payment or any disregarded cost recovery deduction relating to that payment, if regarded, would be allocated and apportioned to gross income attributable to the foreign branch under the principles of §§ 1.861-8 through 1.861-14T and 1.861-17 (without regard to exclusive apportionment) by treating foreign source gross income and U.S. source gross income in each separate category (determined prior to the application of this paragraph (f)(2)(vi) to the disregarded payment at issue) each as a statutory grouping.

(2) Special rule for certain disregarded payments. Whether a disregarded payment made in connection with a sale or exchange of property is allocable to gross income attributable to a foreign branch or its foreign branch owner, and the source and separate category of the gross income to which the disregarded payment is allocable, is determined under the following rules:

(i) Except as provided in paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(D) of this section, disregarded payments from a foreign branch owner to its foreign branch in respect of non-inventory property are allocable to the gross income attributable to the foreign branch owner, if any, that is recognized with respect to a regarded sale or exchange of that property (including gross income arising in a later taxable year) to the extent of the adjusted disregarded gain with respect to the transferred property, and in the same proportions as the source and separate category of the gain recognized on the regarded sale or exchange of the transferred property;

(ii) Except as provided in paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(D) of this section, disregarded payments from a foreign branch to its foreign branch owner or to another foreign branch in respect of non-inventory property are allocable to the gross income attributable to the foreign branch, if any, that is recognized with respect to a regarded sale or exchange of that property (including gross income arising in a later taxable year) to the extent of the adjusted disregarded gain with respect to the transferred property, and in the same proportions as the source and separate category of the gain recognized on the regarded sale or exchange of the transferred property; and

(iii) The principles of paragraphs (f)(2)(vi)(B)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section apply in the case of disregarded payments in respect of inventory property between a foreign branch and its foreign branch owner or between foreign branches to the extent the disregarded payment, if regarded, would, for purposes of determining gross income, be subtracted from gross receipts that are regarded for Federal income tax purposes.

(3) Timing of reattribution -

(i) In general. The gross income attributable to the foreign branch is adjusted under paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(B)(1) of this section only in the taxable year that a disregarded payment, if regarded, would be allowed as a deduction (including by giving rise to disregarded cost recovery deductions), or otherwise would be taken into account as an increase to cost of goods sold.

(ii) Disregarded sales of property. The gross income attributable to a foreign branch is adjusted under paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(B)(2) of this section only in the taxable year or years in which gain is recognized by reason of the disposition of property with an adjusted disregarded basis in a transaction that is regarded for Federal income tax purposes.

(C) Exclusion of certain disregarded payments. Paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(A) of this section does not apply to the following payments, accruals, or other transfers between a foreign branch and its foreign branch owner, or between foreign branches, that are disregarded for Federal income tax purposes:

(1) Interest, and interest equivalents that, if regarded, would be described in §§ 1.861-9(b) and 1.861-9T(b);

(2) Remittances from the foreign branch to its foreign branch owner, except as provided in paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(D) of this section;

(3) Contributions of money, securities, and other property from the foreign branch owner to its foreign branch, except as provided in paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(D) of this section; or

(4) Any disregarded payment that, if made to a foreign branch and regarded for Federal income tax purposes, could not result in the attribution of gross income to a foreign branch (for example, the sale of an interest in a partnership by a foreign branch to its foreign branch owner, unless the sale or exchange occurred in the ordinary course of business within the meaning of paragraph (f)(2)(iv)(B) of this section).

(D) Certain transfers of intangible property -

(1) In general. For purposes of applying this paragraph (f)(2)(vi), the amount of gross income attributable to a foreign branch (and the amount of gross income attributable to its foreign branch owner) must be adjusted under the principles of paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(B) of this section to reflect all transactions that are disregarded for Federal income tax purposes in which property described in section 367(d)(4) is transferred to or from a foreign branch or between foreign branches, whether or not a disregarded payment is made in connection with the transfer. In determining the amount of gross income that is attributable to a foreign branch that must be adjusted by reason of this paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(D), the principles of sections 367(d) and 482 apply. For example, if a foreign branch owner transfers property described in section 367(d)(4) to a foreign branch, the principles of section 367(d) are applied by treating the foreign branch as a separate foreign corporation to which the property is transferred in exchange for stock of the corporation in a transaction described in section 351. Similarly, if a foreign branch remits property described in section 367(d)(4) to its foreign branch owner, the foreign branch is treated as having sold the transferred property to the foreign branch owner in exchange for annual payments contingent on the productivity or use of the property, the amounts of which are determined under the principles of section 367(d).

(2) Transactions occurring before December 7, 2018. Paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(D)(1) of this section does not apply to a disregarded transfer of property that occurred before December 7, 2018.

(3) Transitory ownership -

(i) In general. Paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(D)(1) of this section does not apply to disregarded transfers of property by a foreign branch or a foreign branch owner (such foreign branch or foreign branch owner, the limited transferor), if the conditions in paragraphs (f)(2)(vi)(D)(3)(ii) and (iii) of this section are met.

(ii) Transitory ownership period. The limited transferor's ownership of the property is transitory.

(iii) Use of property. The limited transferor does not develop, exploit, or otherwise employ the property in a trade or business, other than in the ordinary course of the limited transferor's business during the period of transitory ownership.

(iv) Predecessors. For purposes of paragraphs (f)(2)(vi)(D)(3)(ii) and (iii) of this section, a reference to a limited transferor that is a foreign branch owner includes any predecessor to the foreign branch owner. No person is a predecessor with respect to a foreign branch under this paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(D)(3)(iv).

(E) Amount of disregarded payments. The amount of each disregarded payment used to make an adjustment under this paragraph (f)(2)(vi) (or the absence of any adjustment) must be determined in a manner that results in the attribution of the proper amount of gross income to each of a foreign branch and its foreign branch owner under the principles of section 482, applied as if the foreign branch were a corporation.

(F) Multiple disregarded payments. In the case of multiple disregarded payments, this paragraph (f)(2)(vi) is applied with respect to each disregarded payment, and under the ordering rules specified in paragraphs (f)(2)(vi)(F)(1) and (2) of this section. For purposes of this paragraph (f)(2)(vi), paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(F)(1) of this section applies before paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(F)(2) of this section.

(1) Income initially attributable to a foreign branch. In applying this paragraph (f)(2)(vi) to gross income that would, but for this paragraph (f)(2)(vi), be attributable to a foreign branch, adjustments related to disregarded payments from a foreign branch to another foreign branch are computed first, followed by adjustments related to disregarded payments from a foreign branch to its foreign branch owner, followed by adjustments related to disregarded payments from a foreign branch owner to its foreign branch.

(2) Income initially attributable to a foreign branch owner. In applying this paragraph (f)(2)(vi) to gross income that would, but for this paragraph (f)(2)(vi), be attributable to a foreign branch owner, adjustments related to disregarded payments from a foreign branch owner to a foreign branch are computed first, followed by adjustments related to disregarded payments from a foreign branch to another foreign branch, followed by adjustments related to disregarded payments from a foreign branch to its foreign branch owner.

(3) Definitions. The following definitions apply for purposes of this paragraph (f).

(i) Adjusted disregarded basis. The term adjusted disregarded basis means, with respect to property transferred in a transaction that is disregarded for Federal income tax purposes, the tentative disregarded basis of the property -

(A) Reduced by any disregarded cost recovery deductions with respect to the property; and

(B) Increased by any disregarded section 1016(a)(1) expenditures with respect to the property.

(ii) Adjusted disregarded gain -

(A) In general. The term adjusted disregarded gain means, with respect to property transferred in a transaction that is disregarded for Federal income tax purposes, the lesser of -

(1) The adjusted disregarded basis of the property, reduced by the adjusted basis of the property at the time the property was transferred in a transaction that is disregarded for Federal income tax purposes; and

(2) The gain (if any) attributable to a regarded sale or exchange of the transferred property.

(B) Limitation. Adjusted disregarded gain may not be less than zero.

(iii) Disregarded cost recovery deduction. For a taxable year, the term disregarded cost recovery deduction means, with respect to property transferred in a transaction that is disregarded for Federal income tax purposes -

(A) The amounts that would be allowed as a deduction, and that would give rise to an adjustment described in section 1016(a)(2), with respect to the transferred property if the transfer (and the foreign branch) were regarded for Federal income tax purposes, to the extent that, under paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(B)(1) of this section, the deduction would be allocable to -

(1) Gross income attributable to a foreign branch owner, in the case of property transferred to a foreign branch owner; or

(2) Gross income attributable to a foreign branch, in the case of property transferred to a foreign branch; reduced by

(B) The amounts that are allowed as a deduction, and that give rise to an adjustment described in section 1016(a)(2), with respect to the transferred property to the extent that, under the principles of paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(B)(1) of this section, the deduction would be allocable to -

(1) Gross income attributable to a foreign branch owner, in the case of property transferred to a foreign branch owner; or

(2) Gross income attributable to a foreign branch, in the case of property transferred to a foreign branch.

(iv) Disregarded entity. The term disregarded entity means an entity described in § 301.7701-2(c)(2) of this chapter that is disregarded as an entity separate from its owner for Federal income tax purposes.

(v) Disregarded payment. The term disregarded payment means any amount described in paragraph (f)(3)(v)(A) or (B) of this section.

(A) Transfers to or from a disregarded entity. An amount described in this paragraph (f)(3)(v)(A) is an amount that is transferred to or from a disregarded entity in connection with a transaction that is disregarded for Federal income tax purposes and that is reflected on the separate set of books and records of a foreign branch.

(B) Other disregarded amounts. An amount described in this paragraph (f)(3)(v)(B) is any amount reflected on the separate set of books and records of a foreign branch that would constitute an item of income, gain, deduction, or loss (other than an amount described in paragraph (f)(3)(v)(A) of this section), a distribution to or contribution from the foreign branch owner, or a payment in exchange for property if the transaction to which the amount is attributable were regarded for Federal income tax purposes.

(vi) Disregarded section 1016(a)(1) expenditure. The term disregarded section 1016(a)(1) expenditure means a disregarded payment that, if regarded for Federal income tax purposes, would be described in section 1016(a)(1) and that, under the principles of paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(B)(1) of this section, would be allocable to -

(A) General category gross income, in the case of property held by a foreign branch owner; or

(B) Foreign branch category income, in the case of property held by a foreign branch.

(vii) Foreign branch -

(A) In general. The term foreign branch means a qualified business unit (QBU), as defined in § 1.989(a)-1(b)(2)(ii) and (b)(3), that conducts a trade or business outside the United States. For an illustration of the principles of this paragraph (f)(3)(vii), see paragraph (f)(4)(i) of this section (Example 1).

(B) Trade or business outside the United States. Activities carried out in the United States, whether or not such activities are described in § 1.989(a)-1(b)(3), do not constitute the conduct of a trade or business outside the United States. Activities carried out outside the United States that constitute a permanent establishment under the terms of an income tax treaty between the United States and the country in which the activities are treated as carried out pursuant to a trade or business conducted outside the United States for purposes of this paragraph (f)(3)(vii)(B). In determining whether activities constitute a trade or business under § 1.989(a)-1(c), disregarded payments are taken into account and may give rise to a trade or business, provided that the activities (together with any other activities of the QBU) would otherwise satisfy the rule in § 1.989(a)-1(c).

(C) Activities of a partnership, estate, trust, or corporation -

(1) Treatment as a foreign branch. For purposes of this paragraph (f)(3)(vii), the activities of a partnership, estate, trust, or corporation that conducts a trade or business that satisfies the requirements of § 1.989(a)-1(b)(2)(ii)(A) (as modified by paragraph (f)(3)(vii)(B) of this section) are -

(i) Deemed to satisfy the requirements of § 1.989(a)-1(b)(2)(ii)(B); and

(ii) Comprise a foreign branch.

(2) Separate set of books and records. A foreign branch described in this paragraph (f)(3)(vii)(C) is treated as maintaining a separate set of books and records with respect to the activities described in paragraph (f)(3)(vii)(C)(1) of this section, and must determine, as the context requires, the items of gross income, disregarded payments, and any other items that would be reflected on those books and records in applying this paragraph (f) with respect to the foreign branch. The principles of § 1.1503(d)-5(c) apply for purposes of determining which items would be reflected on such books and records.

(viii) Foreign branch owner. The term foreign branch owner means, with respect to a foreign branch, the person (including a foreign or domestic partnership or other pass-through entity) that owns the foreign branch, either directly or indirectly through one or more disregarded entities. For purposes of this paragraph (f)(3)(viii), the foreign branch owner does not include the foreign branch or another foreign branch of the person that owns the foreign branch.

(ix) Remittance. The term remittance means a transfer of property (within the meaning of section 317(a)) by a foreign branch that would be treated as a distribution if the foreign branch were treated as a separate corporation.

(x) Tentative disregarded basis. The term tentative disregarded basis means, in connection with the transfer of property in a transaction that is disregarded for Federal income tax purposes, the basis that property would have if the disregarded payment made in exchange for the transferred property were treated as the cost of such property under section 1012(a).

(4) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (f).

(i) Example 1: Determination of foreign branches and foreign branch owner -

(A) Facts -

(1) P, a domestic corporation, is a partner in PRS, a domestic partnership. All other partners in PRS are unrelated to P. PRS conducts activities solely in Country A (the Country A Business), and those activities constitute a trade or business outside the United States within the meaning of paragraph (f)(3)(vii)(B) of this section. PRS reflects items of income, gain, loss, and expense of the Country A Business on the books and records of PRS's home office. PRS is in the business of manufacturing bicycles.

(2) PRS owns FDE1, a disregarded entity organized in Country B. FDE1 conducts activities in Country B (the Country B Business), and those activities constitute a trade or business outside the United States within the meaning of paragraph (f)(3)(vii)(B) of this section. FDE1 maintains a set of books and records that are separate from those of PRS, and the separate set of books and records reflects items of income, gain, loss, and expense with respect to the Country B Business. FDE1 is in the business of selling bicycles manufactured by PRS.

(3) FDE1 owns FDE2, a disregarded entity organized in Country C. FDE2 conducts activities in Country C (the Country C Business), and those activities constitute a trade or business outside the United States within the meaning of paragraph (f)(3)(vii)(B) of this section. FDE2 maintains a set of books and records that are separate from those of PRS and FDE1, and the separate set of books and records reflects items of income, gain, loss, and expense with respect to the Country C Business. FDE2's paper business is not related to FDE1's bicycle sales business, and FDE1 does not hold its interest in FDE2 in the ordinary course of its trade or business.

(B) Analysis -

(1) Country A Business's activities comprise a trade or business conducted outside the United States within the meaning of § 1.989(a)-1(b)(2)(ii)(A) and (b)(3) (in each case, as modified by paragraph (f)(3)(vii) of this section). PRS does not maintain a separate set of books and records with respect to the Country A Business. However, under paragraph (f)(3)(vii)(C) of this section, the Country A Business's activities are deemed to satisfy the requirement of § 1.989(a)-1(b)(2)(ii)(B) that a QBU maintain a separate set of books and records with respect to the relevant activities. Thus, for purposes of this paragraph (f), the activities of the Country A Business constitute a QBU as defined in § 1.989-1(b)(2)(ii) and (b)(3), as modified by paragraph (f)(3)(vii) of this section, that conducts a trade or business outside the United States. Accordingly, the activities of the Country A Business constitute a foreign branch within the meaning of paragraph (f)(3)(vii) of this section. PRS, the person that owns the Country A Business, is the foreign branch owner, within the meaning of paragraph (f)(3)(viii) of this section, with respect to the Country A Business.

(2) Country B Business's activities comprise a trade or business outside the United States within the meaning of § 1.989(a)-1(b)(2)(ii)(A) and (b)(3) (in each case, as modified by paragraph (f)(3)(vii) of this section). PRS maintains a separate set of books and records with respect to the Country B Business, as described in § 1.989(a)-1(b)(2)(ii)(B). Thus, for purposes of this section, the activities of the Country B Business constitute a QBU as defined in § 1.989-1(b)(2)(ii) and (b)(3), as modified by paragraph (f)(3)(vii) of this section, that conducts a trade or business outside the United States. Accordingly, the activities of the Country B Business constitute a foreign branch within the meaning of paragraph (f)(3)(vii) of this section. Under paragraph (f)(3)(viii) of this section, PRS, the person that owns the Country B Business indirectly through FDE1 (a disregarded entity), is the foreign branch owner with respect to the Country B Business.

(3) The same analysis that applies to the Country B Business applies to the Country C Business. Accordingly, the activities of the Country C Business constitute a foreign branch within the meaning of paragraph (f)(3)(vii) of this section. PRS, the person that owns the Country C Business indirectly through FDE1 and FDE2 (disregarded entities), is the foreign branch owner with respect to the Country C Business.

(ii) Example 2: Sale of foreign branch -

(A) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (f)(4)(i)(A) of this section (the facts in Example 1), except that in Year 1, FDE1 sells FDE2 to an unrelated person, recording gain from the sale on its books and records. In Year 2, PRS sells FDE1 to another unrelated person, recording gain from the sale on its books and records. In each year, PRS allocates a portion of the gain to P.

(B) Analysis -

(1) Sale of FDE2. Under paragraph (f)(1)(i)(B) of this section, P's distributive share of gain recognized by PRS in connection with the sales of FDE1 and FDE2 constitutes foreign branch category income if it is attributable to a foreign branch held by PRS directly or indirectly through one or more disregarded entities. PRS's gross income from the Year 1 sale of FDE2 is reflected on the separate set of books and records maintained with respect to the Country B Business (a foreign branch) operated by FDE1. Therefore, absent an exception, under paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section PRS's gross income from the sale of FDE2 would be attributable to the Country B Business, and would constitute foreign branch category income. However, under paragraph (f)(2)(iv) of this section, gross income attributable to the Country B Business does not include gain from the sale or exchange of an interest in FDE2, a disregarded entity, unless the interest in FDE2 is held by the Country B Business in the ordinary course of its active trade or business (within the meaning of paragraph (f)(2)(iv)(B) of this section). In this case, the Country B Business does not hold FDE2 in the ordinary course of its active trade or business within the meaning of paragraph (f)(2)(iv)(B) of this section. As a result, P's distributive share of gain from the sale of FDE2 is not attributable to a foreign branch, and is not foreign branch category income.

(2) Sale of FDE1. The analysis of PRS's sale of FDE1 in Year 2 is the same as the analysis for the sale of FDE2, except that PRS, through its Country A Business, holds FDE1 in the ordinary course of its active trade or business within the meaning of paragraph (f)(2)(iv)(B) of this section because the Country A Business engages in a trade or business that is related to the trade or business of FDE1. Therefore, P's distributive share of gain from the sale of FDE1 is attributable to a foreign branch, and is foreign branch category income.

(iii) Example 3: Disregarded payment for services -

(A) Facts. P, a domestic corporation, owns FDE, a disregarded entity that is a foreign branch within the meaning of paragraph (f)(3)(vii) of this section. FDE's functional currency is the U.S. dollar. In Year 1, P accrues and records on its books and records (and not FDE's books and records) $1,000x of gross income from the performance of services to unrelated parties that is not passive category income, $400x of which is foreign source income in respect of services performed outside the United States by employees of FDE and $600x of which is U.S. source income in respect of services performed in the United States. Absent the application of paragraph (f)(2)(vi) of this section, the $1,000x of gross income earned by P would be general category income that would not be attributable to FDE. FDE provides services in support of P's gross income from services. P compensates FDE for its services with an arm's length payment of $400x, which is disregarded for Federal income tax purposes. The deduction for the payment of $400x from P to FDE would be allocated to P's $1,000x of general category gross services income and apportioned entirely to the $400x of foreign source services income under §§ 1.861-8 and 1.861-8T principles (treating foreign source general category gross income and U.S. source general category gross income each as a statutory grouping) if the payment were regarded for Federal income tax purposes.

(B) Analysis. The disregarded payment from P, a United States person, to FDE, its foreign branch, is not recorded on FDE's separate books and records (as adjusted to conform to Federal income tax principles) within the meaning of paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section because it is disregarded for Federal income tax purposes. However, the disregarded payment is allocable to gross income attributable to P because a deduction for the payment, if it were regarded, would be allocated and apportioned to the $400x of P's foreign source services income. Accordingly, under paragraphs (f)(2)(vi)(A) and (f)(2)(vi)(B)(3) of this section, the amount of gross income attributable to the FDE foreign branch (and the gross income attributable to P) is adjusted in Year 1 to take the disregarded payment into account. As such, $400x of P's foreign source gross income from the performance of services is attributable to the FDE foreign branch for purposes of this section. Therefore, $400x of the foreign source gross income that P earned with respect to its services in Year 1 constitutes gross income that is assigned to the foreign branch category.

(iv) Example 4: Disregarded payment for non-inventory property -

(A) Facts. P, a domestic corporation, owns FDE, a disregarded entity that is a foreign branch within the meaning of paragraph (f)(3)(vii) of this section. FDE's functional currency is the U.S. dollar. P holds Asset A, a non-depreciable asset, with an adjusted basis of $200x. In Year 1, P sells Asset A, which will be used in FDE's manufacturing business, to FDE for $500x. FDE makes no other disregarded payments with respect to Asset A. No adjustments described in section 1016(a) apply with respect to Asset A while FDE holds Asset A. In Year 3, FDE sells Asset A to a third party for $600x and reflects $400x of gross income on its separate set of books and records (that is, $600x amount realized less Asset A's $200x adjusted basis). Under sections 865(e)(1) and 904(d)(2)(B)(i), the income arising from the sale of Asset A is foreign source income that is not treated as passive category income. Asset A is not inventory property. Absent the application of paragraph (f)(2)(vi) of this section, the entire $400x of gross income earned by P by reason of FDE's sale of Asset A would be attributable to FDE and be treated as foreign branch category income.

(B) Analysis -

(1) Disregarded basis determinations. If regarded, the $500x payment from FDE to P would result in FDE holding Asset A with a basis of $500x under section 1012. Accordingly, the tentative disregarded basis (within the meaning of paragraph (f)(3)(x) of this section) with respect to Asset A is $500x. Because there are no adjustments described in section 1016 with respect to Asset A (including any adjustments resulting from any disregarded payments made with respect to the transferred property), the adjusted disregarded basis (within the meaning of paragraph (f)(3)(i) of this section) with respect to Asset A is $500x.

(2) Adjusted disregarded gain. Under paragraph (f)(3)(ii) of this section, the adjusted disregarded gain with respect to Asset A is $300x, which is equal to the lesser of $300x (FDE's adjusted disregarded basis in Asset A ($500x) less the adjusted basis of Asset A at the time that Asset A was transferred to FDE ($200x)) and $400x (the gain (if any) attributable to the regarded sale or exchange of Asset A).

(3) Attribution of gross income. Under paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(A) of this section, the gross income attributable to FDE ($400x) is adjusted downward to the extent that the $500x disregarded payment from FDE to P is allocable to gross income of FDE that is reflected on FDE's separate set of books and records. Under paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(B)(2)(ii) of this section, the $500x payment from FDE to P is allocable to gross income attributable to FDE to the extent of FDE's adjusted disregarded gain ($300x) with respect to Asset A. The source and separate category of the gross income of FDE to which the payment is allocable is proportionate to the source and separate category of the gain recognized by FDE with respect to Asset A. Accordingly, $300x of the payment is allocable to foreign source income that would be foreign branch category income. Thus, under paragraphs (f)(2)(vi)(A) and (f)(2)(vi)(B)(3) of this section, foreign source gross income attributable to P is adjusted upward by $300x (increasing foreign source general category income by $300x) and foreign source gross income attributable to FDE is adjusted downward by $300x (decreasing foreign source foreign branch category income by $300x) in Year 3.

(v) Example 5: Disregarded payment for depreciable non-inventory property -

(A) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (f)(4)(iv)(A) of this section (the facts in Example 4), except as set forth in this paragraph (f)(4)(v)(A). Asset A is depreciable property. In Year 2, P is entitled to a $20x depreciation deduction with respect to Asset A, $18x of which is allocated and apportioned to non-passive category gross income attributable to FDE under §§ 1.861-8 through 1.861-14T and $2x of which is allocated and apportioned to passive category gross income under §§ 1.861-8 through 1.861-14T. If the transfer of Asset A were regarded for Federal income tax purposes, FDE would be entitled to a $50x depreciation deduction, 90% of which would be allocated and apportioned to non-passive category gross income attributable to FDE under §§ 1.861-8 through 1.861-14T and 10% of which would be allocated and apportioned to passive category gross income under §§ 1.861-8 through 1.861-14T. In Year 2, FDE earns $315x of gross income that it reflects on its books and records that, in the absence of paragraph (f)(2)(vi) of this section, would be foreign branch category income. FDE also earns $35x of passive category income in Year 2 from the non-active rental of a portion of Asset A. In Year 3, FDE reflects $420x of gross income on its separate set of books and records by reason of the sale of Asset A (that is, $600x amount realized less Asset A's $180x adjusted basis), $42x of which is passive category income under paragraph (b) of this section.

(B) Analysis -

(1) Attribution of gross income in Year 2. The disregarded payment from FDE to P in Year 1 is disregarded for Federal income tax purposes, and does not generate gross income. However, under paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(B)(1)(ii) of this section, the disregarded payment is allocable to gross income attributable to FDE to the extent of any disregarded cost recovery deduction relating to that payment in Year 2. Under paragraph (f)(3)(iii) of this section, the disregarded cost recovery deduction with respect to Asset A is $30x, which is $50x (the amount that would be allowed as a deduction, and that would give rise to an adjustment described in section 1016(a)(2), with respect to Asset A if the transfer of Asset A to FDE were regarded for Federal income tax purposes, to the extent that the deduction would be allocable to income attributable to a foreign branch), reduced by $20x (the amount allowed as a deduction, and that gives rise to an adjustment described in section 1016(a)(2), with respect to Asset A, to the extent allocable to income attributable to a foreign branch). If regarded, $27x (90% of $30x) of the disregarded cost recovery deduction would be allocated and apportioned to non-passive category gross income attributable to FDE under §§ 1.861-8 through 1.861-14T and $3x (10% of $30x) would be allocated and apportioned to passive category gross income under §§ 1.861-8 through 1.861-14T. Accordingly, under paragraphs (f)(2)(vi)(A) and (f)(2)(vi)(B)(3) of this section, the $315x of non-passive category gross income that would otherwise be attributed to FDE is reduced to $288x ($315x less $27x), and the non-passive category gross income attributable to P is increased by $27x in Year 2. As a result, in Year 2, P's foreign branch category gross income is $288x, and its general category gross income is increased by $27x. P's passive category gross income is $35x. See paragraphs (f)(1)(ii) and (f)(2)(vi)(A) of this section.

(2) Attribution of gross income in Year 3 -

(i) Adjusted disregarded basis. If regarded, the $500x payment from FDE to P would result in FDE holding Asset A with a basis of $500x under section 1012. Accordingly, the tentative disregarded basis (within the meaning of paragraph (f)(3)(x) of this section) with respect to Asset A is $500x. To determine FDE's adjusted disregarded basis with respect to Asset A under paragraph (f)(3)(i) of this section, FDE's tentative disregarded basis is reduced by $30x (the disregarded cost recovery deduction with respect to Asset A), resulting in an adjusted disregarded basis of $470x.

(ii) Adjusted disregarded gain. Under paragraph (f)(3)(ii) of this section, the adjusted disregarded gain with respect to Asset A is $270x, which is equal to the lesser of $270x (FDE's adjusted disregarded basis in Asset A ($470x) less the adjusted basis of Asset A at the time that Asset A was transferred to FDE ($200x)), and $420x (the gain attributable to the regarded sale or exchange of Asset A).

(iii) Sale of Asset A. Under paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(A) of this section, the gross income attributable to FDE ($420x) by reason of the sale of Asset A is adjusted downward to the extent that the $500x disregarded payment from FDE to P is allocable to gross income that would be attributable to FDE under paragraphs (f)(2)(i) through (v) of this section. Under paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(B)(2)(ii) of this section, the $500x payment from FDE to P is allocable to gross income attributable to FDE to the extent of the adjusted disregarded gain with respect to Asset A, which is $270x. The source and separate category of the gross income of FDE to which that amount is allocable is proportionate to the source and separate category of the $420x of gain recognized on the regarded sale of Asset A ($378x of foreign source non-passive category income and $42x of foreign source passive category income). Consequently, under paragraphs (f)(2)(vi)(A) and (f)(2)(vi)(B)(3) of this section, in Year 3, gross income attributable to P is adjusted upward by $270x (increasing P's foreign source general category gross income by $243x, which bears the same proportion to $270x as the foreign source non-passive gain ($378x) bears to P's overall gain with respect to Asset A ($420x)), and the foreign source gross income attributable to FDE is adjusted downward by $270x (with foreign source foreign branch category gross income reduced by $243x). P also has $42x of foreign source passive category income from the sale of Asset A. See paragraphs (f)(1)(ii) and (f)(2)(vi)(A) of this section.

(vi) Example 6: Disregarded payment for non-depreciable non-inventory property - regarded gain limitation -

(A) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (f)(4)(iv)(A) of this section (the facts in Example 4), except that in Year 3, FDE sells Asset A to a third party for $340x and reflects $140x of gross income on its separate set of books and records (that is, $340x amount realized less Asset A's $200x adjusted basis), none of which is passive category income.

(B) Analysis. The analysis is the same as the analysis in paragraph (f)(4)(iv)(B) of this section (the analysis in Example 4), except that in Year 3, the adjusted disregarded gain with respect to Asset A is $140x, which is equal to the lesser of $300x (FDE's adjusted disregarded basis in Asset A ($500x) less the adjusted basis of Asset A at the time that Asset A was transferred to FDE ($200x)), and $140x (the gain attributable to the regarded sale or exchange of Asset A). Accordingly, under paragraphs (f)(2)(vi)(A) and (f)(2)(vi)(B)(3) of this section, gross income attributable to P is adjusted upward by $140x (increasing P's foreign source general category gross income by $140x) and gross income attributable to FDE is adjusted downward by $140x (decreasing P's foreign source foreign branch category gross income by $140x) in Year 3.

(vii) Example 7: Disregarded payment for non-depreciable non-inventory property - loss -

(A) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (f)(4)(iv)(A) of this section (the facts in Example 4), except that in Year 3, FDE sells Asset A to a third party for $175x and reflects a $25x loss on its separate set of books and records (that is, $175x amount realized less Asset A's $200x adjusted basis).

(B) Analysis. The analysis is the same as the analysis in paragraph (f)(4)(iv)(B) of this section (the analysis in Example 4), except that in Year 3, the adjusted disregarded gain with respect to Asset A is $0x, which is equal to the lesser of $300x (FDE's adjusted disregarded basis in Asset A ($500x) less the adjusted basis of Asset A at the time that Asset A was transferred to FDE ($200x)), and $0x (the gain attributable to the regarded sale or exchange of Asset A). Accordingly, gross income amounts attributable to P and FDE are not adjusted under paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(A) of this section by reason of the transfer of Asset A from P to FDE.

(viii) Example 8: Disregarded payment for non-depreciable non-inventory property - disregarded gain limitation -

(A) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (f)(4)(iv)(A) of this section (the facts in Example 4), except that in Year 1, P sells Asset A to FDE for $65x.

(B) Analysis. The analysis is the same as the analysis in paragraph (f)(4)(iv)(B) of this section (the analysis in Example 4), except that in Year 3, the tentative disregarded basis and the adjusted disregarded basis with respect to Asset A are $65x. Under paragraph (f)(3)(ii)(B) of this section, the adjusted disregarded gain with respect to Asset A is $0x. Accordingly, under paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(A) of this section, gross income amounts attributable to P and FDE are not adjusted under paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(A) of this section by reason of the transfer of Asset A from P to FDE.

(ix) Example 9: Application of the rules to the sale of inventory from a foreign branch owner to a foreign branch for distribution -

(A) Facts. P, a domestic corporation, owns FDE, a disregarded entity that is a foreign branch within the meaning of paragraph (f)(3)(vii) of this section. FDE's functional currency is the U.S. dollar. P manufactures portable electronic devices, which it sells to FDE for $1,500x during a taxable year in a transaction that is disregarded for Federal income tax purposes. In the same taxable year, FDE sells the portable electronic devices to its customers for $1,750x. P uses an overall accrual method of accounting and has $1,300x of cost of goods sold for the taxable year, $1,200x of which were incurred prior to the disregarded sale to FDE and recorded on P's separate set of books and records and $100x of which were incurred after the disregarded sale and recorded on the books and records of FDE. P reports $450x of gross income for the taxable year: $1,750x of gross receipts less cost of goods sold of $1,300x. The $450x of gross income from the sale of portable electronic devices is U.S. source income under section 863(b).

(B) Analysis -

(1) In general. The gross receipts from the sale of portable electronic devices ($1,750x), which results in U.S. source gross income of $450x, is recorded on FDE's separate books and records (as adjusted to conform to Federal income tax principles). Therefore, the gross income ($450x) generally would be foreign branch category income under paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section. However, under paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(A) of this section, the amount of gross income attributable to FDE (and the gross income attributable to P) is adjusted to take the disregarded payment for the portable electronic devices from FDE to P into account. If both FDE and the disregarded payment from FDE to P were recognized for Federal income tax purposes, the amount of the payment ($1,500x) would reduce FDE's gross income. Therefore, under paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(B)(2)(iii) of this section, the principles of paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(B)(2)(ii) of this section apply for purposes of determining whether, and to what extent, the disregarded payment is allocable to non-passive category income attributable to FDE for purposes of determining the extent of any adjustment.

(2) Applying the principles of the tangible property rules to sales of inventory. The principles of paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(B)(2)(ii) of this section are applied by treating the cost of goods sold with respect to expenses recorded on P's separate set of books and records ($1,200x) similarly to the adjusted basis at the time of the disregarded sale; the gross income ($450x) similarly to gain from the disposition of non-inventory property; and the lesser of the recognized gross income ($450x) and the disregarded payment less the cost of goods sold attributable to expenses reflected on P's separate set of books and records ($1,500x less $1,200x) similarly to disregarded gain ($300x). Accordingly, under paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(A) of this section, general category U.S. source gross income attributable to P is adjusted upward by $300x and the non-passive category U.S. source gross income attributable to FDE is adjusted downward by $300x.

(x) Example 10: Gross income initially attributable to a foreign branch -

(A) Facts -

(1) Overview. P, a domestic corporation, owns FDE, which is a disregarded entity that is a foreign branch within the meaning of paragraph (f)(3)(vii) of this section that has the U.S. dollar as its functional currency. P, which is a foreign branch owner with respect to FDE, also conducts a trade or business in the United States. During a single taxable year, P and FDE engage in the transactions described in paragraphs (f)(4)(x)(A)(2) and (3) of this section.

(2) Unrelated party transactions. P, through its U.S. office, accrues and records on its books and records $5,000x of gross income from the performance of accounting services for Customer A, an unrelated party (the Customer A services). The gross income from the Customer A services performed by P is non-passive category income and, under section 861(a)(3), is U.S. source income. Absent the application of paragraph (f)(2)(vi) of this section, the gross income earned by P through its U.S. office would be general category income. FDE accrues and records on its books and records $3,400x of gross income from the performance of web design services for Customer B, an unrelated party (the Customer B services). The gross income from the Customer B services performed by FDE is non-passive category income and, under section 862(a)(3), is foreign source income. Absent the application of paragraph (f)(2)(vi) of this section, the $3,400x of gross income earned by FDE would be foreign branch category income.

(3) Disregarded payments. FDE provides web design services to P. As compensation for those services, P pays $300x to FDE. The deduction for P's payment to FDE (if regarded) would be allocable to the $5,000x of general category U.S. source gross income earned from P's performance of the Customer A services. P provides accounting services to FDE from P's U.S. office. As compensation for those services, FDE pays $300x to P. The deduction for FDE's payment to P (if regarded) would be allocable to the $3,400x of non-passive category foreign source gross income earned from FDE's performance of the Customer B services.

(B) Analysis -

(1) Application of multiple disregarded payments rule. Under paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(F) of this section, paragraph (f)(2)(vi) of this section applies to determine the effects of the disregarded payments described in paragraph (f)(4)(x)(A)(3) of this section on gross income initially attributable to FDE before paragraph (f)(2)(vi) of this section is applied to gross income initially attributable to P.

(2) Disregarded payment from FDE to P. The disregarded payment from FDE to P is disregarded for Federal income tax purposes, and does not generate gross income. However, the disregarded payment is allocable to non-passive category gross income attributable to FDE because a deduction for the payment, if it were regarded, would be allocated to FDE's $3,400x of non-passive category foreign source gross services income under § 1.861-8. Under paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(A) of this section, the amount of non-passive category foreign source gross income attributable to FDE is adjusted downward, and the amount of general category foreign source gross income attributable to P (in its capacity as a foreign branch owner) is adjusted upward, to take the disregarded payment into account. Thus, $300x of FDE's foreign source gross income relating to the Customer B services is attributable to P for purposes of this section, and $3,100x of that income is attributable to FDE.

(3) Disregarded payment from P to FDE. The disregarded payment from P to FDE is not recorded on FDE's separate books and records (as adjusted to conform to Federal income tax principles) within the meaning of paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section because it is disregarded for Federal income tax purposes. However, the disregarded payment is allocable to general category U.S. source gross income attributable to P because a deduction for the payment, if it were regarded, would be allocated to P's $5,000x of general category U.S. source gross services income under § 1.861-8. Accordingly, under paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(A) of this section, the amount of general category U.S. source gross income attributable to P is adjusted downward, and the amount of non-passive category U.S. source gross income attributable to FDE is adjusted upward, to take the disregarded payment into account. Thus, $300x of P's U.S. source gross income from the performance of Customer A services is attributable to FDE for purposes of this section, and $4,700x of that income is attributable to P.

(xi) Example 11: Ordering rule -

(A) Facts -

(1) Overview. P, a domestic corporation, owns FDE1 and FDE2, each of which is a disregarded entity that is a foreign branch within the meaning of paragraph (f)(3)(vii) of this section that has the U.S. dollar as its functional currency. P, which is a foreign branch owner with respect to FDE1 and FDE2, also conducts a trade or business in the United States. During a single taxable year, P, FDE1, and FDE2 engage in the transactions described in paragraphs (f)(4)(xi)(A)(2) and (3) of this section.

(2) Unrelated party transactions. FDE1 accrues and records on its books and records $1,000x of gross income from the performance of services for Customer A, an unrelated party (the Customer A services). The gross income from the Customer A services performed by FDE is non-passive category income and, under section 862(a)(3), is foreign source income. Absent the application of paragraph (f)(2)(vi) of this section, the $1,000x of non-passive foreign source gross income earned by FDE1 would be foreign branch category income. FDE2 accrues and records on its books and records $1,100x of gross income from royalties received from Customer B, an unrelated party (the Customer B royalties) on licensed intangible property developed by FDE2 and used by Customer B in the United States. The gross income from the Customer B royalties is non-passive category income and under section 861(a)(4) is U.S. source income. Absent the application of paragraph (f)(2)(vi) of this section, the $1,100x of non-passive category U.S. source gross income earned by FDE2 would be foreign branch category income.

(3) Disregarded payments. FDE2 provides services to FDE1. As compensation for those services, FDE1 pays $200x to FDE2. The deduction for FDE1's payment to FDE2 (if regarded) would be allocable to the $1,000x of non-passive category foreign source gross income earned from the Customer A services. P provides services to FDE2 from P's U.S. office. As compensation for those services, FDE2 pays $50x to P. The deduction for FDE2's payment to P (if regarded) would be allocable to the non-passive category foreign source gross income attributable to FDE2 (see paragraph (f)(4)(xi)(B)(1) of this section) relating to gross income from the Customer A services.

(B) Analysis -

(1) Disregarded payment from FDE1 to FDE2. The $1,000x of gross income earned by FDE1 from the Customer A services would, but for paragraph (f)(2)(vi) of this section, be attributable to FDE1 (a foreign branch). Accordingly, under paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(F)(1) of this section, adjustments related to disregarded payments from FDE1 to FDE2 are computed before adjustments related to disregarded payments from FDE2 to P (in its capacity as a foreign branch owner). The disregarded payment from FDE1 to FDE2 is not recorded on FDE2's separate books and records (as adjusted to conform to Federal income tax principles) within the meaning of paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section because it is disregarded for Federal income tax purposes. However, the disregarded payment is allocable to gross income attributable to FDE1 because a deduction for the payment, if it were regarded, would be allocated to FDE1's $1,000x of non-passive category foreign source gross services income under § 1.861-8. Accordingly, under paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(A) of this section, the amount of non-passive category foreign source gross income attributable to FDE1 is adjusted downward, and the amount of non-passive category foreign source gross income attributable to FDE2 is adjusted upward, to take the disregarded payment into account. Thus, $200x of FDE1's non-passive category foreign source gross income from the performance of Customer A services is attributable to FDE2 for purposes of this section, and $800x of that income is attributable to FDE1.

(2) Disregarded payment from FDE2 to P. The disregarded payment from FDE2 to P is disregarded for Federal income tax purposes, and does not generate gross income. However, the disregarded payment is allocable to gross income attributable to FDE2 because a deduction for the payment, if it were regarded, would be allocated to FDE2's $200x of non-passive category foreign source gross services income under § 1.861-8. Under paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(A) of this section, the amount of non-passive category foreign source gross income attributable to FDE2 is adjusted downward, and the amount of general category foreign source gross income attributable to P is adjusted upward, to take the $50x disregarded payment into account. Thus, $50x of non-passive category foreign source gross income relating to the Customer A services is attributable to P for purposes of this section, $150x of that income is attributable to FDE2, and $800x of that income remains attributable to FDE1. FDE2's $1,100x of U.S. source royalty income is not adjusted under paragraph (f)(2)(vi) of this section and remains foreign branch category income.

(xii) Example 12: Application of intangible property rules -

(A) Facts. P, a domestic corporation that has a calendar taxable year, owns FDE, a disregarded entity that is a foreign branch within the meaning of paragraph (f)(3)(vii) of this section. FDE's functional currency is the U.S. dollar. Asset A, a patent with a useful life ending on December 31, Year 2, was obtained with respect to a discovery that was made by FDE in the course of its trade or business and was used in that trade or business until December 31, Year 1. On December 31, Year 1, FDE remits Asset A to P and receives no consideration. Asset A has an adjusted basis of $0. In Year 2, P uses Asset A to generate general category gross income. P earns $1,000x of general category U.S. source gross income in Year 2, including the income generated by its use of Asset A. If FDE were a domestic corporation, P were a foreign corporation, and Asset A had been transferred in exchange for stock in a transaction described in section 351, such that section 367(d) applied by its terms (but all other facts remained the same), the payment determined under section 367(d) for Year 2 would be $300x. A disregarded payment for the use of Asset A, if it were regarded, would be allocated to FDE's $1,000x of general category U.S. source gross income under § 1.861-8.

(B) Analysis. The remittance of Asset A by FDE to P is a transfer of intangible property described in section 367(d)(4) from a foreign branch to its foreign branch owner. The facts in paragraph (f)(4)(xii)(A) of this section do not implicate an exception in paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(D)(2) or (3) of this section. Therefore, this is a transaction to which paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(D)(1) of this section applies. The foreign branch is treated as having sold the transferred property to the foreign branch owner in exchange for annual payments contingent on the productivity or use of the property, the amount of which for Year 2 is determined under the principles of section 367(d) to be $300x. Thus, in Year 2, P is treated as making a $300x disregarded payment to FDE. The payment would be allocable to general category U.S. source income under paragraph (f)(2)(vi)(B)(1)(i) of this section. Therefore, $300x of P's non-passive category U.S. source gross income is attributable to FDE under paragraphs (f)(2)(vi)(A) and (f)(2)(vi)(B)(3) of this section. P has $700x of general category U.S. source gross income and $300x of foreign branch category U.S. source gross income in Year 2.

(g) Section 951A category income -

(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (g)(2) of this section, the term section 951A category income means amounts included (directly or indirectly through a pass-through entity) in gross income of a United States person under section 951A(a).

(2) Exceptions for passive category income. Section 951A category income does not include any amounts included under section 951A(a) that are allocable to passive category income under § 1.904-5(c)(6).

(h) Export financing interest -

(1) Definitions -

(i) Export financing interest. The term “export financing interest” means any interest derived from financing the sale (or other disposition) for use or consumption outside the United States of any property that is manufactured, produced, grown, or extracted in the United States by the taxpayer or a related person, and not more than 50 percent of the fair market value of which is attributable to products imported into the United States. For purposes of this paragraph, the term “United States” includes the fifty States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

(ii) Fair market value. For purposes of this paragraph, the fair market value of any property imported into the United States shall be its appraised value, as determined by the Secretary under section 402 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1401a) in connection with its importation. For purposes of determining the foreign content of an item of property imported into the United States, see section 927 and the regulations thereunder.

(iii) Related person. For purposes of this paragraph, the term “related person” has the meaning given it by section 954(d)(3) except that such section shall be applied by substituting “the person with respect to whom the determination is being made” for “controlled foreign corporation” each place it applies.

(2) Treatment of export financing interest. Except as provided in paragraph (h)(3) of this section, if a taxpayer (including a financial services entity) receives or accrues export financing interest from an unrelated person, then that interest is not treated as passive category income. Instead, the interest income is treated as foreign branch category income, section 951A category income, general category income, or income in a specified separate category under the rules of this section.

(3) Exception. Unless it is received or accrued by a financial services entity, export financing interest shall be treated as passive category income if that income is also related person factoring income. For this purpose, related person factoring income is -

(i) Income received or accrued by a controlled foreign corporation that is income described in section 864(d)(6) (income of a controlled foreign corporation from a loan for the purpose of financing the purchase of inventory property of a related person); or

(ii) Income received or accrued by any person that is income described in section 864(d)(1) (income from a trade receivable acquired from a related person).

(4) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of paragraph (h)(3) of this section.

(i) Example 1. Controlled foreign corporation CFC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of domestic corporation USP. CFC is not a financial services entity and has accumulated cash reserves. USP has uncollected trade and service receivables of foreign obligors. USP sells the receivables at a discount (“factors”) to CFC. The income derived by CFC on the receivables is related person factoring income. The income is also export financing interest. Because the income is related person factoring income, the income is passive category income to CFC.

(ii) Example 2. Domestic corporation USS is a wholly-owned subsidiary of domestic corporation USP. USS is not a financial services entity, does not have any foreign qualified business entities, and has accumulated cash reserves. USP has uncollected trade and service receivables of foreign obligors. USP factors the receivables to USS. The income derived by USS on the receivables is related person factoring income. The income is also export financing interest. The income will be passive category income to USS.

(iii) Example 3. The facts are the same as in paragraph (h)(4)(ii) of this section (the facts in Example 2), except that instead of factoring USP's receivables, USS finances the sales of USP's goods by making loans to the purchasers of USP's goods. The interest derived by USS on these loans is export financing interest and is not related person factoring income. The income will be general category income to USS.

(5) Income eligible for section 864(d)(7) exception (same country exception) from related person factoring treatment -

(i) Income other than interest. If any foreign person receives or accrues income that is described in section 864(d)(7) (income on a trade or service receivable acquired from a related person in the same foreign country as the recipient) and such income would also meet the definition of export financing interest if section 864(d)(1) applied to such income (income on a trade or service receivable acquired from a related person treated as interest), then the income is considered to be export financing interest and is not treated as passive category income. The income is treated as foreign branch category income, section 951A category income, general category income, or income in a specified separate category under the rules of this section.

(ii) Interest income. If export financing interest is received or accrued by any foreign person and that income would otherwise be treated as related person factoring income of a controlled foreign corporation under section 864(d)(6) if section 864(d)(7) did not apply, section 904(d)(2)(B)(iii)(I) applies and the interest is not treated as passive category income. The income is treated as general category income in the hands of the controlled foreign corporation.

(iii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (h)(5):

(A) Example 1. CFC1, a controlled foreign corporation, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of domestic corporation USP. CFC2, a controlled foreign corporation, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of CFC1. CFC1 and CFC2 are incorporated in Country M. In Year 1, USP sells tractors to CFC2, which CFC2 sells to X, an unrelated foreign corporation organized in Country M. The tractors are to be used in Country M. CFC2 uses a substantial part of its assets in its trade or business located in Country M. CFC2 has uncollected trade receivables from X that it factors to CFC1. The income is not related person factoring income because it is described in section 864(d)(7) (income eligible for the same country exception) and is tested income. If section 864(d)(1) applied, the