# 26 CFR § 1.937-2 - Income from sources within a possession.

§ 1.937-2 Income from sources within a possession.

(a) Scope. Section 937(b) and this section set forth the rules for determining whether income is considered to be from sources within a particular possession (the relevant possession) for purposes of the Internal Revenue Code, including section 957(c) and Subpart D, Part III, Subchapter N, Chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code, as well as section 7654(a) of the 1954 Internal Revenue Code (until the effective date of its repeal). Paragraphs (c)(1)(ii) and (c)(2) of this section do not apply, however, for purposes of sections 932(a) and (b) and 935(a)(3) (as in effect before the effective date of its repeal). In the case of a possession or territory that administers income tax laws that are identical (except for the substitution of the name of the possession or territory for the term “United States” where appropriate) to those in force in the United States, these rules do not apply for purposes of the application of such laws. These rules also do not affect the determination of whether income is considered to be from sources without the United States for purposes of the Internal Revenue Code.

(b) In general. Except as provided in paragraphs (c) through (i) of this section, the principles of sections 861 through 865 and the regulations under those provisions (relating to the determination of the gross and the taxable income from sources within and without the United States) generally will be applied in determining the gross and the taxable income from sources within and without the relevant possession. In the application of such principles, it generally will be sufficient to substitute, where appropriate, the name of the relevant possession for the term “United States,” and to substitute, where appropriate, the term “bona fide resident of” followed by the name of the relevant possession for the term “United States resident.” Furthermore, the term domestic will be construed to mean created or organized in the relevant possession. In applying these principles, additional substitutions may be necessary to accomplish the intent of section 937(b) and this section. For example, in applying the principles of sections 863(d) and (e) to individuals under this paragraph (b), the term “bona fide resident of a possession” will be used instead of the term “United States person.” In no case, however, will a bona fide resident or other person have, as a result of the application of these principles, more income from sources within the relevant possession than the amount of income from sources within the United States that a similarly situated U.S. person who is not a bona fide resident would have under sections 861 through 865.

(c) U.S. income -

(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, income from sources within the relevant possession will not include any item of income determined under the rules of sections 861 through 865 and the regulations under those provisions to be -

(i) From sources within the United States; or

(ii) Effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(2) Conduit arrangements. Income will be considered to be from sources within the United States for purposes of paragraph (c)(1) of this section if, pursuant to a plan or arrangement -

(i) The income is received in exchange for consideration provided to another person; and

(ii) Such person (or another person) provides the same consideration (or consideration of a like kind) to a third person in exchange for one or more payments constituting income from sources within the United States.

(d) Income from certain sales of inventory property. For special rules that apply to determine the source of income from certain sales of inventory property, see § 1.863-3(e).

(e) Service in the Armed Forces. In the case of a member of the Armed Forces of the United States, the following rules will apply for determining the source of compensation for services performed in compliance with military orders:

(1) If the individual is a bona fide resident of a possession and such services are performed in the United States or in another possession, the compensation constitutes income from sources within the possession of which the individual is a bona fide resident (and not from sources within the United States or such other possession).

(2) If the individual is not a bona fide resident of a possession and such services are performed in a possession, the compensation constitutes income from sources within the United States (and not from sources within such possession).

(f) Gains from certain dispositions of property -

(1) Property of former U.S. residents.

(i) Except to the extent an election is made under paragraph (f)(1)(vi) of this section, income from sources within the relevant possession will not include gains from the disposition of property described in paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of this section by an individual described in paragraph (f)(1)(iii) of this section. See also section 1277(e) of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Public Law 99-514 (100 Stat. 2085) (providing that gains from the disposition of certain property by individuals who acquired residency in certain possessions will be considered to be from sources within the United States).

(ii) Property is described in this paragraph (f)(1)(ii) when the following conditions are satisfied -

(A) The property is of a kind described in section 731(c)(3)(C)(i) or 954(c)(1)(B); and

(B) The property was owned by the individual before such individual became a bona fide resident of the relevant possession.

(iii) An individual is described in this paragraph (f)(1)(iii) when the following conditions are satisfied -

(A) For the taxable year for which the source of the gain must be determined, the individual is a bona fide resident of the relevant possession; and

(B) For any of the 10 years preceding such year, the individual was a citizen or resident of the United States (other than a bona fide resident of the relevant possession).

(iv) If an individual described in paragraph (f)(1)(iii) of this section exchanges property described in paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of this section for other property in a transaction in which gain or loss is not required to be recognized (in whole or in part) under U.S. income tax principles, such other property will also be considered property described in paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of this section.

(v) If an individual described in paragraph (f)(1)(iii) of this section owns, directly or indirectly, at least 10 percent (by value) of any entity to which property described in paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of this section is transferred in a transaction in which gain or loss is not required to be recognized (in whole or in part) under U.S. income tax principles, any gain recognized upon a disposition of the property by such entity will be treated as income from sources outside the relevant possession if any gain recognized upon a direct or indirect disposition of the individual's interest in such entity would have been so treated under paragraph (f)(1)(iv) of this section.

(vi) Notwithstanding the general rule of paragraph (f)(1)(i) of this section and section 1277(e) of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Public Law 99-514 (100 Stat. 2085), an individual described in paragraph (f)(1)(iii) of this section may elect to treat as gain from sources within the relevant possession the portion of the gain attributable to the individual's possession holding period. The election under this paragraph (f)(1)(vi) will be considered made if the individual's income tax return for the year of disposition of the property reports the portion of gain attributable to the taxpayer's possession holding period as determined in accordance with paragraph (f)(1)(vi)(A) or paragraph (f)(1)(vi)(B) of this section, as the case may be.

(A) In the case of marketable securities, the portion of gain attributable to the possession holding period will be determined by reference to the fair market value of the marketable security at the close of the market on the first day of the individual's possession holding period. In the event that the individual is a bona fide resident of the relevant possession for more than a single continuous period, the portion of gain described in this paragraph (f)(1)(vi)(A) will be the aggregate of the portions of gain (or offsetting loss) attributable to each possession holding period.

(B) In the case of property other than marketable securities, the portion of gain attributable to the possession holding period in the relevant possession will be determined by multiplying the total gain on disposition of the property by a fraction, the numerator of which is the number of days in the possession holding period and the denominator of which is the total number of days in the individual's holding period for the property. For purposes of the preceding sentence, in the event that the individual is a bona fide resident of the relevant possession for more than a single continuous period, the number of days in the numerator will be the aggregate of the number of days in each possession holding period. For purposes of this paragraph (f)(1)(vi)(B), the denominator will include days that are required to be included in an individual's holding period under section 735(b), section 1223, and any other applicable holding period rule in the Internal Revenue Code.

(vii) For purposes of paragraph (f)(1)(vi) of this section -

(A) The term marketable securities means property described in paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of this section that is, throughout the individual's holding period, actively traded within the meaning of § 1.1092(d)-1(a); and

(B) The term possession holding period means the part of the individual's holding period for the property during which the individual is a bona fide resident of the relevant possession. However, for this purpose, the possession holding period will be considered to commence in all cases on the first day during such period that the individual does not have a tax home outside the relevant possession. In the event that the individual is a bona fide resident of the relevant possession for more than a single continuous period, each possession holding period prior to the one ending on the date of sale or other disposition will be considered to end on the first day that the individual has a tax home outside the relevant possession. With respect to the determination of tax home, see § 1.937-1(d).

(2) Special rules under section 865 for possessions - (i) Except as provided in paragraph (f)(1) of this section -

(A) Gain that is considered to be derived from sources outside of the United States under section 865(g)(3) will be considered income from sources within Puerto Rico; and

(B) Gain that is considered to be derived from sources outside of the United States under section 865(h)(2)(B) will be considered income from sources within the possession in which the liquidating corporation is created or organized.

(ii) In applying the principles of section 865 and the regulations under that section pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section, the rules of section 865(g) will not apply, but the special rule of section 865(h)(2)(B) will apply with respect to gain recognized upon the liquidation of corporations created or organized in the United States.

(g) Dividends -

(1) Dividends from certain possessions corporations -

(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (g)(1)(ii) of this section, with respect to any possessions shareholder, only the possessions source ratio of any dividend paid or accrued by a corporation created or organized in a possession (possessions corporation) will be treated as income from sources within such possession. For purposes of this paragraph (g) -

(A) The possessions source ratio will be a fraction, the numerator of which is the gross income of the possessions corporation from sources within the possession in which it is created or organized (applying the rules of this section) for the testing period and the denominator of which is the total gross income of the corporation for the testing period; and

(B) The term possessions shareholder means any individual who is a bona fide resident of the possession in which the corporation is created or organized and who owns, directly or indirectly, at least 10 percent of the total voting stock of the corporation.

(ii) Dividends from corporations engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business in the relevant possession. The entire amount of any dividend paid or accrued by a possessions corporation will be treated as income from sources within the possession in which it is created or organized when the following conditions are met -

(A) 80 percent or more of the gross income of the corporation for the testing period was derived from sources within such possession (applying the rules of this section) or was effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in such possession (applying the rules of § 1.937-3); and

(B) 50 percent or more of the gross income of the corporation for the testing period was derived from the active conduct of a trade or business within such possession.

(iii) Testing period. For purposes of this paragraph (g)(1), the term testing period means the 3-year period ending with the close of the taxable year of the payment of the dividend (or for such part of such period as the corporation has been in existence).

(iv) Subsidiary look-through rule. For purposes of this paragraph (g)(1), if a possessions corporation owns (directly or indirectly) at least 25 percent (by value) of the stock of another corporation, such possessions corporation will be treated as if it -

(A) Directly received its proportionate share of the income of such other corporation; and

(B) Actively conducted any trade or business actively conducted by such other corporation.

(2) Dividends from other corporations. In applying the principles of section 861 and the regulations under that section pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section, the special rules relating to dividends for which deductions are allowable under section 243 or 245 will not apply.

(h) Income inclusions. For purposes of determining whether an amount described in section 904(h)(1)(A) constitutes income from sources within the relevant possession -

(1) If the individual owns (directly or indirectly) at least 10 percent of the total voting stock of the corporation from which such amount is derived, the principles of section 904(h)(2) will apply. In the case of an individual who is not a possessions shareholder (as defined in paragraph (g)(1)(i)(B) of this section), the preceding sentence will apply only if the corporation qualifies as a “United States-owned foreign corporation” for purposes of section 904(h); and

(2) In all other cases, the amount will be considered income from sources in the jurisdiction in which the corporation is created or organized.

(i) Interest -

(1) Interest from certain possessions corporations -

(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (i)(1)(ii) of this section, with respect to any possessions shareholder (as defined in paragraph (g)(1)(i)(B) of this section), interest paid or accrued by a possessions corporation will be treated as income from sources within the possession in which it is created or organized to the extent that such interest is allocable to assets that generate, have generated, or could reasonably have been expected to generate income from sources within such possession (under the rules of this section) or income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within such possession (under the rules of § 1.937-3). For purposes of the preceding sentence, the principles of §§ 1.861-9 through 1.861-12 will apply.

(ii) Interest from corporations engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business in the relevant possession. The entire amount of any interest paid or accrued by a possessions corporation will be treated as income from sources within the possession in which it is created or organized when the conditions of paragraphs (g)(1)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section are met (applying the rules of paragraphs (g)(1)(iii) and (iv) of this section).

(2) Interest from partnerships. Interest paid or accrued by a partnership will be treated as income from sources within a possession only to the extent that such interest is allocable to income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in such possession. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the principles of § 1.882-5 will apply (as if the partnership were a foreign corporation and as if the trade or business in the possession were a trade or business in the United States).

(j) Indirect ownership. For purposes of this section, the rules of section 318(a)(2) will apply except that the language “5 percent” will be used instead of “50 percent” in section 318(a)(2)(C).

(k) Examples. The provisions of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
(i) X, a U.S. citizen, resides in State N and acquires stock of Corporation C, a domestic corporation, in 2008 for $10x. X moves to the Northern Mariana Islands (NMI) on March 1, 2009 and changes his principal place of business to NMI on that same date. Assume for purposes of this example that, under § 1.937-1(b) and (f)(1) (year-of-move exception), X is considered a bona fide resident of NMI for 2009 through 2012. On March 1, 2009, the closing value of X's stock in Corporation C, a marketable security (within the meaning of paragraph (f)(1)(vii)(A) of this section), is$20x. On January 3, 2012, X sells all his Corporation C stock for $70x. (ii) Pursuant to section 1277(e) of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, and absent an election under paragraph (f)(1)(vi) of this section, all of X's gain ($60x) will be treated as income from sources within the United States for all purposes of the Internal Revenue Code (including section 7654, as in effect with respect to the NMI), and (under paragraph (f)(1)(i) of this section) not as income from sources in the NMI. However, pursuant to paragraph (f)(1)(vi) of this section, X may elect on his 2012 income tax return filed with NMI to treat the portion of this gain attributable to X's possession holding period with respect to NMI as gain from sources within NMI. X's possession holding period with respect to NMI begins on March 1, 2009, the date his tax home changes to the NMI. Under paragraph (f)(1)(vi)(A) of this section, the portion of X's gain attributable to this possession holding period is $50x, the excess of the sale price of the stock ($70x) over its closing value ($20x) on the first day of the possession holding period. By reporting$50x of gain on his 2012 NMI return, X will elect under paragraph (f)(1)(vi) of this section to treat that amount as NMI source income.

Example 2.
(i) R, a U.S. citizen, resides in State F and acquires a 5 percent interest in Partnership P on January 1, 2009. R moves to Puerto Rico on June 1, 2010 and changes her principal place of business to Puerto Rico on that same date. Assume for purposes of this example that under § 1.937-1(b) and (f)(1) (year-of-move exception), R is considered a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico for 2010 through 2012. On June 1, 2010, R's interest in Partnership P is not a marketable security within the meaning of paragraph (f)(1)(vii)(A) of this section. On December 31, 2012, having owned the interest in Partnership P for a period of 4 years (1461 days), R sells it, recognizing gain of $100x. (ii) Pursuant to paragraph (f)(1) of this section, and absent an election under paragraph (f)(1)(vi) of this section, the gain will not be treated as income from sources within Puerto Rico for purposes of the Internal Revenue Code (including section 933(1)). However, pursuant to paragraph (f)(1)(vi) of this section, R may elect on her 2012 return filed with the IRS to treat the portion of this gain attributable to R's possession holding period with respect to Puerto Rico as gain from sources within Puerto Rico. R's possession holding period with respect to Puerto Rico is the 945-day period from June 1, 2010, the date her tax home changes to Puerto Rico, through December 31, 2012, the date of sale. Under paragraph (f)(1)(vi)(B) of this section, the portion of R's gain attributable to this possession holding period is$64.68x, computed as follows:

$100x\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{gain}×\frac{945\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{days in possession holding period}}{1461\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{days in total holding period}}$

(iii) By reporting $64.68x of gain on her 2012 Federal return, R will elect under paragraph (f)(1)(vi) of this section to treat that amount as Puerto Rico source income. Example 3. X, a bona fide resident of Possession S, a section 931 possession (as defined in § 1.931-1(c)(1)), is engaged in a trade or business in the United States through an office in State H. In 2008, this office materially participates in the sale of inventory property in Possession S, such that the income from these inventory sales is considered effectively connected to this trade or business in the United States under section 864(c)(4)(B)(iii). This income will not be treated as income from sources within Possession S for purposes of section 931(a)(1) pursuant to paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section, but nonetheless will continue to be treated as income from sources without the United States under section 862 (for example, for purposes of section 904). Example 4. (i) X, a bona fide resident of Possession I, owns 25 percent of the outstanding shares of A Corp, a corporation organized under the laws of Possession I. In 2010, X receives a dividend of$70x from A Corp. During 2008 through 2010, A Corp has gross income from the following sources:
 Possession I sources Sources outside possession I $10x$20x 20x 10x 25x 15x
(ii) A Corp owns 50 percent of the outstanding shares of B Corp, a corporation organized under the laws of Country FC. During 2008 through 2010, B Corp has gross income from the following sources:
 Possession I sources Sources outside possession I $10x$6x 14x 8x 10x 4x
(iii) A Corp is treated as having received 50 percent of the gross income of B Corp. Therefore, for 2008 through 2010, the gross income of A Corp is from the following sources:
 Possession I sources Sources outside possession I $15x$23x 27x 14x 30x 17x $72x$54x
(iv) Pursuant to paragraph (g) of this section, the portion of the dividend of $70x that X receives from Corp A in 2010 that is treated as income from sources within Possession I is 72/126 of$70x, or $40x. Example 5. X is a U.S. citizen and a bona fide resident of the Northern Mariana Islands (NMI). In 2008, X receives compensation for services performed as a member of the crew of a fishing boat. Ten percent of the services for which X receives compensation are performed in the NMI, and 90 percent of X's services are performed in international waters. Under the principles of section 861(a)(3) as applied pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section, the compensation that X receives for services performed in the NMI is treated as income from sources within the NMI. Under the principles of section 863(d)(1)(A) as applied pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section, the compensation that X receives for services performed in international waters is treated as income from sources within the NMI for purposes of the Internal Revenue Code (including section 7654, as in effect with respect to the NMI). Thus, all of X's compensation for services during 2008 is treated as income from sources within the NMI. Example 6. X, a U.S. citizen, resides in State L and receives$2,500 of compensation for services performed in Possession J during 2008 for Y, X's employer. X is temporarily present in Possession J in 2008 for a period (or periods) not exceeding a total of 90 days. Y, a U.S. citizen, is not a bona fide resident of Possession J and is not engaged in a trade or business within Possession J. Under the principles of section 861(a)(3) as applied pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section, the compensation that X receives for services performed in Possession J during 2008 is not treated as income from sources within Possession J.
Example 7.
(i) Company Y, a corporation organized in State C, produces, markets, and distributes music products. Y enters into a recording contract with Z, a recording artist who is a bona fide resident of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). Pursuant to the contract between Y and Z, Z agrees to perform services as writer, musician, and vocalist on the recording of a new musical composition and related music video. Under the contract, all songs, recordings and related artwork, packaging copy, and liner notes, together with copyrights and other intellectual property in those works, are the sole property of Y, and Z obtains no proprietary rights in that property. As compensation for Z's services, all of which are performed at a recording studio or other locations in the USVI, Y agrees to pay amounts designated as the “writer's share” to Z based on a percentage of the music products sold. Y also agrees to make an upfront payment to Z as an advance against future portions of Z's writer's share.

(ii) To the extent that Z performs personal services within the USVI, the compensation that Z receives for his services is sourced to the USVI under the principles of section 861(a)(3) and § 1.861-4 as applied pursuant to § 1.937-2(b). If all of Z's services are performed in the USVI, none of the writer's share is derived from sources within the United States under section 861(a)(3) and § 1.861-4, nor is it effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States under section 864(c)(3). Accordingly, the U.S. income rule of section 937(b)(2) and paragraph (c)(1) of this section would not operate to prevent Z's services income from being USVI source or USVI effectively connected income within the meaning of section 937(b)(1). If Z also performs services in the United States, however, then the U.S. income rule would apply to the part of Z's compensation that is sourced to the United States under section 861(a)(3) and § 1.861-4. In the event that Y and Z are controlled taxpayers within the meaning of § 1.482-1(i)(5), section 482 and the regulations under that section, including § 1.482-9T(i), would apply to evaluate the arm's length amount charged for Z's controlled services.

(l) Effective/applicability dates. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (l), this section applies to income earned in taxable years ending after April 9, 2008. Taxpayers may choose to apply paragraph (b) of this section to income earned in open taxable years ending after October 22, 2004. Taxpayers may choose to apply paragraph (f)(1) of this section to dispositions made after April 11, 2005.

[T.D. 9391, 73 FR 19370, Apr. 9, 2008, as amended at T.D. 9391, 73 FR 27728, May 14, 2008; T.D. 9391, 73 FR 36594, June 27, 2008; T.D. 9921, 85 FR 79853, Dec. 11, 2020]