26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

§ 1.953-2 Actual United States risks.

(a)In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means risks described in section 953(a)(1)(A) -

(1) In connection with property in the United States (as defined in paragraph (b) of this section),

(2) In connection with liability arising out of activity in the United States (as defined in paragraph (c) of this section), or

(3) In connection with the lives or health of residents of the United States (as defined in paragraph (d) of this section).

For purposes of section 953(a), the term “United States” is used in a geographical sense and includes only the States and the District of Columbia. Therefore, the reinsuring or the issuing of insurance or annuity contracts by a controlled foreign corporation in connection with property located in a foreign country or a possession of the United States, in connection with activity in a foreign country or a possession, or in connection with the lives or health of citizens of the United States who are not residents of the United States will not give rise to income to which paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1 applies, unless the income derived by the controlled foreign corporation from such contracts constitutes income derived in connection with risks which are deemed to be United States risks, as defined in § 1.953-3.

(b)Property in the United States. The term “property in the United States” means property, as defined in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, which is in the United States, within the meaning of subparagraph (2) of this paragraph.

(1)Property defined. The term “property” means any interest of an insured in tangible (including real and personal) or intangible property. Such interests include, but are not limited to, those of an owner, landlord, tenant, mortgagor, mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or partner. Thus, for example, if insurance is issued against loss from fire and theft with respect to an insured's home and its contents, such risks are risks in connection with property, whether the insured is the owner or lessee and whether the contents include furniture or cash and securities. Furthermore, if insurance is issued against all risks of damage or loss with respect to the automobile of an insured, such risks are risks in connection with property, whether the risks insured against may be caused by the insured, another person, or natural forces.

(2)United States location -

(i)In general. Property will be considered property in the United States when it is exclusively located in the United States. Conversely, property will be considered property not in the United States when it is exclusively located outside the United States. In addition, property which is ordinarily located in, but temporarily located outside, the United States will be considered property in the United States both when it is ordinarily located in, and when it is temporarily located outside, the United States if the premium which is attributable to the reinsuring or issuing of any insurance contract in connection with such property cannot be allocated to, or apportioned between, risks incurred when such property is actually located in the United States and risks incurred when it is actually located outside the United States. If such premium can be so allocated or apportioned on a reasonable basis, however, such property will be considered property not in the United States when it is actually located outside the United States. However, property will not be considered property in the United States if it is neither property which is exclusively located in the United States nor property which is ordinarily located in, but temporarily located outside, the United States. The rules prescribed in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph shall apply in determining whether a premium can be allocated or apportioned on a reasonable basis to or between risks incurred when property is actually located in the United States and risks incurred when such property is actually located outside the United States. The rules prescribed in subdivisions (iii) through (x) of this subparagraph shall apply in determining whether property is, or will be considered, exclusively located in or outside the United States and whether property is, or will be considered, ordinarily located in the United States; such rules also limit the rule of premium allocation and apportionment prescribed in this subdivision and subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph. The determinations required by this subparagraph shall be made with respect to the location of property during the policy period applicable to the taxable year of the insuring or reinsuring corporation, or, if more than one policy period exists with respect to such taxable year, such determinations shall be made separately with respect to the location of property during each such policy period.

(ii)Premium allocation or apportionment. Whether a premium can be allocated or apportioned on a reasonable basis to or between risks incurred when property is actually located in the United States and risks incurred when such property is actually located outside the United States shall depend on the intention of the parties to the insurance contract, as determined from its provisions and the facts and circumstances preceding its execution. Contract provisions on the basis of which the premium reasonably may be so allocated or apportioned include, but are not limited to, provisions which separately describe each risk covered, the period of coverage of each risk, the special warranties for each risk, the premium for each risk (or the basis for determining such premium), and the conditions of paying the premium for each risk. For purposes of this subdivision, it shall be unnecessary formally to make a separate policy with respect to each risk covered or with respect to each clause attached to the policy, provided that the intention of the parties to the contract is reasonably clear. For example, if in the ordinary course of carrying on an insurance business an insurance policy is issued which covers fire, theft, and water damage risks incurred when property is actually located in the United States and marine risks incurred when such property is actually located outside the United States and which, pursuant to accepted insurance principles, properly describes the premium rates as percentages of the amount of coverage as “.825% plus .3% fire, etc. risks plus .12% water risks = 1.245%”, a reasonable basis exists to allocate a $124.50 premium paid for $10,000 of such coverage to $82.50 for foreign risks and $42.00 ($30.00 $12.00) to United States risks.

(iii)Property in general - (a) Ordinary and temporary location. Except as otherwise provided in subdivisions (iv) through (x) of this subparagraph, the determination of whether property is ordinarily located in the United States will depend on all the facts and circumstances in each case. Property is ordinarily located in the United States if its location in the United States is regular, usual, or often occurring. However, in all cases property will be considered ordinarily located in the United States if it is actually located in the United States for an aggregate of more than 50 percent of the days in the applicable policy period whereas property will, under no circumstances, be considered ordinarily located in the United States if it is actually located in the United States for an aggregate of not more than 30 percent of the days in the applicable policy period. Property which is ordinarily located in the United States is temporarily located outside the United States when it is actually located outside the United States. For purposes of determining the number and percent of the days in an applicable policy period, the term “day” means, not any 24-consecutive-hour period, but a continuous period of twenty-four hours commencing from midnight and ending with the following midnight; in determining the location of property for such purposes, an amount of time which is at least one-half of such a day, but less than the entire day, shall be considered a day, and an amount of time which is less than one-half of such a day shall not be considered a day.

(b)Illustrations. The application of this subdivision may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
Controlled foreign corporation A issues to domestic corporation M a comprehensive blanket or floater insurance policy which, for one year, covers inventory samples which M Corporation regularly ships from the United States in order to encourage sales. Such shipments are made on the condition that they be returned to the United States within 5 days after they are received. During the one-year policy period, such samples are sent from, and returned to, the United States 50 times, and during such one-year period are actually located in the United States for an aggregate of 120 days. Since the location of the samples in the United States during such one-year period is often recurring, they are property ordinarily located in, but temporarily located outside, the United States. Therefore, they will be considered property in the United States even though for such one-year period their location in the United States is not regular or usual and is not for an aggregate of more than 50 percent of the days in the policy period. However, if, by considering such factors as the terms and premium schedule of the insurance contract as well as the number, value, and duration of the location in and outside the United States, of such samples, the premium which is attributable to the issuing of such contract can be allocated to, or apportioned between, risks occurring when such samples are actually located in the United States and risks occurring when they are actually located outside the United States, such samples will be considered property not in the United States when they are actually located outside the United States.
Example 2.
A machine, located for several years in a foreign branch of a United States manufacturer, is permanently transferred to the home office of such manufacturer, where it arrives on January 1, 1963, and remains for the remainder of 1963. Under a separate insurance contract issued by a controlled foreign corporation, which uses the calendar year as the taxable year, such machine is insured against damage for the three-year period commencing on May 1, 1962. Because of the change in location of the machine, the premiums are increased as of January 1, 1963. Since the machine is in the United States from January 1, 1963, to April 30, 1963, its location in the United States is regular and usual during the policy period of May 1, 1962, to April 30, 1963. Accordingly, the machine is ordinarily located in the United States for such policy period. However, since the premium which is attributable to the issuing of such contract is allocable to risks occurring when the machine is actually located in, and when it is actually located outside, the United States, such machine will be considered property not in the United States from May 1, 1962, through December 31, 1962.

(iv)Commercial motor vehicles, ships, aircraft, railroad rolling stock, and containers. Any motor vehicle, ship, aircraft, railroad rolling stock, or any container transported thereby, which is used exclusively in the commercial transportation of persons or property to or from the United States (including such transportation from one place to another in the United States) and is ordinarily located in the United States will be considered property in the United States both when such property is ordinarily located in, and when such property is temporarily located outside, the United States. Whether such property is used in the transportation of persons or property to or from the United States and is ordinarily located in the United States are issues to be determined from all the facts and circumstances in each case. However, in all cases such transportation property will be considered ordinarily located in the United States if either more than 50 percent of the miles traversed during the applicable policy period in the use of such property are traversed within the United States or such property is located in the United States more than 50 percent of the time during such period. Further, such transportation property will not at any time be considered property in the United States if either not more than 30 percent of the miles traversed during the applicable policy period in the use of such property are traversed within the United States or such property is located in the United States for not more than 30 percent of the time during such period. Nevertheless, if not more than 30 percent of the miles traversed during the applicable policy period in the use of such transportation property are traversed within the United States, such property will be considered ordinarily located in the United States if it is located in the United States more than 50 percent of the time during such period Moreover, if such transportation property is located in the United States for not more than 30 percent of the time during the applicable policy period, such property will be considered ordinarily located in the United States if more than 50 percent of the miles traversed during such period in the use of such property are traversed within the United States. If such transportation property is considered property in the United States because more than 50 percent of the miles traversed during the applicable policy period in the use of such property are traversed within the United States, the apportionment of premium provided in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph shall be made on a mileage basis. If, however, such property is considered property in the United States because such property is located in the United States more than 50 percent of the time during the applicable policy period, the apportionment of premium provided in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph shall be made on a time basis.

(v)Noncommercial motor vehicles, ships, aircraft, and railroad rolling stock. Except as provided in subdivision (iv) of this subparagraph, any motor vehicle, ship or boat, aircraft, or railroad rolling stock which at any time is actually located in the United States and which either (a) is registered with the United States, a State (including any political subdivision thereof), or any agency thereof or (b), if not so registered, is owned by a citizen, resident, or corporation of the United States will be considered property which is ordinarily located in the United States. Unless the premium which is attributable to the reinsuring or issuing of any insurance contract in connection with such property considered ordinarily located in the United States is specifically allocated under the contract to risks incurred when such property is actually located in the United States and to risks incurred when it is actually located outside the United States, such property will be considered property in the United States both when it is ordinarily located in, and when it is temporarily located outside, the United States; under no circumstances will such property be considered outside the United States on the basis of any apportionment of such premium.

(vi)Property exported or imported by railroad or motor vehicle. Any property which is exported from, or imported to, the United States by railroad or motor vehicle will be considered property ordinarily located in the United States which, when such property is not actually located in the United States, is temporarily located outside the United States. For example, if an insurance contract reinsured or issued in connection with property exported from the United States by motor vehicle covers risks commencing when such property is loaded on the motor vehicle at the United States warehouse and terminating when such property is unloaded at the foreign warehouse, and if the premium payable with respect to risks incurred when the property is in the United States and risks incurred when the property is in the foreign country is not separately stated, such property will be considered property in the United States only until such property is actually located outside the United States, provided that the premium can be properly apportioned (for example) on the basis of time or mileage, between risks incurred when the property is actually located in the United States and risks incurred when it is actually located outside the United States. If in such case the premium is not so apportionable, such property will be considered property in the United States both when such property is ordinarily located in, and when it is temporarily located outside, the United States.

(vii)Property exported by ship or aircraft. If an insurance contract which is reinsured or issued in connection with property which is exported from the United States by ship or aircraft covers risks all of which terminate when such property is placed aboard a ship or aircraft at the United States port of exit for shipment from the United States, such property will be considered property in the United States. If such insurance contract covers risks all of which commence when such property is placed aboard a ship or aircraft at the United States port of exit for shipment from the United States, such property will be considered property not in the United States. If such insurance contract covers risks commencing before, and terminating after, such property is placed aboard a ship or aircraft at the United States port of exit for shipment from the United States, such property will be considered property ordinarily located in the United States which, after such property is placed aboard such ship or aircraft at the United States port of exit, is temporarily located outside the United States. The application of this subdivision may be illustrated by the following example:

Example.
A controlled foreign corporation issues an insurance contract in connection with property exported from the United States by ship. The contract covers risks commencing after such property is removed from the United States warehouse and terminating when such property is unloaded at the foreign port of entry. Assuming that the premium payable with respect to the risks incurred before and the risks incurred after the property is placed aboard the ship at the United States port of exit for shipment from the United States or with respect to the steps in handling such property during such coverage, such as transporting the property to the United States port of exit, unloading the property there, placing the property aboard the ship, holding the property aboard the ship in port, the actual voyage, and unloading the property at the foreign port of entry, is separately stated in, or is determinable from, such contract, the property will be considered property in the United States only until such property is placed aboard the ship at the United States port of exit for shipment from the United States. Assuming, however, that the premiums payable with respect to such steps, or with respect to the risks incurred before and the risks incurred after the property is placed aboard the ship at the United States port of exit, are not allocable or apportionable under the contract, such property will be considered property in the United States both before and after such property is placed aboard the ship at the United States port of exit.

(viii)Property imported by ship or aircraft. If an insurance contract which is reinsured or issued in connection with property which is imported to the United States by ship or aircraft covers risks all of which terminate when such property is unloaded at the United States port of entry, such property will be considered property not in the United States. If such insurance contract covers risks all of which commence after such property is unloaded at the United States port of entry, such property will be considered property in the United States. If such insurance contract covers risks commencing before, and terminating after, such property is unloaded at the United States port of entry, such property will be considered property ordinarily located in the United States which, before such property is unloaded at the United States port of entry, is temporarily located outside the United States. For an illustration pertaining to the allocation or apportionment of the premium, see the example in subdivision (vii) of this subparagraph.

(ix)Shipments originating and terminating in the United States. Any property which is shipped from one place in the United States to another place in the United States, on or over a foreign country, the high seas, or the coastal waters of the United States will be considered property actually located at all times in the United States. For example, property which is shipped from New York City to Los Angeles via the Panama Canal or from San Francisco to Hawaii or Alaska will be considered property actually located at all times in the United States.

(x)Shipments originating and terminating in a foreign country. Any property which is shipped by any means, or a combination of means, of transportation from one foreign country to another foreign country, or from a contiguous foreign country to the same contiguous foreign country, on or over the United States will be considered property exclusively located outside the United States. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any property which is shipped by any means, or a combination of means, of transportation from one contiguous foreign country to another contiguous foreign country on or over the United States will be considered property ordinarily located in the United States which, when such property is not actually located in the United States, is temporarily located outside the United States.

(c)Liability from United States activity. The term “liability arising out of activity in the United States” means a loss, as described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, or a liability, as described in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, which could arise from activity performed in the United States, as defined in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph.

(1)Loss described. The term “loss” includes all loss of an insured which could arise from the occurrence of the event insured against except that such term does not include any loss in connection with property described in paragraph (b) of this section. For example, such term includes, in the case of a promoter of outdoor sporting events, the loss which could arise from the cancellation of such an event because of inclement weather.

(2)Liability described. The term “liability” includes all liability of an insured in tort, contract, property, or otherwise. It includes, for example, the liability of a principal for the acts of his agent, of a husband for the acts of his spouse, and of a parent for the acts of his child. The term not only includes the direct liability which may be incurred, for example, by a tortfeasor to the person harmed, but also the indirect liability which may be incurred, for example, by a manufacturer to the purchaser at retail for a breach of warranty.

(3)Activity in the United States -

(i)In general. A loss or liability will be considered a loss or liability which could arise from activity performed in the United States if the loss or liability would result, if at all, from an activity exclusively carried on in the United States. Conversely, a loss or liability will be considered a loss or liability which could not arise from activity performed in the United States if the loss or liability would result, if at all, from an activity exclusively carried on outside the United States. In addition, a loss or liability will be considered a loss or liability which could arise from activity performed in the United States if the loss or liability would result, if at all, from an activity ordinarily carried on in, but partly carried on outside, the United States. If the premium which is attributable to the reinsuring or issuing of any insurance contract in connection with an activity ordinarily carried on in, but partly carried on outside, the United States can, on a reasonable basis, be allocated to, or apportioned between, the risks incurred with respect to the activity carried on in, and the risks incurred with respect to the activity carried on outside, the United States, such loss or liability will be considered a loss or liability which could not arise from activity performed in the United States to the extent the loss or liability would result, if at all, from that activity carried on outside the United States. However, a loss or liability will not be considered a loss or liability which could arise from an activity performed in the United States if such loss or liability would result, if at all, from an activity which is neither exclusively carried on in the United States nor ordinarily carried on in, but partly carried on outside, the United States. The principles of paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section for allocating or apportioning a premium on a reasonable basis to or between risks incurred when property is actually located in the United States and risks incurred when such property is actually located outside the United States shall apply for allocating or apportioning a premium on a reasonable basis to or between the risks incurred with respect to the activity carried on in, and the risks incurred with respect to the activity carried on outside, the United States. The rules prescribed in subdivisions (ii) through (vi) of this subparagraph shall apply in determining whether an activity is, or will be considered, exclusively carried on in or outside the United States and whether an activity is, or will be considered, ordinarily carried on in the United States and in determining what is the activity which is performed by the insured from which a loss or liability results or could result; such rules also limit the rule of premium allocation and apportionment prescribed in this subdivision. The determinations required by this subparagraph shall be made with respect to the location of an activity of the insured performed during the policy period applicable to the taxable year of the insuring or reinsuring corporation, or, if more than one policy period exists with respect to such taxable year, such determinations shall be made separately with respect to the location of the activity during each such policy period.

(ii)Substantial activity carried on in the United States. The term “activity” is used in its broadest sense and includes the performance of an act unlawfully undertaken, the wrongful performance of an act lawfully undertaken, and the wrongful failure to perform an act lawfully required to be undertaken. With respect to a loss described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, the term “activity” includes the occurrence of the event insured against. The determination of whether an activity ordinarily is carried on in, but is partly carried on outside, the United States will depend on all the facts and circumstances in each case. An activity ordinarily is carried on in the United States if a substantial amount of such activity is carried on in the United States. Factors which will be taken into account in determining whether a substantial amount of activity is carried on in the United States are those which are connected with the activity and include, but are not limited to, the location of the insured's assets, the place where personal services are performed, and the place where sales occur, but only if such assets, services, and sales are connected with the activity. In all cases an activity will be considered substantially carried on in the United States if more than 50 percent of the insured's total assets, personal services, and sales, if any, connected with such activity are located, performed, or occur in the United States. On the other hand, an activity will, under no circumstances, be considered substantially carried on in the United States if not more than 30 percent of the insured's total assets, personal services, and sales, if any, connected with such activity are located, performed, or occur in the United States. For this purpose, the mean of the value of the total assets at the beginning and end of the policy period shall be used, determined by taking assets into account at their actual value (not reduced by liabilities), which, in the absence of affirmative evidence to the contrary, shall be deemed to be (a) face value in the case of bills receivable, accounts receivable, notes receivable, and open accounts held by an insured using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting and (b) adjusted basis in the case of all other assets. Personal services shall be measured by the amount of compensation paid or accrued for such services, and sales shall be measured by the volume of gross sales. An activity is carried on partly outside the United States if it is carried on, whether substantially or in substantially, outside the United States.

(iii)Manufacturing, producing, constructing, or assembling activity. If a person who manufactures, produces, constructs, or assembles property is liable with regard to the consumption or use of such property, such liability will be considered to result from the activity performed of manufacturing, producing, constructing, or assembling such property. If such person manufactures, produces, constructs, or assembles more than one type of product, the liability with regard to the consumption or use of one of such products will be considered to result from the activity performed of manufacturing, producing, constructing, or assembling that particular product. For example, the liability of a building contractor, which constructs apartment buildings only in the United States, for the improper construction of, or the failure to construct, an apartment building, will be considered to result from an activity exclusively carried on in the United States and will be considered a liability which could arise from activity performed in the United States. In further illustration, the liability (which is covered by a single policy of insurance) of a domestic corporation, which assembles refrigerators exclusively in the United States and manufactures automobiles both in a foreign country and in the United States through substantial activity carried on in each of such countries, for the negligent manufacturing of a part for one of the automobiles by the foreign branch, will be considered to result from an activity ordinarily carried on in, but partly carried on outside, the United States and will be considered a liability which could arise from activity performed in the United States.

(iv)Selling activity. If a person is liable with regard to selling activity performed, such liability will be considered, except as provided in subdivisions (iii), (v), and (vi) of this subparagraph, to result from such selling activity. A person will be considered to be engaged in selling activity if such person engages in an activity resulting in the sale of property. Thus, it is immaterial that, under the Code, such activity would not constitute engaging in or carrying on a trade or business in the country in which such activity is carried on, the property in the goods does not pass in such country, or delivery of the property is not made in such country. For example, if a foreign wholesale distributor, which manages its entire business operations in a foreign country and sells its inventory exclusively in the United States - its only contact in the United States being the promotion of such sales to United States retail outlets by advertising in trade publications and distributing sales catalogues - is liable for a breach of warranty with regard to the sale of property to a United States retail outlet, such liability will be considered to result from an activity exclusively carried on in the United States and will be considered a liability which could arise from activity performed in the United States.

(v)Liability from service or driving activity - (a) In general. If a person is liable with regard to any service activity performed, or is liable with regard to driving activity performed in connection with a motor vehicle, ship or boat, aircraft, or railroad rolling stock, whether or not exclusively used in the commercial transportation of persons or property, such liability will be considered to result from such service or driving activity. For example, if an oil company which drills for oil exclusively in a foreign country is liable with regard to the negligent handling by its employees of explosives in the course of such drilling there, such liability will be considered to result from an activity exclusively carried on outside the United States and will be considered a liability which could not arise from activity performed in the United States. In further illustration, if a corporation which services machinery exclusively in a foreign country under servicing contracts is liable with regard to the negligent repairing of a machine under such a contract, such liability will be considered to result from an activity exclusively carried on outside the United States and will be considered a liability which could not arise from activity performed in the United States.

(b)Location of activities in connection with transportation property. For purposes of (a) of this subdivision, service or driving activity performed in connection with a motor vehicle, ship or boat, aircraft, or railroad rolling stock, whether or not exclusively used in the commercial transportation of persons or property, will be considered activity performed in the United States if the activity is carried on at a time when such property is or will be considered, in accordance with subdivision (iv) or (v) of paragraph (b)(2) of this section, actually in the United States or ordinarily located in the United States. However, if the premium which is attributable to the reinsuring or issuing of any insurance contract in connection with such service or driving activity which is carried on at a time when such property is, or will be considered, ordinarily located in the United States can be allocated to, or apportioned between, the risks incurred when such property is actually located in the United States and risks incurred when it is actually located outside the United States, such liability will be considered a liability which could arise from activity performed in the United States only when such property is actually located in the United States. Any allocation or apportionment of premium under the preceding sentence shall be made in accordance with the rules of allocation and apportionment provided in subdivision (iv) or (v) of paragraph (b)(2) of this section. For example, if a person is liable with regard to the performance of services outside the United States in the operation of a motor vehicle which is used exclusively in the commercial transportation of persons to and from the United States and which, because more than 50 percent of the miles traversed during the applicable policy period in the use of such property are traversed within the United States, is considered ordinarily located in the United States, such liability will be considered to be a liability which could not arise from activity performed in the United States only to the extent that the premium which is attributable to the reinsuring or issuing of any insurance contract in connection with such service activity is apportioned on a mileage basis between the risks incurred when such motor vehicle is actually located in the United States and when such vehicle is actually located outside the United States. See paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section. In further illustration, if a person is liable with regard to his negligent driving of a motor vehicle which is not used exclusively in the commercial transportation of persons or property, which is registered with any State, and which is driven both in the United States and a foreign country, such liability will be considered a liability which could arise from activity performed in the United States, unless the premium which is attributable to the reinsuring or issuing of an insurance contract in connection with such driving performed in such motor vehicle ordinarily located in the United States is specifically allocated under the contract to risks incurred with respect to driving performed in, and to risks incurred with respect to driving performed outside, the United States. See paragraph (b)(2)(v) of this section.

(c)Illustration. The application of this subdivision may be further illustrated by the following example:

Example.
Controlled foreign corporation A is a wholly owned subsidiary of domestic corporation M. Both corporations are insurance companies and use the calendar year as the taxable year. Corporation M is exclusively engaged in issuing to owners of commercial rental property which is located in the United States insurance contracts which cover any harm which may be caused in 1963 by the tortious conduct of the owners' employees in managing and maintaining such property. The owners insured under such contracts include both residents and nonresidents of the United States. In 1963, M Corporation cedes to A Corporation one-half of the insurance contracts issued by M Corporation in that year, including the contracts issued to nonresidents. Income of A Corporation derived in 1963 from reinsuring the risks of M Corporation is income from the insurance of United States risks since all the insurance contracts reinsured by it are in connection with a liability which could arise from service activity performed in the United States.

(vi)Liability from delivery of property. If the person who is obligated to deliver property is liable with regard to such delivery, such liability will be considered to result from the activity performed of delivering such property. For example, if a corporation which exports all of its inventory from the United States to foreign countries or possessions of the United States is liable with regard to its failure to make delivery outside the United States of inventory it has sold, such liability will be considered to result from an activity exclusively carried on outside the United States and will be considered a liability which could not arise from activity performed in the United States. In further illustration, if a corporation which exports all of its inventory from a foreign country to the United States is liable with regard to its improper delivery in the United States of inventory it has sold, such liability will be considered to result from an activity exclusively carried on in the United States and will be considered a liability which could arise from activity performed in the United States.

(d)Lives or health of United States residents. Risks in connection with the lives or health of residents of the United States include those risks which are the subject of insurance contracts referred to in section 801(a), relating to the definition of a life insurance company. If the insured is a resident of the United States at the time the insurance contract is approved, the risk is in connection with the life or health of a resident of the United States for the period of coverage under the contract. However, if during such period of coverage the insured notifies the insurer, or circumstances known to the insurer indicate, that the insured is no longer a resident of the United States, the risk shall cease to be a risk in connection with the life or health of a resident of the United States for the policy period in which the insured gives such notice or such circumstances are known to the insurer, and for each subsequent policy period. Conversely, if the insured is a resident of a particular foreign country at the time the insurance contract is approved, the risk is in connection with the life or health of a resident of such foreign country for the period of coverage under the contract. However, if during such period of coverage the insured notifies the insurer, or circumstances known to the insurer indicate, that the insured is no longer a resident of such foreign country, the risk shall cease to be a risk in connection with the life or health of a resident of such particular foreign country for the policy period in which the insured gives such notice or such circumstances are known to the insurer, and for each subsequent policy period. In determining the country of residence of an insured, the principles of §§ 301.7701(b)-1 through 301.7701(b)-9 of this chapter, relating to the determination of residence and nonresidence in the United States and of foreign residence, shall apply. Citizens of the United States are not residents of the United States merely because of their citizenship. The application of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example.
Controlled foreign corporation A is a wholly owned subsidiary of domestic corporation M. Corporation A uses the calendar year as the taxable year and is engaged in the life insurance business in foreign country X. In 1963, A Corporation issues ordinary life insurance contracts on the lives of residents of the United States, including one issued on February 1, 1963, to R, a citizen of foreign country Y and a resident of the United States on such date. All activity in connection with the issuing of such contracts is transacted by mail. On May 1, 1963, R abandons his United States residence and establishes residence in foreign country Z. There are no circumstances known to A Corporation that R has changed his residence until R, on March 1, 1964, actually notifies A Corporation of that change. Income of A Corporation for the policy period of February 1, 1963, to January 31, 1964, from issuing such insurance contracts is income derived from the insurance of United States risks. However, income of A Corporation derived for the policy period of February 1, 1964, to January 31, 1965, from R's insurance contract is not income derived from the insurance of United States risks.
(Secs. 913(m) ( 92 Stat. 3106; 26 U.S.C. 913(m)), and 7805 (68A Stat. 917; 26 U.S.C. 7805), Internal Revenue Code of 1954)
[T.D. 6781, 29 FR 18202, Dec. 23, 1964, as amended by T.D. 7736, 45 FR 76143, Nov. 18, 1980; T.D. 8411, 57 FR 15241, Apr. 27, 1992]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 16-Jun-2017 03:58

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR Part 1 after this date.

  • 2017-06-30; vol. 82 # 125 - Friday, June 30, 2017
    1. 82 FR 29719 - Regulations Regarding Withholding of Tax on Certain U.S. Source Income Paid to Foreign Persons, Information Reporting and Backup Withholding on Payments Made to Certain U.S. Persons, and Portfolio Interest Treatment; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendment.
        Effective Date: These corrections are effective June 30, 2017. Applicability Date: The corrections to §§ 1.1441-0; 1.1441-1(b)(7)(ii)(B), (e)(3)(iv)(B) and (C), (e)(4)(ii)(B)( 11 ), (e)(4)(ix)(D), (e)(5)(ii) through (e)(5)(ii)(B), (e)(5)(ii)(D) through (e)(5)(v)(B)( 3 ), (e)(5)(v)(B)( 5 ) through (e)(5)(v)(D), and (f) through (f)(4); 1.1441-1T; 1.1441-3(d)(1); 1.1441-4; 1.6045-1(m)(2)(ii) and (n)(12)(ii); and 1.6049-5(c)(1) through (c)(4) are applicable on January 6, 2017.
      26 CFR Part 1

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