26 CFR § 1.951A-2 - Tested income and tested loss.

§ 1.951A-2 Tested income and tested loss.

(a) Scope. This section provides rules for determining the tested income or tested loss of a controlled foreign corporation for purposes of determining a United States shareholder's net CFC tested income under § 1.951A-1(c)(2). Paragraph (b) of this section provides definitions related to tested income and tested loss. Paragraph (c) of this section provides rules for determining the gross tested income of a controlled foreign corporation and the deductions that are properly allocable to gross tested income.

(b) Definitions related to tested income and tested loss -

(1) Tested income and tested income CFC. The term tested income means the excess (if any) of a controlled foreign corporation's gross tested income for a CFC inclusion year, over the allowable deductions (including taxes) properly allocable to the gross tested income for the CFC inclusion year (a controlled foreign corporation with tested income for a CFC inclusion year, a tested income CFC).

(2) Tested loss and tested loss CFC. The term tested loss means the excess (if any) of a controlled foreign corporation's allowable deductions (including taxes) properly allocable to gross tested income (or that would be allocable to gross tested income if there were gross tested income) for a CFC inclusion year, over the gross tested income of the controlled foreign corporation for the CFC inclusion year (a controlled foreign corporation without tested income for a CFC inclusion year, a tested loss CFC).

(c) Rules relating to the determination of tested income and tested loss -

(1) Definition of gross tested income. The term gross tested income means the gross income of a controlled foreign corporation for a CFC inclusion year determined without regard to -

(i) Items of income described in section 952(b),

(ii) Gross income taken into account in determining the subpart F income of the corporation,

(iii) Gross income excluded from the foreign base company income (as defined in section 954) or the insurance income (as defined in section 953) of the corporation by reason of the exception described in section 954(b)(4) pursuant to an election under § 1.954-1(d)(5), or a tentative gross tested income item of the corporation that qualifies for the exception described in section 954(b)(4) pursuant to an election under paragraph (c)(7) of this section,

(iv) Dividends received by the corporation from related persons (as defined in section 954(d)(3)), and

(v) Foreign oil and gas extraction income (as defined in section 907(c)(1)) of the corporation.

(2) Determination of gross income and allowable deductions -

(i) In general. For purposes of determining tested income and tested loss, the gross income and allowable deductions of a controlled foreign corporation for a CFC inclusion year are determined under the rules of § 1.952-2 for determining the subpart F income of the controlled foreign corporation, except, for a controlled foreign corporation which is engaged in the business of reinsuring or issuing insurance or annuity contracts and which, if it were a domestic corporation engaged only in such business, would be taxable as an insurance company to which subchapter L of chapter 1 of the Code applies, substituting “the rules of sections 953 and 954(i)” for “the principles of §§ 1.953-4 and 1.953-5” in § 1.952-2(b)(2).

(ii) Deemed payment under section 367(d). The allowable deductions of a controlled foreign corporation include a deemed payment of the controlled foreign corporation under section 367(d)(2)(A).

(3) Allocation of deductions to gross tested income -

(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(5) of this section, any deductions of a controlled foreign corporation allowable under paragraph (c)(2) of this section are allocated and apportioned to gross tested income under the principles of section 954(b)(5) and § 1.954-1(c), by treating gross tested income that falls within a single separate category (as defined in § 1.904-5(a)(4)(v)) as a single item of gross income, separate and in addition to the items set forth in § 1.954-1(c)(1)(iii). Losses in other separate categories of income resulting from the application of § 1.954-1(c)(1)(i) cannot reduce any separate category of gross tested income, and losses in a separate category of gross tested income cannot reduce income in a category of subpart F income. In addition, deductions of a controlled foreign corporation that are allocated and apportioned to gross tested income under this paragraph (c)(3) are not taken into account for purposes of determining a qualified deficit as defined in section 952(c)(1)(B)(ii).

(ii) Coordination with the high-tax exclusion -

(A) In general. In the case of a taxpayer that has made an election under paragraph (c)(7) of this section, in allocating and apportioning deductions under this paragraph (c)(3), the taxpayer must apply the rules of sections 861 through 865 and 904(d) (taking into account the rules of section 954(b)(5) and § 1.954-1(c)) in a manner that achieves results consistent with those under paragraph (c)(7) of this section.

(B) Application of consistency rule to deductions allocated and apportioned to the residual grouping in applying the high-tax exclusion. Deductions that are allocated and apportioned to the residual income group under paragraph (c)(7)(iii)(A) of this section for purposes of applying the high-tax exclusion to a controlled foreign corporation's tentative gross tested income items are allocated and apportioned for purposes of determining the controlled foreign corporation's net income in each relevant statutory grouping using a method that provides for a consistent allocation and apportionment of deductions to gross income in the relevant groupings. See §§ 1.954-1(c) and 1.960-1(d)(3) for rules relating to the allocation and apportionment of expenses for purposes of determining subpart F income, which is included in the residual grouping for purposes of applying the high-tax exclusion of sections 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(III) and 954(b)(4) and paragraph (c)(7) of this section. Therefore, for example, interest expense that is apportioned under the modified gross income method to a tentative gross tested income item of a lower-tier corporation under paragraph (c)(7)(iii)(A) of this section may be allocated and apportioned to the tested income of the upper-tier corporation or to the residual grouping, depending on whether the lower-tier corporation's tentative gross tested income item is an item of gross tested income or is excluded from gross tested income under the high-tax exclusion. See paragraph (c)(8)(iii)(C) (Example 3) of this section for an example illustrating the rules of this paragraph (c)(3).

(4) Gross income taken into account in determining subpart F income -

(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(4)(iii) of this section, gross income of a controlled foreign corporation for a CFC inclusion year described in section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(II) and paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section is gross income described in paragraphs (c)(4)(ii)(A) through (E) of this section.

(ii) Items of gross income included in subpart F income -

(A) Insurance income. Gross income described in this paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(A) is any item of gross income included in the insurance income (adjusted net insurance income as defined in § 1.954-1(a)(6)) of the controlled foreign corporation for the CFC inclusion year.

(B) Foreign base company income. Gross income described in this paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(B) is any item of gross income included in the foreign base company income (adjusted net foreign base company income as defined in § 1.954-1(a)(5)) of the controlled foreign corporation for the CFC inclusion year.

(C) International boycott income. Gross income described in this paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(C) is the product of the gross income of the controlled foreign corporation for the CFC inclusion year that gives rise to the income described in section 952(a)(3)(A) multiplied by the international boycott factor described in section 952(a)(3)(B).

(D) Illegal bribes, kickbacks, or other payments. Gross income described in this paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(D) is the sum of the amounts of the controlled foreign corporation for the CFC inclusion year described in section 952(a)(4).

(E) Income earned in certain foreign countries. Gross income described in this paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(E) is income of the controlled foreign corporation for the CFC inclusion year described in section 952(a)(5).

(iii) Coordination rules -

(A) Coordination with E&P limitation. Gross income of a controlled foreign corporation for a CFC inclusion year described in section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(II) and paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section includes any item of gross income that is excluded from subpart F income of the controlled foreign corporation for the CFC inclusion year, or that is otherwise excluded from the amount included under section 951(a)(1)(A) in the gross income of a United States shareholder of the controlled foreign corporation for the U.S. shareholder inclusion year in which or with which the CFC inclusion year ends, under section 952(c)(1) and § 1.952-1(c), (d), or (e).

(B) Coordination with E&P recapture. Gross income of a controlled foreign corporation for a CFC inclusion year described in section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(II) and paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section does not include any item of gross income that results in the recharacterization of earnings and profits as subpart F income of the controlled foreign corporation for the CFC inclusion year under section 952(c)(2) and § 1.952-1(f)(2).

(C) Coordination with full inclusion rule and high tax exception. Gross income of a controlled foreign corporation for a CFC inclusion year described in section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(II) and paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section does not include full inclusion foreign base company income that is excluded from subpart F income under § 1.954-1(d)(6). Full inclusion foreign base company income that is excluded from subpart F income under § 1.954-1(d)(6) is also not included in gross income of a controlled foreign corporation for a CFC inclusion year described in section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(III) and paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section.

(iv) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (c)(4).

(A) Example 1 -

(1) Facts. A Corp, a domestic corporation, owns 100% of the single class of stock of FS, a controlled foreign corporation. Both A Corp and FS use the calendar year as their taxable year. In Year 1, FS has passive category foreign personal holding company income of $100x, a general category loss in foreign oil and gas extraction income of $100x, and earnings and profits of $0. FS has no other income. In Year 2, FS has general category gross income of $100x and earnings and profits of $100x. Without regard to section 952(c)(2), in Year 2 FS has no income described in any of the categories of income excluded from gross tested income in paragraphs (c)(1)(i) through (v) of this section. FS has no allowable deductions properly allocable to gross tested income for Year 2.

(2) Analysis -

(i) Year 1. As a result of the earnings and profits limitation of section 952(c)(1)(A), FS has no subpart F income in Year 1, and A Corp has no inclusion with respect to FS under section 951(a)(1)(A). Under paragraph (c)(4)(iii)(A) of this section, gross income described in section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(II) and paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section includes any item of gross income excluded from the subpart F income of FS for Year 1 under section 952(c)(1)(A) and § 1.952-1(c). Therefore, the $100x foreign personal holding company income of FS in Year 1 is excluded from gross tested income by reason of section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(II) and paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section, and FS has no gross tested income in Year 1.

(ii) Year 2. In Year 2, under section 952(c)(2) and § 1.952-1(f)(2), FS's general category earnings and profits ($100x) in excess of its subpart F income ($0) give rise to the recharacterization of its passive category recapture account as subpart F income. Therefore, FS has passive category subpart F income of $100x in Year 2, and A Corp has an inclusion of $100x with respect to FS under section 951(a)(1)(A). Under paragraph (c)(4)(iii)(B) of this section, gross income described in section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(II) and paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section does not include any item of gross income that results in the recharacterization of earnings and profits as subpart F income in FS's taxable year under section 952(c)(2) and § 1.952-1(f)(2). Accordingly, the $100x of general category gross income of FS in Year 2 is not excluded from gross tested income by reason of section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(II) and paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section, and FS has $100x of general category gross tested income in Year 2.

(B) Example 2 -

(1) Facts. A Corp, a domestic corporation, owns 100% of the single class of stock of FC1 and FC2, controlled foreign corporations. A Corp, FC1, and FC2 use the calendar year as their taxable year. In Year 1, FC1 has gross income of $290x from product sales to unrelated persons within its country of incorporation, gross interest income of $10x (an amount that is less than $1,000,000) that does not qualify for an exception to foreign personal holding company income, and earnings and profits of $300x. In Year 1, FC2 has gross income of $45x for performing consulting services within its country of incorporation for unrelated persons, gross interest income of $150x (an amount that is not less than $1,000,000) that does not qualify for an exception to foreign personal holding company income, and earnings and profits of $195x.

(2) Analysis -

(i) FC1. In Year 1, by application of the de minimis rule of section 954(b)(3)(A) and § 1.954-1(b)(1)(i), the $10x of gross interest income earned by FC1 is not treated as foreign base company income ($10x of gross foreign base company income is less than $15x, the lesser of 5% of $300x, FC's total gross income for Year 1, or $1,000,000). Accordingly, FC1 has no subpart F income in Year 1, and A Corp has no inclusion with respect to FC1 under section 951(a)(1)(A). Under paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section, gross income described in section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(II) and paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section is any item of gross income included in foreign base company income, and thus gross income described in section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(II) and paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section does not include any item of gross income excluded from foreign base company income under the de minimis rule in section 954(b)(3)(A) and § 1.954-1(b)(1)(i). Accordingly, FS's $10x of gross interest income in Year 1 is not excluded from gross tested income by reason of section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(II) and paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section, and FC1 has $300x ($290x of gross sales income and $10x of gross interest income) of gross tested income in Year 1.

(ii) FC2. In Year 1, by application of the full inclusion rule in section 954(b)(3)(B) and § 1.954-1(b)(1)(ii), the $45x of gross income earned by FC2 for performing consulting services within its country of incorporation for unrelated persons is treated as foreign base company income ($150x of gross foreign base company income exceeds $136.5x, which is 70% of $195x, FC2's total gross income for Year 1). Therefore, FC2 has $195x of foreign base company income in Year 1, including $45x of full inclusion foreign base company income as defined in § 1.954-1(b)(2), and A Corp has an inclusion of $195x with respect to FC2 under section 951(a)(1)(A). Under paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section, gross income described in section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(II) and paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section is any item of gross income included in foreign base company income, and thus gross income described in section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(II) and paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section includes any item of gross income included as foreign base company income under the full inclusion rule in section 954(b)(3)(B) and § 1.954-1(b)(1)(ii). Accordingly, FC2's $45x of gross services income and its $150x of gross interest income in Year 1 are excluded from gross tested income by reason of section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(II) and paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section, and FC2 has no gross tested income in Year 1.

(C) Example 3 -

(1) Facts. A Corp, a domestic corporation, owns 100% of the single class of stock of FS, a controlled foreign corporation. A Corp and FS use the calendar year as their taxable year. In Year 1, FS has gross income of $1,000x, of which $720x is general category foreign base company sales income and $280x is general category income from sales within its country of incorporation; FS has expenses of $650x (including creditable foreign income taxes), of which $500x are allocated and apportioned to foreign base company sales income and $150x are allocated and apportioned to sales income from sales within FS's country of incorporation; and FS has earnings and profits of $350x for Year 1. Foreign income tax of $55x is considered imposed on the $220x ($720x−$500x) of net foreign base company sales income, and $26x is considered imposed on the $130x ($280x−$150x) of net income from sales within FS's country of operation. The maximum rate of tax in section 11 for the taxable year is 21%, and FS elects the high tax exception of section 954(b)(4) under § 1.954-1(d)(1) for Year 1 for its foreign base company sales income. In a prior taxable year, FS had losses with respect to income other than foreign base company or insurance income that, by reason of the limitation in section 952(c)(1)(A), reduced the subpart F income of FS (consisting entirely of foreign source general category income) by $600x; as of the beginning of Year 1, such amount has not been recharacterized as subpart F income in a subsequent taxable year under section 952(c)(2).

(2) Analysis -

(i) Foreign base company income. In Year 1, by application of the full inclusion rule in section 954(b)(3)(B) and § 1.954-1(b)(1)(ii), the $280x of gross income earned by FS for sales within its country of incorporation is treated as foreign base company income ($720x of gross foreign base company income exceeds $700x, which is 70% of $1,000x, FS's total gross income for the taxable year). However, the $220x of foreign base company sales income qualifies for the high tax exception of section 954(b)(4) and § 1.954-1(d)(1), because the effective rate of tax with respect to the net foreign base company sales income ($220x) is 20% ($55x/($220x + $55x)) which is greater than 18.9% (90% of 21%, the maximum rate of tax in section 11 for the taxable year). Because the $220x of net foreign base company sales income qualifies for the high tax exception of section 954(b)(4) and § 1.954-1(d)(1), the $130x of full inclusion foreign base company income is also excluded from subpart F income under § 1.954-1(d)(6).

(ii) Recapture of subpart F income. Under section 952(c)(2) and § 1.952-1(f)(2), FS's general category earnings and profits ($350x) in excess of its subpart F income ($0) give rise to the recharacterization of its general category recapture account ($600x) as subpart F income to the extent of current year earnings and profits. Therefore, FS has general category subpart F income of $350x in Year 1, and A Corp has an inclusion of $350x with respect to FS under section 951(a)(1)(A).

(iii) Gross tested income. The $720x of gross foreign base company income is excluded from gross tested income under section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(III) and paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section. However, the $280x of gross sales income earned from sales within FS's country of incorporation is not excluded from gross tested income under either section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(II) and paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section or section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(III) and paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section. Under paragraph (c)(4)(iii)(B) of this section, the $280x of gross sales income earned from sales within FS's country of incorporation is not excluded from gross tested income under section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(II) and paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section, because gross income described in paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section does not include any item of gross income that results in the recharacterization of earnings and profits as subpart F income under section 952(c)(2) and § 1.952-1(f)(2). Further, under paragraph (c)(4)(iii)(C) of this section, the $280x of gross sales income earned from sales within FS's country of incorporation is not excluded from gross tested income under either section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(II) and paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section or section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(III) and paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section, because gross income described in section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(II) and paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section or section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(III) and paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section does not include full inclusion foreign base company income that is excluded from subpart F income under § 1.954-1(d)(6). Accordingly, FS has $280x of gross tested income for Year 1.

(5) Allocation of deduction or loss attributable to disqualified basis -

(i) In general. A deduction or loss attributable to disqualified basis is allocated and apportioned solely to residual CFC gross income, and any depreciation, amortization, or cost recovery allowances attributable to disqualified basis is not properly allocable to property produced or acquired for resale under section 263, 263A, or 471.

(ii) Determination of deduction or loss attributable to disqualified basis. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (c)(5)(ii), in the case of a depreciation or amortization deduction with respect to property with disqualified basis and adjusted basis other than disqualified basis, the deduction or loss is treated as attributable to the disqualified basis in the same proportion that the disqualified basis bears to the total adjusted basis in the property. In the case of a loss from a taxable sale or exchange of property with disqualified basis and adjusted basis other than disqualified basis, the loss is treated as attributable to disqualified basis to the extent thereof.

(iii) Definitions. The following definitions apply for purposes of this paragraph (c)(5).

(A) Disqualified basis. The term disqualified basis has the meaning set forth in § 1.951A-3(h)(2)(ii).

(B) Residual CFC gross income. The term residual CFC gross income means gross income other than gross tested income, gross income taken into account in determining subpart F income, or gross income that is effectively connected, or treated as effectively connected, with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States (as described in § 1.882-4(a)(1)).

(iv) Reductions to disqualified basis pursuant to coordination rules. See § 1.245A-7(b) or § 1.245A-8(b), as applicable, for reductions to disqualified basis resulting from the application of § 1.245A-5.

(v) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (c)(5).

(A) Example 1: Sale of intangible property during the disqualified period -

(1) Facts. USP, a domestic corporation, owns all of the stock in CFC1 and CFC2, each a controlled foreign corporation. Both USP and CFC2 use the calendar year as their taxable year. CFC1 uses a taxable year ending November 30. On November 1, 2018, before the start of its first CFC inclusion year, CFC1 sells Asset A to CFC2 in exchange for $100x of cash. Asset A is intangible property that is amortizable under section 197. Immediately before the sale, the adjusted basis in Asset A is $20x, and CFC1 recognizes $80x of gain as a result of the sale ($100x−$20x). CFC1's gain is not subject to U.S. tax or taken into account in determining an inclusion to USP under section 951(a)(1)(A).

(2) Analysis. The sale by CFC1 is a disqualified transfer (within the meaning of § 1.951A-3(h)(2)(ii)(C)(2)) because it is a transfer of property in which gain was recognized by CFC1, CFC1 and CFC2 are related persons, and the transfer occurs during the disqualified period (within the meaning of § 1.951A-3(h)(2)(ii)(C)(1)). The disqualified basis in Asset A is $80x, the excess of CFC2's adjusted basis in Asset A immediately after the disqualified transfer ($100x), over the sum of CFC1's basis in Asset A immediately before the transfer ($20x) and the qualified gain amount (as defined in § 1.951A-3(h)(2)(ii)(C)(3)) ($0). Accordingly, under paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section, any deduction or loss of CFC2 attributable to the disqualified basis is allocated and apportioned solely to residual CFC gross income of CFC2 and, therefore, is not taken into account in determining the tested income, tested loss, subpart F income, or effectively connected income of CFC2 for any CFC inclusion year.

(B) Example 2: Related party transfer after the disqualified period; gain recognition -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(5)(v)(A)(1) of this section (the facts in Example 1), except that, on November 30, 2020, CFC2 sells Asset A to CFC3, a controlled foreign corporation wholly-owned by CFC2, in exchange for $120x of cash. Immediately before the sale, the adjusted basis in Asset A is $90x, $72x of which is disqualified basis. The gain recognized by CFC2 on the sale of Asset A is not described in paragraphs (c)(1)(i) through (v) of this section.

(2) Analysis. Paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section does not apply to the sale of Asset A from CFC2 to CFC3 because the sale does not give rise to a deduction or loss attributable to disqualified basis, but instead gives rise to gain. Therefore, CFC2 recognizes $30x ($120x−$90x) of gain that is included in gross tested income for its CFC inclusion year ending November 30, 2019. Under § 1.951A-3(h)(2)(ii)(B)(1)(ii), because CFC2 sold Asset A to CFC3, a related person, and CFC2 did not recognize a deduction or loss on the sale, the disqualified basis in Asset A is not reduced or eliminated by reason of the sale. Accordingly, under paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section, any deduction or loss of CFC3 attributable to the $72x of disqualified basis in Asset A is allocated and apportioned solely to residual CFC gross income of CFC3.

(C) Example 3: Related party transfer after the disqualified period; loss recognition -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(5)(v)(B)(1) of this section (the facts in Example 2), except that CFC2 sells Asset A to CFC3 in exchange for $70x of cash.

(2) Analysis. Under paragraph (c)(5)(ii) of this section, the $20x loss recognized by CFC2 on the sale is attributable to disqualified basis, to the extent thereof, notwithstanding that the loss may be deferred under section 267(f). Thus, under paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section, the loss is allocated and apportioned solely to residual CFC gross income of CFC2 in the CFC inclusion year in which the loss is taken into account pursuant to section 267(f). Under § 1.951A-3(h)(2)(ii)(B)(1)(ii), the disqualified basis in Asset A is reduced by $20x, the loss of CFC2 that is attributable to disqualified basis under paragraph (c)(5)(ii) of this section. Accordingly, under paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section, any deduction or loss of CFC3 attributable to the remaining $52x of disqualified basis in Asset A is allocated and apportioned solely to residual CFC gross income of CFC3.

(6) Allocation of deductions attributable to disqualified payments -

(i) In general. A deduction related directly or indirectly to a disqualified payment is allocated and apportioned solely to residual CFC gross income, and any deduction related to a disqualified payment is not properly allocable to property produced or acquired for resale under section 263, 263A, or 471.

(ii) Definitions. The following definitions apply for purposes of this paragraph (c)(6).

(A) Disqualified payment. The term disqualified payment means a payment made by a person to a related recipient CFC during the disqualified period with respect to the related recipient CFC, to the extent the payment would constitute income described in section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i) and paragraph (c)(1) of this section without regard to whether section 951A applies.

(B) Disqualified period. The term disqualified period has the meaning provided in § 1.951A-3(h)(2)(ii)(C)(1), substituting “related recipient CFC” for “transferor CFC.”

(C) Related recipient CFC. The term related recipient CFC means, with respect to a payment by a person, a recipient of the payment that is a controlled foreign corporation that bears a relationship to the payor described in section 267(b) or 707(b) immediately before or after the payment.

(iii) Treatment of partnerships. For purposes of determining whether a payment is made by a person to a related recipient CFC for purposes of paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(A) of this section, a payment by or to a partnership is treated as made proportionately by or to its partners, as applicable.

(iv) Reductions to disqualified payments pursuant to coordination rules. See § 1.245A-5(j)(8) and § 1.245A-7(b) or § 1.245A-8(b), as applicable, for reductions to disqualified payments resulting from the application of § 1.245A-5.

(v) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (c)(6).

(A) Example 1: Deduction related directly to disqualified payment to related recipient CFC -

(1) Facts. USP, a domestic corporation, owns all of the stock in CFC1 and CFC2, each a controlled foreign corporation. Both USP and CFC2 use the calendar year as their taxable year. CFC1 uses a taxable year ending November 30. On October 15, 2018, before the start of its first CFC inclusion year, CFC1 receives and accrues a payment from CFC2 of $100x of prepaid royalties with respect to a license. The $100x payment is excluded from subpart F income pursuant to section 954(c)(6) and would constitute income described in section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i) and paragraph (c)(1) of this section without regard to whether section 951A applies.

(2) Analysis. CFC1 is a related recipient CFC (within the meaning of paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(C) of this section) with respect to the royalty prepayment by CFC2 because it is related to CFC2 within the meaning of section 267(b). The royalty prepayment is received by CFC1 during its disqualified period (within the meaning of paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(B) of this section) because it is received during the period beginning January 1, 2018, and ending November 30, 2018. Because it would constitute income described in section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i) and paragraph (c)(1) of this section without regard to whether section 951A applies, the payment is a disqualified payment. Accordingly, CFC2's deductions related to such payment accrued during taxable years ending on or after April 7, 2020, are allocated and apportioned solely to residual CFC gross income under paragraph (c)(6)(i) of this section.

(B) Example 2: Deduction related indirectly to disqualified payment to partnership in which related recipient CFC is a partner -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(6)(v)(A)(1) of this section (the facts in Example 1), except that CFC1 and USP own 99% and 1%, respectively of FPS, a foreign partnership, which has a taxable year ending November 30. USP receives a prepayment of $110x from CFC2 for the performance of future services. USP subcontracts the performance of these future services to FPS for which FPS receives and accrues a $100x prepayment from USP. The services will be performed in the same country under the laws of which CFC1 and FPS are created or organized, and the $100x prepayment is not foreign base company services income under section 954(e) and § 1.954-4(a). The $100x prepayment would constitute income described in section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i) and paragraph (c)(1) of this section without regard to whether section 951A applies.

(2) Analysis. CFC1 is a related recipient CFC (within the meaning of paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(C) of this section) with respect to the services prepayment by USP because, under paragraph (c)(6)(iii) of this section, it is treated as receiving $99x (99% of $100x) of the services prepayment from USP, and it is related to USP within the meaning of section 267(b). The services prepayment is received by CFC1 during its disqualified period (within the meaning of paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(B) of this section) because it is received during the period beginning January 1, 2018, and ending November 30, 2018. Because it would constitute income described in section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i) and paragraph (c)(1) of this section without regard to whether section 951A applies, the prepayment is a disqualified payment. In addition, CFC2's deductions related to its prepayment to USP are indirectly related to the disqualified payment by USP. Accordingly, CFC2's deductions related to such payment accrued during taxable years ending on or after April 7, 2020 are allocated and apportioned solely to residual CFC gross income under paragraph (c)(6)(i) of this section.

(7) Election to apply high-tax exception of section 954(b)(4) -

(i) In general. For purposes of section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(III) and paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section, a tentative gross tested income item of a controlled foreign corporation for a CFC inclusion year qualifies for the exception described in section 954(b)(4) only if -

(A) An election made under paragraph (c)(7)(viii) of this section is effective with respect to the controlled foreign corporation for the CFC inclusion year; and

(B) The tentative tested income item with respect to the tentative gross tested income item was subject to an effective rate of foreign tax, as determined under paragraph (c)(7)(vi) of this section, that is greater than 90 percent of the maximum rate of tax specified in section 11.

(ii) Calculation of tentative gross tested income item -

(A) In general. A tentative gross tested income item with respect to a controlled foreign corporation for a CFC inclusion year is the aggregate of all items of gross income of the controlled foreign corporation attributable to a tested unit (as defined in paragraph (c)(7)(iv) of this section) of the controlled foreign corporation in the CFC inclusion year that would be gross tested income without regard to this paragraph (c)(7) and would be in a single tested income group (as defined in § 1.960-1(d)(2)(ii)(C)). A controlled foreign corporation may have multiple tentative gross tested income items. See paragraphs (c)(8)(iii)(A)(2)(i) (Example 1) and (c)(8)(iii)(B)(2)(i) (Example 2) of this section for illustrations of the application of the rule set forth in this paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(A).

(B) Gross income attributable to a tested unit -

(1) Items properly reflected on separate set of books and records. Items of gross income of a controlled foreign corporation are attributable to a tested unit of the controlled foreign corporation to the extent they are properly reflected on the separate set of books and records of the tested unit, as modified under paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B)(2) of this section. Each item of gross income of a controlled foreign corporation is attributable to a tested unit (and not to more than one tested unit) of the controlled foreign corporation. See paragraphs (c)(8)(iii)(D)(2) and (c)(8)(iii)(D)(5) (Example 4) of this section for illustrations of the application of the rule set forth in this paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B).

(2) Gross income determined under federal income tax principles, as adjusted for disregarded payments. For purposes of paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B)(1) of this section, gross income must be determined under federal income tax principles, except that the principles of § 1.904-4(f)(2)(vi) apply to adjust gross income of the tested unit, to the extent thereof, to reflect disregarded payments. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B)(2), the principles of § 1.904-4(f)(2)(vi) are applied taking into account the rules in paragraphs (c)(7)(ii)(B)(2)(i) through (v) of this section.

(i) The controlled foreign corporation is treated as the foreign branch owner and any other tested units of the controlled foreign corporation are treated as foreign branches.

(ii) The principles of the rules in § 1.904-4(f)(2)(vi)(A) apply in the case of disregarded payments between a foreign branch and another foreign branch without regard to whether either foreign branch makes a disregarded payment to, or receives a disregarded payment from, the foreign branch owner.

(iii) The exclusion for interest and interest equivalents described in § 1.904-4(f)(2)(vi)(C)(1) does not apply to the extent of the amount of a disregarded payment that is deductible in the country of tax residence (or location, in the case of a branch) of the tested unit that is the payor.

(iv) In the case of an amount described in paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B)(2)(iii) of this section, the rules for determining how a disregarded payment is allocated to gross income of a foreign branch or foreign branch owner in § 1.904-4(f)(2)(vi)(B) are applied by treating the disregarded payment as allocated and apportioned ratably to all of the gross income attributable to the tested unit that is making the disregarded payment. If a tested unit is both a payor and payee of an amount described in paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B)(2)(iii) of this section, gross income to which the disregarded payments are allocable include gross income allocated to the payor tested unit as a result of the receipt of amounts described in paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B)(2)(iii) of this section, to the extent thereof. If a tested unit makes and receives payments described in paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B)(2)(iii) of this section to and from the same tested unit, the payments are netted so that paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B)(2)(iii) of this section and the principles of § 1.904-4(f)(2)(vi) apply only to the net amount of such payments between the two tested units.

(v) In the case of multiple disregarded payments, in lieu of § 1.904-4(f)(2)(vi)(F), disregarded payments are taken into account under paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B)(2) of this section and the principles of § 1.904-4(f)(2)(vi) under the rules provided in this paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B)(2)(v). Adjustments are made with respect to a disregarded payment received by a tested unit before payments made by that tested unit. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B)(2)(iv) of this section, if a tested unit both makes and receives disregarded payments, adjustments are first made with respect to disregarded payments that would be definitely related to a single class of gross income under the principles of § 1.861-8; second, adjustments are made with respect to disregarded payments that would be definitely related to multiple classes of gross income under the principles of § 1.861-8, but that are not definitely related to all gross income of the tested unit; third, adjustments are made with respect to disregarded payments (other than interest described in paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B)(2)(iii) of this section) that would be definitely related to all gross income under the principles of § 1.861-8; and fourth, adjustments are made with respect to interest described in paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B)(2)(iii) and disregarded payments that would not be definitely related to any gross income under the principles of § 1.861-8.

(iii) Calculation of tentative tested income item -

(A) In general. A tentative tested income item with respect to the tentative gross tested income item described in paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(A) of this section is determined by allocating and apportioning deductions for the CFC inclusion year (including expense for current year taxes (as defined in § 1.960-1(b)(4)), and not including any items described in § 1.951A-2(c)(5) or (c)(6)) to the tentative gross tested income item under the principles of § 1.960-1(d)(3). For purposes of this paragraph (c)(7)(iii), each tentative gross tested income item (if any) is treated as assigned to a separate tested income group, as that term is described in § 1.960-1(d)(2)(ii)(C), and all other income is treated as assigned to a residual income group. For purposes of applying §§ 1.861-9 and 1.861-9T under the principles of § 1.960-1(d)(3), the amount of interest deductions that are allocated and apportioned to the assets (or gross income, in the case of a taxpayer that has elected the modified gross income method) of a lower-tier corporation, such as a corporation the stock of which is owned by the controlled foreign corporation indirectly through the tested unit, are allocated and apportioned to the residual income category and not to any tentative gross tested income item of the controlled foreign corporation. See paragraphs (c)(8)(iii)(A)(2)(iii) (Example 1), (c)(8)(iii)(B)(2)(iv) (Example 2), and (c)(8)(iii)(C)(2)(iv) (Example 3) of this section for illustrations of the application of the rules set forth in this paragraph (c)(7)(iii)(A).

(B) Allocation and apportionment of current year taxes imposed by reason of disregarded payments. The principles of § 1.904-6(a)(2) apply to allocate and apportion the expense for current year taxes imposed by reason of disregarded payments to a tentative gross tested income item. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(7)(iii)(B), the principles of § 1.904-6(a)(2) apply by -

(1) Treating the CFC as the foreign branch owner and any other tested unit as a foreign branch;

(2) In the case of payments to a tested unit that is treated as a foreign branch under paragraph (c)(7)(iii)(B)(1) of this section, applying the principles of § 1.904-6(a)(2)(ii) and (iii) as if the tested unit receiving the payment were a foreign branch owner (and as if the tested unit making the payment were a foreign branch); and

(3) Treating any portion of a disregarded payment between individual tested units that does not result in a reallocation of gross income under paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B)(2) of this section (because the amount of the payment exceeds the gross income of the individual tested unit making the payment) as a payment that is described in § 1.904-4(f)(2)(vi)(C)(4) (to which § 1.904-6(a)(2)(iii) applies). See paragraph (c)(8)(iii)(B)(2)(iii) (Example 2) of this section for illustrations of the application of the rules set forth in this paragraph (c)(7)(iii)(B).

(C) Effect of potential and actual changes in taxes paid or accrued. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (c)(7)(iii)(C), the amount of current year taxes paid or accrued by a controlled foreign corporation for purposes of this paragraph (c)(7) does not take into account any potential reduction in foreign income taxes that may occur by reason of a future distribution to shareholders of all or part of such income. However, to the extent the foreign income taxes paid or accrued by the controlled foreign corporation are reasonably certain to be returned to a shareholder by the foreign country imposing such taxes, directly or indirectly, through any means (including, but not limited to, a refund, credit, payment, discharge of an obligation, or any other method) on a subsequent distribution to such shareholder, the foreign income taxes are not treated as paid or accrued for purposes of this paragraph (c)(7). In addition, foreign income taxes that have not been paid or accrued because they are contingent on a future distribution of earnings (or other similar transaction, such as a loan to a shareholder) are not taken into account for purposes of this paragraph (c)(7). If, pursuant to section 905(c) and § 1.905-3, a redetermination of U.S. tax liability is required to account for the effect of a foreign tax redetermination (as defined in § 1.905-3(a)), this paragraph (c)(7) is applied in the adjusted year taking into account the adjusted amount of the redetermined foreign tax.

(iv) Tested unit rules -

(A) In general. Subject to the combination rule in paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(C) of this section, the term tested unit means any corporation, interest, or branch described in paragraphs (c)(7)(iv)(A)(1) through (3) of this section. See paragraph (c)(8)(iii)(D) (Example 4) of this section for an example that illustrates the application of the tested unit rules set forth in this paragraph (c)(7)(iv).

(1) A controlled foreign corporation (as defined in section 957(a)).

(2) An interest held directly or indirectly by a controlled foreign corporation in a pass-through entity that is -

(i) A tax resident (as described in § 1.267A-5(a)(23)(i)) of any foreign country; or

(ii) Not treated as fiscally transparent (as determined under the principles of § 1.267A-5(a)(8)) for purposes of the tax law of the foreign country of which the controlled foreign corporation is a tax resident or, in the case of an interest in a pass-through entity held by a controlled foreign corporation indirectly through one or more other tested units, for purposes of the tax law of the foreign country of which the tested unit that directly (or indirectly through the fewest number of transparent interests) owns the interest is a tax resident.

(3) A branch (as described in § 1.267A-5(a)(2)) the activities of which are carried on directly or indirectly (through one or more pass-through entities) by a controlled foreign corporation. However, in the case of a branch that does not give rise to a taxable presence under the tax law of the foreign country where the branch is located, the branch is a tested unit only if, under the tax law of the foreign country of which the controlled foreign corporation is a tax resident (or, if applicable, under the tax law of a foreign country of which the tested unit that directly (or indirectly, through the fewest number of transparent interests) carries on the activities of the branch is a tax resident), an exclusion, exemption, or other similar relief (such as a preferential rate) applies with respect to income attributable to the branch. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(A)(3), similar relief does not include a credit (for example, a foreign tax credit) against the tax imposed under such tax law. If a controlled foreign corporation carries on directly or indirectly (through one or more pass-through entities) less than all of the activities of a branch (for example, if the activities are carried on indirectly through an interest in a partnership), then the rules in this paragraph apply separately with respect to the portion (or portions, if carried on indirectly through more than one chain of pass-through entities) of the activities carried on by the controlled foreign corporation. See paragraphs (c)(8)(iii)(D)(3) and (c)(8)(iii)(D)(4) (Example 4) of this section for illustrations of the application of the rules set forth in this paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(A)(3).

(B) Items attributable to only one tested unit. For purposes of paragraph (c)(7) of this section, if an item is attributable to more than one tested unit in a tier of tested units, the item is considered attributable only to the lowest-tier tested unit. Thus, for example, if a controlled foreign corporation directly owns a branch tested unit described in paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(A)(3) of this section, and an item of gross income is (under the rules of paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B) of this section) attributable to both the branch tested unit and the controlled foreign corporation tested unit, then the item is considered attributable only to the branch tested unit.

(C) Combination rule -

(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(C)(2) of this section, tested units of a controlled foreign corporation (including the controlled foreign corporation tested unit) are treated as a single tested unit if the tested units are tax residents of, or located in (in the case of a tested unit that is a branch, or a portion of the activities of a branch, that gives rise to a taxable presence under the tax law of a foreign country), the same foreign country. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(C)(1), in the case of a tested unit that is an interest in a pass-through entity or a portion of the activities of a branch, a reference to the tax residency or location of the tested unit means the tax residency of the entity the interest in which is the tested unit or the location of the branch, as applicable. See paragraphs (c)(8)(iii)(D)(2) and (c)(8)(iii)(D)(5) (Example 4) of this section for illustrations of the application of the rule set forth in this paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(C)(1).

(2) Exception for nontaxed branches. The rule in paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(C)(1) of this section does not apply to a tested unit that is described in paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(A)(3) of this section if the branch described in paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(A)(3) of this section does not give rise to a taxable presence under the tax law of the foreign country where the branch is located. See paragraph (c)(8)(iii)(D)(4) (Example 4) of this section for an illustration of the application of the rule set forth in this paragraph (c)(7)(v)(C)(2).

(3) Effect of combination rule. If, pursuant to paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(C)(1) of this section, tested units are treated as a single tested unit, then, solely for purposes of paragraph (c)(7) of this section, items of gross income attributable to such tested units, and items of deduction and foreign taxes allocated and apportioned to such gross income, are aggregated for purposes of determining the combined tested unit's tentative gross tested income item, tentative tested income item, and foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to such tentative tested income item.

(v) Separate set of books and records -

(A) In general. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(7), the term separate set of books and records has the meaning set forth in § 1.989(a)-1(d). In addition, for purposes of this paragraph (c)(7), in the case of a tested unit or a transparent interest that is an interest in a pass-through entity or a portion of the activities of a branch, a reference to the separate set of books and records of the tested unit or the transparent interest means the separate set of books and records of the entity or the branch, as applicable.

(B) Failure to maintain separate set of books and records. If a separate set of books and records is not maintained for a tested unit or transparent interest, the items of gross income, disregarded payments, and any other items required to apply paragraph (c)(7) of this section that would be reflected on a separate set of books and records of the tested unit or transparent interest must be determined. Such items are treated as properly reflected on the separate set of books and records of the tested unit or transparent interest for purposes of applying paragraph (c)(7) of this section.

(C) Transparent interests. If a tested unit of a controlled foreign corporation or an entity an interest in which is a tested unit of a controlled foreign corporation holds a transparent interest, either directly or indirectly through one or more other transparent interests, then, for purposes of paragraph (c)(7) of this section (and subject to the rule of paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(C) of this section), items of the controlled foreign corporation properly reflected on the separate set of books and records of the transparent interest are treated as being properly reflected on the separate set of books and records of the tested unit, as modified under paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B)(2) of this section. See paragraph (c)(8)(iii)(D)(6) (Example 4) of this section for an illustration of the application of the rule set forth in this paragraph (c)(7)(v)(C).

(D) Items not taken into account for financial accounting purposes. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(7), an item of gross income in a CFC inclusion year that is not taken into account in such year for financial accounting purposes, and therefore not properly reflected on a separate set of books and records of a tested unit or a transparent interest, or an entity an interest in which is a tested unit or a transparent interest, is treated as properly reflected on a separate set of books and records to the extent it would have been so reflected if the item were taken into account for financial accounting purposes in such CFC inclusion year.

(vi) Effective rate at which foreign taxes are imposed. For a CFC inclusion year of a controlled foreign corporation, the effective rate of foreign tax with respect to the tentative tested income items of the controlled foreign corporation is determined separately for each such item. See paragraphs (c)(8)(iii)(A)(2)(v) (Example 1), (c)(8)(iii)(B)(2)(vi) (Example 2), and (c)(8)(iii)(C)(2)(vi) (Example 3) of this section for illustrations of the application of the rules set forth in this paragraph (c)(7)(vi). The effective rate at which foreign income taxes are imposed on a tentative tested income item is -

(A) The U.S. dollar amount of foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to the tentative tested income item, determined by applying paragraph (c)(7)(vii) of this section; divided by

(B) The U.S. dollar amount of the tentative tested income item, increased by the amount of foreign income taxes referred to in paragraph (c)(7)(vi)(A) of this section.

(vii) Foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to a tentative tested income item. For a CFC inclusion year, the amount of foreign income taxes paid or accrued by a controlled foreign corporation with respect to a tentative tested income item of the controlled foreign corporation for purposes of this paragraph (c)(7) is the U.S. dollar amount of the controlled foreign corporation's current year taxes (as defined in § 1.960-1(b)(4)) that are allocated and apportioned to the related tentative gross tested income item under the rules of paragraph (c)(7)(iii) of this section. See paragraphs (c)(8)(iii)(A)(2)(iv) (Example 1), (c)(8)(iii)(B)(2)(v) (Example 2), and (c)(8)(iii)(C)(2)(v) (Example 3) of this section for illustrations of the application of the rule set forth in this paragraph (c)(7)(vii).

(viii) Rules regarding the high-tax election -

(A) Manner -

(1) An election is made under this paragraph (c)(7)(viii) by the controlling domestic shareholders (as defined in § 1.964-1(c)(5)) with respect to a controlled foreign corporation for a CFC inclusion year (a high-tax election) in accordance with the rules provided in forms or instructions and by -

(i) Filing the statement required under § 1.964-1(c)(3)(ii) with a timely filed original federal income tax return, or with an amended federal income tax return in accordance with paragraph (c)(7)(viii)(A)(2) of this section, for the U.S. shareholder inclusion year of each controlling domestic shareholder in which or with which such CFC inclusion year ends;

(ii) Providing any notices required under § 1.964-1(c)(3)(iii); and

(iii) Providing any additional information required by applicable administrative pronouncements.

(2) In the case of an election (or revocation) made with an amended federal income tax return -

(i) The election (or revocation) must be made on an amended federal income tax return duly filed within 24 months of the unextended due date of the original federal income tax return for the U.S. shareholder inclusion year with or within which the CFC inclusion year ends;

(ii) Each United States shareholder that owns within the meaning of section 958(a) (including both domestic partnerships that are United States shareholders that own stock within the meaning of section 958(a) without regard to § 1.951A-1(e)(1) and partners of a domestic partnership that are United States shareholders that are treated as owning stock withing the meaning of section 958(a) by reason of § 1.951A-1(e)(1)) stock of the controlled foreign corporation as of the end of the CFC's taxable year to which the election relates must file amended Federal income tax returns (or timely original federal income tax returns if a return has not yet been filed) reflecting the effect of such election (or revocation) for the U.S. shareholder inclusion year with or within which the CFC inclusion year ends as well as for any other taxable year in which the U.S. tax liability of the United States shareholder would be increased by reason of the election (or revocation) (or in the case of a partnership if any item reported by the partnership or any partnership-related item would change as a result of the election (or revocation)) within a single period no greater than six months within the 24-month period described in paragraph (c)(7)(viii)(A)(2)(i) of this section; and

(iii) Each United States shareholder in the controlled foreign corporation as of the end of the controlled foreign corporation's taxable year to which the election relates must pay any tax due as a result of such adjustments within a single period no greater than six months within the 24-month period described in paragraph (c)(7)(viii)(A)(2)(i) of this section.

(3) In the case of a United States shareholder that is a partnership, paragraphs (c)(7)(viii)(A)(1) and (2) and (c)(7)(viii)(C) of this section are applied by substituting “Form 1065 (or successor form)” for “federal income tax return” and by substituting “amended Form 1065 (or successor form) or administrative adjustment request (as described in § 301.6227-1), as applicable,” for “amended federal income tax return”, each place that it appears.

(4) A United States shareholder that is a partner in a partnership that is also a United States shareholder in the controlled foreign corporation must generally file an amended return, as required under paragraph (c)(7)(viii)(A)(2)(ii) of this section, and must generally pay any additional tax owed as required under paragraph (c)(7)(viii)(A)(2)(iii) of this section. However, in the case of a United States shareholder that is a partner in a partnership that duly files an administrative adjustment request under paragraph (c)(7)(viii)(A)(2) of this section, the partner is treated as having satisfied the requirements of paragraphs (c)(7)(viii)(A)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section with respect to the interest held through that partnership if:

(i) The partnership timely files an administrative adjustment request described in paragraph (c)(7)(viii)(A)(2)(i) or (ii) of this section, as applicable; and,

(ii) Both the partnership and its partners timely comply with the requirements of section 6227 with respect to the administrative adjustment request. See §§ 301.6227-1 through -3 for rules relating to administrative adjustment requests.

(B) Scope. A high-tax election applies with respect to each tentative gross tested income item of the controlled foreign corporation for the CFC inclusion year and is binding on all United States shareholders of the controlled foreign corporation.

(C) Revocation. A high-tax election may be revoked by the controlling domestic shareholders of the controlled foreign corporation in the same manner as prescribed for an election made on an amended return as described in paragraph (c)(7)(viii)(A) of this section.

(D) Failure to satisfy election requirements. A high-tax election (or revocation) is valid only if all of the requirements in paragraph (c)(7)(viii)(A) of this section, including the requirement to provide notice under paragraph (c)(7)(viii)(A)(1)(ii) of this section, are satisfied.

(E) Rules applicable to CFC groups -

(1) In general. In the case of a controlled foreign corporation that is a member of a CFC group, a high-tax election is made under paragraph (c)(7)(viii)(A) of this section, or revoked under paragraph (c)(7)(viii)(C) of this section, with respect to all controlled foreign corporations that are members of the CFC group and the rules in paragraphs (c)(7)(viii)(A) through (D) of this section apply by reference to the CFC group.

(2) Determination of the CFC group -

(i) Definition. Subject to the rules in paragraphs (c)(7)(viii)(E)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section, the term CFC group means an affiliated group as defined in section 1504(a) without regard to section 1504(b)(1) through (6), except that section 1504(a) is applied by substituting “more than 50 percent” for “at least 80 percent” each place it appears, and section 1504(a)(2)(A) is applied by substituting “or” for “and.” For purposes of this paragraph (c)(7)(viii)(E)(2)(i), stock ownership is determined by applying the constructive ownership rules of section 318(a), other than section 318(a)(3)(A) and (B), by applying section 318(a)(4) only to options (as defined in § 1.1504-4(d)) that are reasonably certain to be exercised as described in § 1.1504-4(g), and by substituting in section 318(a)(2)(C) “5 percent” for “50 percent.

(ii) Member of a CFC group. The determination of whether a controlled foreign corporation is included in a CFC group is made as of the close of the CFC inclusion year of the controlled foreign corporation that ends with or within the taxable years of the controlling domestic shareholders. One or more controlled foreign corporations are members of a CFC group if the requirements of paragraph (c)(7)(viii)(E)(2) of this section are satisfied as of the end of the CFC inclusion year of at least one of the controlled foreign corporations, even if the requirements are not satisfied as of the end of the CFC inclusion year of all controlled foreign corporations. If the controlling domestic shareholders do not have the same taxable year, the determination of whether a controlled foreign corporation is a member of a CFC group is made with respect to the CFC inclusion year that ends with or within the taxable year of the majority of the controlling domestic shareholders (determined based on voting power) or, if no such majority taxable year exists, the calendar year. See paragraph (c)(8)(iii)(E) (Example 5) of this section for an example that illustrates the application of the rule set forth in this paragraph (c)(7)(viii)(E)(2)(ii). Notwithstanding the rule set forth in this paragraph (c)(7)(viii)(E)(2)(ii), a controlled foreign corporation is not a member of a CFC group if, as of the close of its CFC inclusion year, the controlled foreign corporation does not have a controlling domestic shareholder.

(iii) Controlled foreign corporations included in only one CFC group. A controlled foreign corporation cannot be a member of more than one CFC group. If a controlled foreign corporation would be a member of more than one CFC group under paragraph (c)(7)(viii)(E)(2) of this section, then ownership of stock of the controlled foreign corporation is determined by applying paragraph (c)(7)(viii)(E)(2) of this section without regard to section 1504(a)(2)(B) or, if applicable, by reference to the ownership existing as of the end of the first CFC inclusion year of a controlled foreign corporations that would cause a CFC group to exist.

(ix) Definitions. The following definitions apply for purposes of this paragraph (c)(7).

(A) Indirectly. The term indirectly, when used in reference to ownership, means ownership through one or more pass-through entities.

(B) Pass-through entity. The term pass-through entity means a partnership, a disregarded entity, or any other person (whether domestic or foreign) other than a corporation to the extent that income, gain, deduction or loss of the person is taken into account in determining the income or loss of a controlled foreign corporation that owns, directly or indirectly, interests in the person.

(C) Transparent interest. The term transparent interest means an interest in a pass-through entity (or the activities of a branch) that is not a tested unit.

(8) Examples -

(i) Scope. This paragraph (c)(8) provides examples illustrating the application of the rules in paragraph (c)(7) of this section.

(ii) Presumed facts. For purposes of the examples in paragraph (c)(8)(iii) of this section, except as otherwise stated, the following facts are presumed:

(A) USP is a domestic corporation.

(B) CFC1X and CFC2X are controlled foreign corporations organized in, and tax residents of, Country X.

(C) CFC3Z is a controlled foreign corporation organized in, and tax resident of, Country Z.

(D) FDEX is a disregarded entity that is a tax resident of Country X.

(E) FDE1Y and FDE2Y are disregarded entities that are tax residents of Country Y.

(F) FPSY is an entity that is organized in, and a tax resident of, Country Y but is classified as a partnership for federal income tax purposes.

(G) CFC1X, CFC2X, CFC3Z, and the interests in FDEX, FDE1Y, FDE2Y, and FPSY are tested units (the CFC1X tested unit, CFC2X tested unit, CFC3Z tested unit, FDEX tested unit, FDE1Y tested unit, FDE2Y tested unit, and FPSY tested unit, respectively).

(H) CFC1X, CFC2X, CFC3Z, FDEX, FDE1Y, and FDE2Y conduct activities in the foreign country in which they are tax resident, and properly reflect items of income, gain, deduction, and loss on separate sets of books and records.

(I) All entities have calendar taxable years (for both federal income tax purposes and for purposes of the relevant foreign country) and use the Euro (€) as their functional currency. At all relevant times €1 = $1.

(J) The maximum rate of tax specified in section 11 for the CFC inclusion year is 21 percent.

(K) Neither CFC1X, CFC2X, nor CFC3Z directly or indirectly earns income described in section 952(b), has any items of income, gain, deduction, or loss, or makes or receives disregarded payments. In addition, no tested unit of CFC1X, CFC2X, or CFC3Z makes or receives disregarded payments.

(L) An election made under section 954(b)(4) and paragraph (c)(7)(viii) of this section is effective with respect to CFC1X and CFC2X, as applicable, for the CFC inclusion year.

(iii) Examples -

(A) Example 1: Effect of disregarded interest -

(1) Facts - (i) Ownership. USP owns all of the stock of CFC1X, and CFC1X owns all of the interests of FDE1Y.

(ii) Gross income and deductions (other than for foreign income taxes). In Year 1, CFC1X generates €100x of gross income from services to unrelated parties that would be gross tested income without regard to paragraph (c)(7) of this section and that is properly reflected on the books and records of FDE1Y. The €100x of services income is general category income under § 1.904-4(d). In Year 1, FDE1Y accrues and pays €20x of interest to CFC1X that is deductible for Country Y tax purposes but is disregarded for federal income tax purposes. The €20x of disregarded interest income received by CFC1X from FDE1Y is properly reflected on CFC1X's books and records, and the €20x of disregarded interest expense paid from FDE1Y to CFC1X is properly reflected on FDE1Y's books and records.

(iii) Foreign income taxes. Country X imposes no tax on net income, and Country Y imposes a 25% tax on net income. For Country Y tax purposes, FDE1Y (which is not disregarded under Country Y tax law) has €80x of taxable income (€100x of services income from the unrelated parties, less a €20x deduction for the interest paid to CFC1X). Accordingly, FDE1Y incurs a Country Y income tax liability with respect to Year 1 of €20x (€80x x 25%), the U.S. dollar amount of which is $20x.

(2) Analysis -

(i) Tentative gross tested income items. Under paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(A) of this section, the tentative gross tested income item with respect to each of the CFC1X tested unit and the FDE1Y tested unit is the aggregate of the gross income of CFC1X that is attributable to the tested unit, that would be gross tested income (without regard to this paragraph (c)(7)), and that would be in a single tested income group. Under paragraphs (c)(7)(ii)(B)(1) and (2) of this section, items of gross income of CFC1X are attributable to the CFC1X tested unit, or the FDE1Y tested unit, to the extent properly reflected on its separate set of books and records, as determined under federal income tax principles and adjusted to take into account disregarded payments. Without regard to the €20x disregarded interest payment from FDE1Y to CFC1X, gross income attributable to the CFC1X tested unit would be €0 (that is, the €20x of interest income reflected on the books and records of CFC1X would be reduced by €20x, the amount attributable to the payment that is disregarded for federal income tax purposes). Similarly, without regard to the €20x disregarded interest payment from FDE1Y to CFC1X, gross income attributable to the FDE1Y tested unit would be €100x (that is, €100x of services income reflected on the books and records of FDE1Y, unreduced by the €20x disregarded interest payment from FDE1Y to CFC1X). However, under paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B)(2) of this section, the gross income attributable to each of the CFC1X tested unit and the FDE1Y tested unit is adjusted by €20x, the amount of the disregarded interest payment from FDE1Y to CFC1X that is deductible for Country Y tax purposes. Accordingly, the tentative gross tested income item attributable to the CFC1X tested unit (the “CFC1X tentative gross tested income item”) is €20x (€0 + €20x), and the tentative gross tested income item attributable to the FDE1Y tested unit (the “FDE1Y tentative gross tested income item”) is €80x (€100x − €20x).

(ii) Foreign income tax deduction. Under paragraph (c)(7)(iii)(A) of this section, CFC1X's tentative tested income items are computed by treating the CFC1X tentative gross tested income item and the FDE1Y tentative gross tested income item each as income in a separate tested income group (the “CFC1X income group” and the “FDE1Y income group”) and by allocating and apportioning CFC1X's deductions for current year taxes under the principles of § 1.960-1(d)(3)(ii) (CFC1X has no other deductions to allocate and apportion). Under paragraph (c)(7)(iii)(A) of this section, the €20x deduction for Country Y income taxes is allocated and apportioned solely to the FDE1Y income group (the “FDE1Y group tax”). None of the Country Y taxes are allocated and apportioned to the CFC1X income group under paragraph (c)(7)(iii)(B) of this section and the principles of § 1.904-6(a)(2)(ii)(A), because none of the Country Y tax is imposed solely by reason of the disregarded interest payment.

(iii) Tentative tested income items. Under paragraph (c)(7)(iii) of this section, the tentative tested income item with respect to the CFC1X income group (the “CFC1X tentative tested item”), is €20x. The tentative tested income item with respect to the FDE1Y income group (the “CFC1X tentative tested item”) is €60x (the FDE1Y tentative gross tested income item of €80x, less the €20x deduction for the FDE1Y group tax).

(iv) Foreign income tax paid or accrued with respect to a tentative tested income item. Under paragraph (c)(7)(vii) of this section, the foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to a tentative tested income item is the U.S. dollar amount of the current year taxes that are allocated and apportioned to the related tentative gross tested income item under the rules of paragraph (c)(7)(iii) of this section. Therefore, the foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to the FDE1Y tentative tested income item is $20x, the U.S. dollar amount of the FDE1Y group tax. The foreign income tax paid or accrued with respect to the CFC1X tentative tested income item is $0, the U.S. dollar amount of the foreign tax allocated and apportioned to the CFC1X tentative gross tested income item under paragraph (c)(7)(iii) of this section.

(v) Effective foreign tax rate. The effective foreign tax rate is determined under paragraph (c)(7)(vi) of this section by dividing the U.S. dollar amount of foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to each respective tentative tested income item by the U.S. dollar amount of the tentative tested income item increased by the U.S. dollar amount of the relevant foreign income taxes. Therefore, the effective foreign tax rate with respect to the FDE1Y tentative tested income item is 25%, computed by dividing $20x (the U.S. dollar amount of the foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to the FDE1Y tentative tested income item under paragraph (c)(7)(vii) of this section) by $80x (the sum of $60x, the U.S. dollar amount of the FDE1Y tentative tested income item, and $20x, the U.S. dollar amount of the foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to the FDE1Y tentative tested income item). The CFC1X tentative tested income item is not subject to any foreign income tax, so is subject to an effective foreign tax rate of 0%, calculated as $0 (the U.S. dollar amount of the foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to the CFC1X tentative tested income item) divided by $20x (the U.S. dollar amount of the CFC1X tentative tested income item).

(vi) Gross income items excluded under sections 954(b)(4) and 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(III). The FDE1Y tentative tested income item is subject to an effective foreign tax rate (25%) that is greater than 18.9% (90% of the maximum rate of tax specified in section 11). Therefore, the requirement of paragraph (c)(7)(i)(B) of this section is satisfied, and the FDE1Y tentative gross tested income item qualifies under paragraph (c)(7)(i) of this section for the high-tax exception of section 954(b)(4) and is excluded from tested income under sections 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(III) and 954(b)(4) and paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section. The CFC1X tentative tested income item is subject to an effective foreign tax rate of 0%. Therefore, the CFC1X tentative tested income item does not satisfy the requirement of paragraph (c)(7)(i)(B) of this section, and the CFC1X tentative gross tested income item does not qualify under paragraph (c)(7)(i) of this section for the high-tax exception of section 954(b)(4) and is not excluded from tested income under sections 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(III) and 954(b)(4) and paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section.

(B) Example 2: Disregarded payment for services -

(1) Facts -

(i) Ownership. USP owns all of the stock of CFC1X. CFC1X owns all of the interests of FDE1Y. FDE1Y is a tax resident of Country Y, but is treated as fiscally transparent for Country X tax purposes, so that FDE1Y is subject to tax in Country Y and CFC1X is subject to tax in Country X with respect to FDE1Y's activities.

(ii) Gross income, deductions (other than for foreign income taxes), and disregarded payments. In Year 1, CFC1X generates €1,000x of gross income from services to unrelated parties that would be gross tested income without regard to paragraph (c)(7) of this section and that is properly reflected on the books and records of CFC1X. In Year 1, CFC1X accrues and pays €480x of deductible expenses to unrelated parties, €280x of which is properly reflected on CFC1X's books and records and is definitely related solely to CFC1X's gross income reflected on its books and records, and €200x of which is properly reflected on FDE1Y's books and records and is definitely related solely to FDE1Y's gross income reflected on its books and records. Country X law does not provide rules for the allocation or apportionment of these deductions to particular items of gross income. In Year 1, CFC1X also accrues and pays €325x to FDE1Y for support services performed by FDE1Y in Country Y; the payment is disregarded for federal income tax purposes. The €325x of disregarded support services income received by FDE1Y from CFC1X is properly reflected on FDE1Y's books and records, and the €325x of disregarded support services expense paid from CFC1X to FDE1Y is properly reflected on CFC1X's books and records.

(iii) Foreign income taxes. Country X imposes a 10% tax on net income, and Country Y imposes a 16% tax on net income. Country X allows a deduction, but not a credit, for foreign income taxes paid or accrued to another country (such as Country Y). For Country Y tax purposes, FDE1Y (which is not disregarded under Country Y tax law) has €125x of taxable income (€325x of support services income received from CFC1X, less a €200x deduction for expenses paid to unrelated parties). Accordingly, FDE1Y incurs a Country Y income tax liability with respect to Year 1 of €20x (€125x × 16%), the U.S. dollar amount of which is $20x. For Country X tax purposes, CFC1X has €500x of taxable income (€1,000x of gross income for services, less a €480x deduction for expenses paid to unrelated parties by CFC1X and FDE1Y and a €20x deduction for Country Y taxes; Country X does not allow CFC1X a deduction for the €325x paid to FDE1Y for support services because the €325x payment is disregarded for Country X tax purposes). Accordingly, CFC1X incurs a Country X income tax liability with respect to Year 1 of €50x (€500x × 10%), the U.S. dollar amount of which is $50x.

(2) Analysis -

(i) Tentative gross tested income item. Under paragraph (c)(7)(ii) of this section, CFC1X has two tentative gross tested income items, one item with respect to CFC1X (the “CFC1X tentative gross tested income item”) and one item with respect to CFC1X's interest in FDE1Y (the “FDE1Y tentative gross tested income item”). The gross income attributable to each tested unit comprises the gross income properly reflected on the books and records of each tested unit under paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B)(1) of this section, as adjusted under paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B)(2) of this section. Without regard to the €325x payment for support services from CFC1X to FDE1Y, the gross income attributable to the FDE1Y tested unit would be €0 (that is, the €325x of services income properly reflected on the books and records of FDE1Y, reduced by the €325x payment from CFC1X to FDE1Y that is disregarded for federal income tax purposes). Similarly, without regard to the €325x payment for support services from CFC1X to FDE1Y, the gross income attributable to the CFC1X tested unit would be €1,000x (that is, €1,000x of services income reflected on the books and records of CFC1X, unreduced by the €325x disregarded payment). However, under paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B)(2) of this section, the gross income attributable to each of the CFC1X tested unit and the FDE1Y tested unit is adjusted by €325x, the amount of the disregarded services payment from CFC1X to FDE1Y. Accordingly, the FDE1Y tentative gross tested income item is €325x (€0 + €325x), and the CFC1X tentative gross tested income item is €675x (€1,000x − €325x).

(ii) Deductions (other than for foreign income taxes). Under paragraph (c)(7)(iii) of this section, CFC1X's tentative tested income items are computed by applying the principles of § 1.960-1(d)(3), treating the CFC1X tentative gross tested income item and the FDE1Y tentative gross tested income item each as income in a separate tested income group (the “CFC1X income group” and the “FDE1Y income group”) and by allocating and apportioning CFC1X's deductions among the income groups under federal income tax principles. For Year 1, CFC1X has deductible expense (other than foreign income tax) of €480x. This amount includes €280x of deductible expense that is definitely related solely the services activity of the CFC1X tested unit, and another €200x of deductible expense (other than foreign income tax) that is definitely related solely to the services provided by the FDE1Y tested unit. Therefore, €280x of deductible expense (other than foreign income tax) is allocated and apportioned to the CFC1X income group, and €200x of deductible expense (other than foreign income tax) is allocated and apportioned to the FDE1Y income group.

(iii) Foreign income tax deduction. CFC1X accrues foreign income tax in Year 1 of €70x (€50x imposed by Country X and €20x imposed by Country Y). Under paragraph (c)(7)(iii) of this section, the deductions for foreign income taxes are allocated and apportioned under the principles of § 1.960-1(d)(3)(ii) to the FDE1Y income group and the CFC1X income group. Under paragraph (c)(7)(iii)(A) of this section and § 1.960-1(d)(3)(ii), the principles of § 1.904-6(a)(1) generally apply to determine the amount of the foreign income tax paid or accrued with respect to each income group. However, under paragraph (c)(7)(iii)(B) of this section, foreign income taxes imposed by reason of the receipt of a disregarded payment are allocated and apportioned under the principles of § 1.904-6(a)(2). The Country Y tax of €20x is imposed solely by reason of FDE1Y's receipt of a €325x disregarded payment. As a result, the entire €20x of Country Y tax is allocated and apportioned to the FDE1Y income group under the principles of § 1.904-6(a)(2)(ii)(A). If Country X had allowed a deduction for the disregarded payment from CFC1X to FDE1Y and not otherwise imposed tax on CFC1X with respect to income of FDE1Y, the foreign tax imposed by Country X would relate only to the CFC1X tested income group, and no portion of it would be allocated and apportioned to the FDE1Y income group because the FDE1Y income would not be included in the Country X tax base. However, because gross income subject to tax in Country X includes gross income that for federal income tax purposes is attributable to both the FDE1Y tested unit and the CFC1X tested unit, the €50x of foreign income tax imposed by Country X is related to both the FDE1Y income group and to the CFC1X income group and must be allocated and apportioned under the principles of § 1.904-6(a)(1)(i). Because Country X does not provide specific rules for the allocation or apportionment of the €500x of deductible expenses, § 1.904-6(a)(1)(ii) applies the principles of §§ 1.861-8 through 1.861-14T to determine the foreign law net income subject to Country X tax for purposes of apportioning the €50x of Country X tax between the income groups. CFC1X has €1,000x of gross income and €500x of deductible expenses under the tax laws of Country X, resulting in €500x of net foreign law income. Of the €1,000x of foreign law gross income, €325x corresponds to the gross income in the FDE1Y income group, and €675x corresponds to the gross income in the CFC1X income group. Applying federal income tax principles to allocate and apportion the foreign law deductions to foreign law gross income, €220x of the €500x foreign law deductions is allocated and apportioned to the FDE1Y income group and €280x is allocated and apportioned to the CFC1X income group. Of the total €500x of net foreign law income, €105x (€325x Country X gross income corresponding to the FDE1Y income group, less €220x allocable Country X expenses) corresponds to the FDE1Y income group and €395x (€675x Country X gross income corresponding to the CFC1X income group, less €280x allocable Country X expenses) corresponds to the CFC1X income group. Therefore, €10.5x (€50x × €105x/€500x) of Country X tax is allocated and apportioned to the FDE1Y income group, and €39.5x (€50x × €395x/€500x) is allocated and apportioned to the CFC1X income group. In total, €30.5x of foreign tax (€10.5x of Country X tax and €20x of Country Y tax) is allocated and apportioned to the FDE1Y income group (the “FDE1Y group tax”), and €39.5x of foreign tax (all of which is Country X tax) is allocated and apportioned to the CFC1X tested income group (the “CFC1X group tax”).

(iv) Tentative tested income items. Under paragraph (c)(7)(iii) of this section, the tentative tested income item attributable to FDE1Y (the “FDE1Y tentative tested income item”) is €94.5x (the FDE1Y gross tested income item of €325x, less the allocated and apportioned deductions of €230.5x (the sum of deductions (other than for foreign income tax) of €200x, Country Y tax of €20x, and Country X tax of €10.5x)). The tentative tested income item attributable to CFC1X (the “CFC1X tentative tested income item”) is €355.5x (the CFC1X gross tentative tested income item of €675x, less the allocated and apportioned deductions of €319.5x (the sum of deductions (other than for foreign income tax) of €280x and Country X tax of €39.5x)).

(v) Foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to a tentative tested income item. Under paragraph (c)(7)(vii) of this section, the foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to a tentative tested income item is the U.S. dollar amount of the current year taxes that are allocated and apportioned to the related tentative gross tested income item under the rules of paragraph (c)(7)(iii) of this section. Therefore, the foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to the FDE1Y tentative tested income item is $30.5x, the U.S. dollar amount of the FDE1Y group tax, and the foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to the CFC1X tentative tested income item is $39.5x, the U.S. dollar amount of the CFC1X group tax.

(vi) Effective foreign tax rate. The effective foreign tax rate is determined under paragraph (c)(7)(vi) of this section by dividing the U.S. dollar amount of foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to each respective tentative tested income item by the U.S. dollar amount of the tentative tested income item increased by the U.S. dollar amount of the relevant foreign income taxes. Therefore, the effective foreign tax rate for the FDE1Y tentative tested income item is 24.4%, computed by dividing $30.5x (the U.S. dollar amount of the foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to the FDE1Y tentative tested income item), by $125x (the sum of $94.5x, the U.S. dollar amount of the FDE1Y tentative tested income item, and $30.5x, the U.S. dollar amount of the foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to the FDE1Y tentative tested income item). Similarly, the effective foreign tax rate for the CFC1X tentative tested income item is 10%, computed by dividing $39.5x (the U.S. dollar amount of the foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to the CFC1X tentative tested income item) by $395x (the sum of $355.5x, the U.S. dollar amount of the CFC1X tentative tested income item, and $39.5x, the U.S. dollar amount of the foreign taxes paid or accrued with respect to the CFC1X tentative tested income item).

(vii) Gross income items excluded under sections 954(b)(4) and 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(III). The FDE1Y tentative tested income item has an effective foreign tax rate (24.4%) that is greater than 18.9% (90% of the maximum rate of tax specified in section 11). Therefore, the requirement of paragraph (c)(7)(i)(B) of this section is satisfied, and the FDE1Y tentative gross tested income item qualifies under paragraph (c)(7)(i) of this section for the high-tax exception of section 954(b)(4) and is excluded from tested income under sections 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(III) and 954(b)(4) and paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section. The CFC1X tentative tested income item has an effective foreign tax rate (10%) that is not greater than 90% of the maximum rate of tax specified in section 11. Therefore, the CFC1X tentative gross tested income item does not qualify under paragraph (c)(7)(i) of this section for the high-tax exception of section 954(b)(4) and is not excluded from tested income under sections 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(III) and 954(b)(4) and paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section.

(C) Example 3: Interest expense allocated and apportioned with respect to the income of a lower-tier CFC -

(1) Facts -

(i) Ownership. USP owns all of the stock of CFC1X. CFC1X directly owns all the interests of FDE1Y. FDE1Y owns all of the stock of CFC3Z. Pursuant to § 1.861-9(j) and § 1.861-9T(j), CFC1X uses the modified gross income method to allocate and apportion its interest expense.

(ii) Gross income and deductions (including for foreign income taxes). During Year 1, CFC1X generates €4,000x of gross income from services that would be gross tested income without regard to paragraph (c)(7) of this section, €3,000x of which is properly reflected on the books and records of the CFC1X tested unit and €1,000x of which is properly reflected on the books and records of the FDE1Y tested unit. CFC1X also accrues €1,000x of interest expense to an unrelated person. Country X imposes €200x of income taxes with respect to the €3,000x of gross income properly reflected on the books and records of the CFC1X tested unit, and Country Y imposes €200x of income taxes with respect to the €1,000x of gross income properly reflected on the books and records of the FDE1Y tested unit. CFC3Z generates €1,000x of gross income from services that would be gross tested income without regard to paragraph (c)(7) of this section, and such gross income is properly reflected on the books and records of the CFC3Z tested unit. CFC3Z accrues no expenses, and Country Z imposes €100x of income taxes with respect to the €1,000x of gross income generated by CFC3Z.

(2) Analysis -

(i) Tentative gross tested income items. Under paragraph (c)(7)(ii) of this section, the €3,000x of gross income that is reflected on the books and records of the CFC1X tested unit, and the €1,000x of gross income that is reflected on the books and records of the FDE1Y tested unit, are attributable to the CFC1X tested unit and the FDE1Y tested unit, respectively. Under paragraph (c)(7)(ii) of this section, each of these amounts is a separate tentative gross tested income item of CFC1X (the “CFC1X tentative gross tested income item” and the “FDE1Y tentative gross tested income item,” respectively). Under paragraph (c)(7)(ii) of this section, the €1,000x item of tentative gross tested income that is properly reflected on the books and records of the CFC3Z tested unit is attributable to the CFC3Z tested unit. Under paragraph (c)(7)(ii) of this section, the amount attributable to the CFC3Z tested unit is a tentative gross tested income item of CFC3Z (the “CFC3Z tentative gross tested income item”).

(ii) Allocation and apportionment of interest expense. To compute CFC1X's tentative tested income items, the principles of § 1.960-1(d)(3) apply by treating each of CFC1X's tentative gross tested income items as income in a separate tested income group (the “CFC1X income group” and the “FDE1Y income group”) and allocate and apportion its deductions among those income groups under federal income tax principles. Because CFC1X uses the modified gross income method under § 1.861-9(j) and § 1.861-9T(j) to allocate and apportion interest expense, it must allocate and apportion its interest expense between the CFC1X income group and the FDE1Y income group based on a combined gross income amount that includes both the gross income of CFC1X (including the gross income attributable to both the CFC1X tested unit and the FDE1Y tested unit) and the gross income of CFC3Z, adjusted as provided under § 1.861-9(j) and § 1.861-9T(j). Under § 1.861-9(j) and § 1.861-9T(j), the adjusted combined gross income of CFC1X comprises the CFC1X tentative gross tested income item (€3,000x), or 60% of the combined adjusted gross income amount, the FDE1Y tentative gross tested income item (€1,000x), or 20% of the combined adjusted gross income amount, and the CFC3Z gross tentative tested income item (€1,000x), or 20% of the combined adjusted gross income amount. Under paragraph (c)(7)(iii) of this section, interest expense of CFC1X that is allocated and apportioned to the gross income of CFC3Z under § 1.861-9(j) and § 1.861-9T(j) is not allocated and apportioned to either the CFC1X income group or the FDE1Y income group. Therefore, €600x of interest expense (60% of the €1,000x of interest expense) is allocated and apportioned to the CFC1X income group, and €200x of interest expense (20% of the €1,000x of interest expense) is allocated and apportioned to the FDE1Y income group. The €200x of interest expense that is allocated and apportioned to the €1,000x of gross tentative tested income of CFC3Z is allocated and apportioned to the residual income group for purposes of paragraph (c)(7) of this section, but can still be allocated and apportioned to a statutory grouping of tested income of CFC1X for purposes of paragraph (c)(3) of this section. See paragraph (c)(7)(iii) of this section.

(iii) Foreign income tax deduction. Under paragraph (c)(7)(iii) of this section, deductions for foreign income taxes paid or accrued by CFC1X are allocated and apportioned under the principles of §§ 1.960-1(d)(3)(ii) and § 1.904-6(a)(1) to the CFC1X income group and the FDE1Y income group. Similarly, foreign income taxes paid or accrued by CFC3Z are allocated and apportioned under the principles of §§ 1.960-1(d)(3)(ii) and 1.904-6(a)(1) to the tentative gross tested income item of CFC3Z (the “CFC3Z income group”). Under these principles, the €200x of Country X income taxes are allocated and apportioned to the CFC1X income group (the “CFC1X group tax”), the €200x of Country Y income taxes are allocated and apportioned to the FDE1Y income group (the “FDE1Y group tax”), and the €100x of Country Z income taxes are allocated and apportioned to the CFC3Z income group (the “CFC3Z group tax”).

(iv) Tentative tested income items. After the allocation and apportionment of deductions to reduce the tentative gross tested income in each income group, under paragraph (c)(7)(iii) of this section, CFC1X has a tentative tested income item with respect to the CFC1X tested unit of €2,200x (€3,000x, less €600x of interest expense and €200x of foreign income tax expense, the “CFC1X tentative tested income item”) and a tentative tested income item with respect to the FDE1Y tested unit of €600x (€1,000x, less €200x of interest expense and €200x of foreign income tax expense, the “FDE1Y tentative tested income item”). CFC3Z has a tentative tested income item of €900x (€1,000x, less €100x of foreign income tax expense, the “CFC3Z tentative tested income item”).

(v) Foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to a tentative tested income item. Under paragraph (c)(7)(vii) of this section, the foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to a tentative tested income item is the U.S. dollar amount of the current year taxes that are allocated and apportioned to the related tentative gross tested income item under the rules of paragraph (c)(7)(iii) of this section. Therefore, the foreign income tax paid or accrued with respect to the CFC1X tentative tested income item is $200x, the U.S. dollar amount of the CFC1X group tax. Similarly, the foreign income tax paid or accrued with respect to the FDE1Y tentative tested income item is $200x, the U.S. dollar amount of the FDE1Y group tax, and the foreign income tax paid or accrued with respect to the CFC3Z tentative tested income item is $100x, the U.S. dollar amount of the CFC3Z group tax.

(vi) Effective foreign tax rate. The effective foreign tax rate is determined under paragraph (c)(7)(vi) of this section by dividing the U.S. dollar amount of foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to each respective tentative tested income item by the U.S. dollar amount of the tentative tested income item increased by the U.S. dollar amount of the relevant foreign income taxes. Therefore, the effective foreign tax rate for the CFC1X tentative tested income item is 8.3%, computed by dividing $200x (the U.S. dollar amount of the foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to the CFC1X tentative tested income item), by $2,400x (the sum of $2,200x, the U.S. dollar amount of the CFC1X tentative tested income item and $200x, the U.S. dollar amount of the foreign taxes paid or accrued with respect to the CFC1X tentative tested income item). The effective foreign tax rate for the FDE1Y tentative tested income item is 25%, computed by dividing $200x (the U.S. dollar amount of the foreign taxes paid or accrued with respect to the FDE1Y tentative tested income item) by $800x (the sum of $600x, the U.S. dollar amount of the FDE1Y tentative tested income item, and $200x, the U.S. dollar amount of the foreign taxes paid or accrued with respect to the FDE1Y tentative tested income item). The effective foreign tax rate for the CFC3Z tentative tested income item is 10%, computed by dividing $100x (the U.S. dollar amount of the foreign taxes paid or accrued with respect to the CFC3Z tentative tested income item) by $1,000x (the sum of $900x, the U.S. dollar amount of the CFC3Z tentative tested income item, and $100x, the U.S. dollar amount of the foreign taxes paid or accrued with respect to the CFC3Z tentative tested income item).

(vii) Gross income items excluded under sections 954(b)(4) and 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(III). The FDE1Y tentative tested income item is subject to tax at an effective foreign tax rate (25%) that is greater than 18.9% (90% of the maximum rate of tax specified in section 11). Therefore, the requirement of paragraph (c)(7)(i)(B) of this section is satisfied, and the FDE1Y tentative gross tested income item qualifies under paragraph (c)(7)(i) of this section for the high-tax exception of section 954(b)(4) and is excluded from tested income under sections 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(III) and 954(b)(4) and paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section. In computing the tested income of CFC1X under paragraph (c)(3) of this section, the deductions of CFC1X that were allocated and apportioned to the FDE1Y tentative gross tested income item (that is, the €200x of interest expense and the €200x of FDE1Y group taxes) are allocated and apportioned to this item of tentative gross tested income. As a result, the €1,000x of tentative gross tested income excluded from tested income under section 954(b)(4), as well as the €200x of interest expense and €200x of foreign tax expense allocable to that gross income, are allocated and apportioned to the residual category under paragraph (c)(3) of this section for purposes of determining the tested income of CFC1X. Under § 1.960-1(d)(3), the $200x of foreign income taxes allocated and apportioned to the excluded gross income would also be assigned to the residual income group for purposes of determining CFC1X's tested taxes for purposes of section 960(d). The CFC1X tentative tested income item and CFC3Z tentative tested income item each have effective foreign tax rates (8.3% and 10%, respectively) that are not greater than 90% of the maximum rate of tax specified in section 11. Therefore, the CFC1X tentative gross tested income item and the CFC3Z tentative gross tested income item do not qualify under paragraph (c)(7)(i) of this section for the high-tax exception of section 954(b)(4), and are not excluded from tested income under sections 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(III) and 954(b)(4) and paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section. Under paragraph (c)(3) of this section, the corresponding deductions are allocated and apportioned to that gross tested income in a manner that achieves a result that is consistent the result of the allocation and apportionment of those deductions under paragraph (c)(7) of this section. Accordingly, because CFC3Z's tentative gross tested income is not excluded from gross tested income under sections 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(IIII) and 954(b)(4) and paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, under paragraph (c)(3) of this section the €200x of CFC1X's interest expense that was apportioned to tentative gross tested income of CFC3Z under the modified gross income method in § 1.861-9 is allocated and apportioned to gross tested income of CFC1X and therefore reduces CFC1X's tested income. In contrast, if the CFC3Z tentative gross tested item had been excluded from gross tested income under sections 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(III) and 954(b)(4) and paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, then the €200x of CFC1X's interest expense that was allocated and apportioned to that income would be assigned to the residual category.

(D) Example 4: Application of tested unit rules -

(1) Facts -

(i) Ownership. USP owns all of the stock of CFC1X. CFC1X directly owns all the interests of FDEX and FDE1Y. In addition, CFC1X directly carries on activities in Country Y that constitute a branch (as described in § 1.267A-5(a)(2)) and that give rise to a taxable presence under Country Y tax law and Country X tax law (such branch, “FBY”).

(ii) Items reflected on books and records. For the CFC inclusion year, CFC1X had a €20x item of gross income (Item A), which is properly reflected on the books and records of FBY, and a €30x item of gross income (Item B), which is properly reflected on the books and records of FDEX.

(2) Analysis -

(i) Identifying the tested units of CFC1X. Without regard to the combination rule of paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(C) of this section, CFC1X, CFC1X's interest in FDEX, CFC1X's interest in FDE1Y, and FBY would each be a tested unit of CFC1X. See paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(A) of this section. Pursuant to the combination rule, however, the FDE1Y tested unit is combined with the FBY tested unit and treated as a single tested unit because FDE1Y is a tax resident of Country Y, the same country in which FBY is located (the “Country Y tested unit”). See paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(C)(1) of this section. The CFC1X tested unit (without regard to any items attributable to the FDEX, FDE1Y, or FBY tested units) is also combined with the FDEX tested unit and treated as a single tested unit because CFC1X and FDEX are both tax residents of County X (the “Country X tested unit”). See paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(C)(1) of this section.

(ii) Computing the items of CFC1X. Under paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(A) of this section, a tentative gross tested income item is determined with respect to each of the Country Y tested unit and the Country X tested unit. To determine the tentative gross tested income item of each tested unit, the item of gross income that is attributable to the tested unit is determined under paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B) of this section. Under paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B) of this section, only Item A is attributable to the Country Y tested unit. Item A is not attributable to the Country X tested unit because it is not reflected on the separate set of books and records of the CFC1X tested unit or the FDEX tested unit, and an item of gross income is only attributable to one tested unit. See paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B)(1) of this section. Under paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B) of this section, only Item B is attributable to the Country X tested unit.

(3) Alternative facts - branch does not give rise to a taxable presence in country where located -

(i) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(8)(iii)(D)(1) of this section (the original facts in this Example 4), except that FBY does not give rise to a taxable presence under Country Y tax law; moreover, Country X tax law does not provide an exclusion, exemption, or other similar relief with respect to income attributable to FBY.

(ii) Analysis. FBY is not a tested unit but is a transparent interest. See paragraphs (c)(7)(iv)(A)(3) and (c)(7)(ix)(C) of this section. CFC1X has a tested unit in Country X that includes the CFC1X tested unit (without regard to any items related to the interest in FDEX or FDE1Y, but that includes FBY since it is a transparent interest and not a tested unit) and the interest in FDEX. See paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(C) of this section. CFC1X has another tested unit in Country Y, the interest in FDE1Y.

(4) Alternative facts - branch is a tested unit but is not combined -

(i) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(8)(iii)(D)(1) of this section (the original facts in this Example 4), except that FBY does not give rise to a taxable presence under Country Y tax law but Country X tax law provides an exclusion, exemption, or other similar relief (such as a preferential rate) with respect to income attributable to FBY.

(ii) Analysis. FBY is a tested unit. See paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(A)(3) of this section. CFC1X has two tested units in Country Y, the interest in FDE1Y and FBY. The interest in FDE1Y and FBY tested units are not combined because FBY does not give rise to a taxable presence under the tax law of Country Y. See paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(C)(2) of this section. CFC1X also has a tested unit in Country X that includes the activities of CFC1X (without regard to any items related to the interest in FDEX, the interest in FDE1Y, or FBY) and the interest in FDEX.

(5) Alternative facts - split ownership of tested unit -

(i) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(8)(iii)(D)(1) of this section (the original facts in this Example 4), except that USP also owns CFC2X, CFC1X does not own FDE1Y, and CFC1X and CFC2X own 60% and 40%, respectively, of the interests of FPSY.

(ii) Analysis for CFC1X. Under paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(C)(1) of this section, FBY and CFC1X's 60% interest in FPSY are combined and treated as a single tested unit of CFC1X (“CFC1X's Country Y tested unit”), and CFC1X's interest in FDEX and CFC1X's other activities are combined and treated as a single tested unit of CFC1X (“CFC1X's Country X tested unit”). CFC1X's Country Y tested unit is attributed any item of CFC1X that is derived through its interest in FPSY to the extent the item is properly reflected on the books and records of FPSY. See paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B)(1) of this section.

(iii) Analysis for CFC2X. Under paragraphs (c)(7)(iv)(A)(1) and (c)(7)(iv)(A)(2)(i) of this section, CFC2X and CFC2X's 40% interest in FPSY are tested units of CFC2X. CFC2X's interest in FPSY is attributed any item of CFC2X that is derived through FPSY to the extent that it is properly reflected on the books and records of FPSY. See paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(B)(1) of this section.

(iv) Analysis for not combining CFC1X and CFC2X tested units. None of the tested units of CFC1X are combined with the tested units of CFC2X under paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(C)(1) of this section because they are tested units of different controlled foreign corporations, and the combination rule only combines tested units of the same controlled foreign corporation.

(6) Alternative facts - split ownership of transparent interest -

(i) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (c)(8)(iii)(D)(1) of this section (the original facts in this Example 4), except that USP also owns CFC2X, CFC1X does not own FDE1Y, and CFC1X and CFC2X own 60% and 40%, respectively, of the interests in FPSY, but FPSY is not a tax resident of any foreign country and is fiscally transparent for Country X tax law purposes.

(ii) Analysis for CFC1X. CFC1X's interest in FPSY is not a tested unit but is a transparent interest. See paragraphs (c)(7)(iv)(A)(2) and (c)(7)(ix)(C) of this section. Under paragraph (c)(7)(v)(C) of this section, any item of CFC1X that is derived through its interest in FPSY and is properly reflected on the books and records of FPSY is treated as properly reflected on the books and records of CFC1X.

(iii) Analysis for CFC2X. CFC2X's interest in FPSY is not a tested unit but is a transparent interest. See paragraphs (c)(7)(iv)(A)(2) and (c)(7)(ix)(C) of this section. Under paragraph (c)(7)(v)(C) of this section, any item of CFC2X that is derived through its interest in FPSY and is properly reflected on the books and records of FPSY is treated as properly reflected on the books and records of CFC2X.

(E) Example 5: CFC group - Controlled foreign corporations with different taxable years -

(1) Facts. USP owns all the stock of CFC1X and CFC2X. CFC2X has a taxable year ending November 30. On December 15, Year 1, USP sells all the stock of CFC2X to an unrelated party for cash.

(2) Analysis. The determination of whether CFC1X and CFC2X are in a CFC group is made as of the close of their CFC inclusion years that end with or within the taxable year ending December 31, Year 1, the taxable year of USP, the controlling domestic shareholder. See paragraph (c)(7)(viii)(E)(2)(ii) of this section. Under paragraph (c)(7)(viii)(E)(2)(i) of this section, USP directly owns more than 50% of the stock of CFC1X as of December 31, Year 1, the end of CFC1X's CFC inclusion year. USP also directly owns more than 50% of the stock of CFC2X as of November 30, Year 1, the end of CFC2X's CFC inclusion year. Therefore, CFC1X and CFC2X are members of a CFC group, and USP must consistently make high-tax elections, or revocations, under paragraph (c)(7)(viii) of this section with respect to CFC1X's taxable year ending December 31, Year 1, and CFC2X's taxable year ending November 30, Year 1. This is the case notwithstanding that USP does not directly own more than 50% of the stock of CFC2X as of December 31, Year 1, the end of CFC1X's CFC inclusion year. See paragraph (c)(7)(viii)(E)(2)(ii) of this section.

[T.D. 9866, 84 FR 29341, June 21, 2019; 84 FR 44694, Aug. 27, 2019, as amended by T.D. 9882, 84 FR 69107, Dec. 17, 2019; T.D. 9902, 85 FR 44638, July 23, 2020; T.D. 9902, 85 FR 64040, Oct. 9, 2020; T.D. 9902, 85 FR 79853, Dec. 11, 2020; T.D. 9922, 85 FR 72069, Nov. 12, 2020; T.D. 9934, 85 FR 76975, Dec. 1, 2020]