26 CFR 1.954-1 - Foreign base company income.

§ 1.954-1 Foreign base company income.

(a)In general -

(1)Purpose and scope. Section 954 and §§ 1.954-1 and 1.954-2 provide rules for computing the foreign base company income of a controlled foreign corporation. Foreign base company income is included in the subpart F income of a controlled foreign corporation under the rules of section 952. Subpart F income is included in the gross income of a United States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation under the rules of section 951 and thus is subject to current taxation under section 1, 11 or 55 of the Internal Revenue Code. The determination of whether a foreign corporation is a controlled foreign corporation, the subpart F income of which is included currently in the gross income of its United States shareholders, is made under the rules of section 957.

(2)Gross foreign base company income. The gross foreign base company income of a controlled foreign corporation consists of the following categories of gross income (determined after the application of section 952(b)) -

(i) Foreign personal holding company income, as defined in section 954(c);

(ii) Foreign base company sales income, as defined in section 954(d);

(iii) Foreign base company services income, as defined in section 954(e);

(iv) Foreign base company shipping income, as defined in section 954(f); and

(v) Foreign base company oil related income, as defined in section 954(g).

(3)Adjusted gross foreign base company income. The term adjusted gross foreign base company income means the gross foreign base company income of a controlled foreign corporation as adjusted by the de minimis and full inclusion rules of paragraph (b) of this section.

(4)Net foreign base company income. The term net foreign base company income means the adjusted gross foreign base company income of a controlled foreign corporation reduced so as to take account of deductions (including taxes) properly allocable or apportionable to such income under the rules of section 954(b)(5) and paragraph (c) of this section.

(5)Adjusted net foreign base company income. The term adjusted net foreign base company income means the net foreign base company income of a controlled foreign corporation reduced, first, by any items of net foreign base company income excluded from subpart F income pursuant to section 952(c) and, second, by any items excluded from subpart F income pursuant to the high tax exception of section 954(b). See paragraph (d)(4)(ii) of this section. The term foreign base company income as used in the Internal Revenue Code and elsewhere in the Income Tax Regulations means adjusted net foreign base company income, unless otherwise provided.

(6)Insurance income. The term gross insurance income includes all gross income taken into account in determining insurance income under section 953. The term adjusted gross insurance income means gross insurance income as adjusted by the de minimis and full inclusion rules of paragraph (b) of this section. The term net insurance income means adjusted gross insurance income reduced under section 953 so as to take into account deductions (including taxes) properly allocable or apportionable to such income. The term adjusted net insurance income means net insurance income reduced by any items of net insurance income that are excluded from subpart F income pursuant to section 952(b) or pursuant to the high tax exception of section 954(b). The term insurance income as used in subpart F of the Internal Revenue Code and in the regulations under that subpart means adjusted net insurance income, unless otherwise provided.

(7)Additional items of adjusted net foreign base company income or adjusted net insurance income by reason of section 952(c). Earnings and profits of the controlled foreign corporation that are recharacterized as foreign base company income or insurance income under section 952(c) are items of adjusted net foreign base company income or adjusted net insurance income, respectively. Amounts subject to recharacterization under section 952(c) are determined after adjusted net foreign base company income and adjusted net insurance income are otherwise determined under subpart F and are not again subject to any exceptions or special rules that would affect the amount of subpart F income. Thus, for example, items of gross foreign base company income or gross insurance income that are excluded from adjusted gross foreign base company income or adjusted gross insurance income because the de minimis test is met are subject to recharacterization under section 952(c). Further, the de minimis and full inclusion tests of paragraph (b) of this section, and the high tax exception of paragraph (d) of this section, for example, do not apply to such amounts.

(b)Computation of adjusted gross foreign base company income and adjusted gross insurance income -

(1)De minimis and full inclusion tests -

(i)De minimis test - (A)In general. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(1)(i)(C) of this section, adjusted gross foreign base company income and adjusted gross insurance income are equal to zero if the sum of the gross foreign base company income and the gross insurance income of a controlled foreign corporation is less than the lesser of -

(1) 5 percent of gross income; or

(2) $1,000,000.

(B)Currency translation. Controlled foreign corporations having a functional currency other than the United States dollar shall translate the $1,000,000 threshold using the exchange rate provided under section 989(b)(3) for amounts included in income under section 951(a).

(C)Coordination with sections 864(d) and 881(c). Adjusted gross foreign base company income or adjusted gross insurance income of a controlled foreign corporation always includes income from trade or service receivables described in section 864(d)(1) or (6), and portfolio interest described in section 881(c), even if the de minimis test of this paragraph (b)(1)(i) is otherwise satisfied.

(ii)Seventy percent full inclusion test. Except as provided in section 953, adjusted gross foreign base company income consists of all gross income of the controlled foreign corporation other than gross insurance income and amounts described in section 952(b), and adjusted gross insurance income consists of all gross insurance income other than amounts described in section 952(b), if the sum of the gross foreign base company income and the gross insurance income for the taxable year exceeds 70 percent of gross income. See paragraph (d)(6) of this section, under which certain items of full inclusion foreign base company income may nevertheless be excluded from subpart F income.

(2)Character of gross income included in adjusted gross foreign base company income. The gross income included in the adjusted gross foreign base company income of a controlled foreign corporation generally retains its character as foreign personal holding company income, foreign base company sales income, foreign base company services income, foreign base company shipping income, or foreign base company oil related income. However, gross income included in adjusted gross foreign base company income because the full inclusion test of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section is met is termed full inclusion foreign base company income, and constitutes a separate category of adjusted gross foreign base company income for purposes of allocating and apportioning deductions under paragraph (c) of this section.

(3)Coordination with section 952(c). Income that is included in subpart F income because the full inclusion test of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section is met does not reduce amounts that, under section 952(c), are subject to recharacterization.

(4)Anti-abuse rule -

(i)In general. For purposes of applying the de minimis test of paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, the income of two or more controlled foreign corporations shall be aggregated and treated as the income of a single corporation if a principal purpose for separately organizing, acquiring, or maintaining such multiple corporations is to prevent income from being treated as foreign base company income or insurance income under the de minimis test. A purpose may be a principal purpose even though it is outweighed by other purposes (taken together or separately).

(ii)Presumption. Two or more controlled foreign corporations are presumed to have been organized, acquired or maintained to prevent income from being treated as foreign base company income or insurance income under the de minimis test of paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section if the corporations are related persons, as defined in paragraph (b)(4)(iii) of this section, and the corporations are described in paragraph (b)(4)(ii)(A), (B), or (C) of this section. This presumption may be rebutted by proof to the contrary.

(A) The activities carried on by the controlled foreign corporations, or the assets used in those activities, are substantially the same activities that were previously carried on, or assets that were previously held, by a single controlled foreign corporation. Further, the United States shareholders of the controlled foreign corporations or related persons (as determined under paragraph (b)(4)(iii) of this section) are substantially the same as the United States shareholders of the one controlled foreign corporation in a prior taxable year. A presumption made in connection with the requirements of this paragraph (b)(4)(ii)(A) may be rebutted by proof that the activities carried on by each controlled foreign corporation would constitute a separate branch under the principles of § 1.367(a)-6T(g)(2) if carried on directly by a United States person.

(B) The controlled foreign corporations carry on a business, financial operation, or venture as partners directly or indirectly in a partnership (as defined in section 7701(a)(2) and § 301.7701-3 of this chapter) that is a related person (as defined in paragraph (b)(4)(iii) of this section) with respect to each such controlled foreign corporation.

(C) The activities carried on by the controlled foreign corporations would constitute a single branch operation under § 1.367(a)-6T(g)(2) if carried on directly by a United States person.

(iii)Related persons. For purposes of this paragraph (b), two or more persons are related persons if they are in a relationship described in section 267(b). In determining for purposes of this paragraph (b) whether two or more corporations are members of the same controlled group under section 267(b)(3), a person is considered to own stock owned directly by such person, stock owned with the application of section 1563(e)(1), and stock owned with the application of section 267(c). In determining for purposes of this paragraph (b) whether a corporation is related to a partnership under section 267(b)(10), a person is considered to own the partnership interest owned directly by such person and the partnership interest owned with the application of section 267(e)(3).

(iv)Example. The following example illustrates the application of this paragraph (b)(4).

Example.
(i)
(1)USP is the sole United States shareholder of three controlled foreign corporations: CFC1, CFC2 and CFC3. The three controlled foreign corporations all have the same taxable year. The three controlled foreign corporations are partners in FP, a foreign entity classified as a partnership under section 7701(a)(2) and § 301.7701-3 of the regulations. For their current taxable years, each of the controlled foreign corporations derives all of its income other than foreign base company income from activities conducted through FP, and its foreign base company income from activities conducted both jointly through FP and separately without FP. Based on the facts in the table below, the foreign base company income derived by each controlled foreign corporation for its current taxable year, including income derived from FP, is less than five percent of the gross income of each controlled foreign corporation and is less than $1,000,000:
CFC1 CFC2 CFC3
Gross income $4,000,000 $8,000,000 $12,000,000
Five percent of gross income 200,000 400,000 600,000
Foreign base company income 199,000 398,000 597,000
(2) Thus, without the application of the anti-abuse rule of this paragraph (b)(4), each controlled foreign corporation would be treated as having no foreign base company income after the application of the de minimis test of section 954(b)(3)(A) and paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section.

(ii) However, under these facts, the requirements of paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section are met unless the presumption of paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section is successfully rebutted. The sum of the foreign base company income of the controlled foreign corporations is $1,194,000. Thus, the amount of gross foreign base company income of each controlled foreign corporation will not be reduced by reason of the de minimis rule of section 954(b)(3)(A) and this paragraph (b).

(c)Computation of net foreign base company income -

(1)General rule. The net foreign base company income of a controlled foreign corporation (as defined in paragraph (a)(4) of this section) is computed under the rules of this paragraph (c)(1). The principles of § 1.904-5(k) shall apply where payments are made between controlled foreign corporations that are related persons (within the meaning of section 954(d)(3)). Consistent with these principles, only payments described in § 1.954-2(b)(4)(ii)(B)(2) may be offset as provided in § 1.904-5(k)(2).

(i)Deductions against gross foreign base company income. The net foreign base company income of a controlled foreign corporation is computed first by taking into account deductions in the following manner:

(A) First, the gross amount of each item of income described in paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section is determined.

(B) Second, any expenses definitely related to less than all gross income as a class shall be allocated and apportioned under the principles of sections 861, 864 and 904(d) to the gross income described in paragraph (c)(1)(i)(A) of this section.

(C) Third, foreign personal holding company income that is passive within the meaning of section 904 (determined before the application of the high-taxed income rule of § 1.904-4(c)) is reduced by related person interest expense allocable to passive income under § 1.904-5(c)(2); such interest must be further allocated and apportioned to items described in paragraph (c)(1)(iii)(B) of this section.

(D) Fourth, the amount of each item of income described in paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section is reduced by other expenses allocable and apportionable to such income under the principles of sections 861, 864 and 904(d).

(ii)Losses reduce subpart F income by operation of earnings and profits limitation. Except as otherwise provided in § 1.954-2(g)(4), if after applying the rules of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, the amount remaining in any category of foreign base company income or foreign personal holding company income is less than zero, the loss in that category may not reduce any other category of foreign base company income or foreign personal holding company income except by operation of the earnings and profits limitation of section 952(c)(1).

(iii)Items of income -

(A)Income other than passive foreign personal holding company income. A single item of income (other than foreign personal holding company income that is passive) is the aggregate amount from all transactions that falls within a single separate category (as defined in § 1.904-5(a)(1)), and either -

(1) Falls within a single category of foreign personal holding company income as -

(i) Dividends, interest, rents, royalties and annuities;

(ii) Gain from certain property transactions;

(iii) Gain from commodities transactions;

(iv) Foreign currency gain; or

(v) Income equivalent to interest; or

(2) Falls within a single category of foreign base company income, other than foreign personal holding company income, as -

(i) Foreign base company sales income;

(ii) Foreign base company services income;

(iii) Foreign base company shipping income;

(iv) Foreign base company oil related income; or

(v) Full inclusion foreign base company income.

(B)Passive foreign personal holding company income. A single item of foreign personal holding company income that is passive is an amount of income that falls within a single group of passive income under the grouping rules of § 1.904-4(c)(3), (4) and (5) and a single category of foreign personal holding company income described in paragraphs (c)(1)(iii)(A)(1) (i) through (v).

(2)Computation of net foreign base company income derived from same country insurance income. Deductions relating to foreign base company income attributable to the issuing (or reinsuring) of any insurance or annuity contract in connection with risks located in the country under the laws of which the controlled foreign corporation is created or organized shall be allocated and apportioned in accordance with the rules set forth in section 953.

(d)Computation of adjusted net foreign base company income or adjusted net insurance income -

(1)Application of high tax exception. Adjusted net foreign base company income (or adjusted net insurance income) equals the net foreign base company income (or net insurance income) of a controlled foreign corporation, reduced by any net item of such income that qualifies for the high tax exception provided by section 954(b)(4) and this paragraph (d). Any item of income that is foreign base company oil related income, as defined in section 954(g), or portfolio interest, as described in section 881(c), does not qualify for the high tax exception. See paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section for the definition of the term item of income. For rules concerning the treatment for foreign tax credit purposes of amounts excluded from subpart F under section 954(b)(4), see § 1.904-4(c). A net item of income qualifies for the high tax exception only if -

(i) An election is made under section 954(b)(4) and paragraph (d)(5) of this section to exclude the income from the computation of subpart F income; and

(ii) It is established that the net item of income was subject to foreign income taxes imposed by a foreign country or countries at an effective rate that is greater than 90 percent of the maximum rate of tax specified in section 11 for the taxable year of the controlled foreign corporation.

(2)Effective rate at which taxes are imposed. The effective rate with respect to a net item of income shall be determined separately for each controlled foreign corporation in a chain of corporations through which a distribution is made. The effective rate at which taxes are imposed on a net item of income is -

(i) The United States dollar amount of foreign income taxes paid or accrued (or deemed paid or accrued) with respect to the net item of income, determined under paragraph (d)(3) of this section; divided by

(ii) The United States dollar amount of the net item of foreign base company income or insurance income, described in paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section, increased by the amount of foreign income taxes referred to in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section.

(3)Taxes paid or accrued with respect to an item of income -

(i)Income other than passive foreign personal holding company income. The amount of foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to a net item of income (other than an item of foreign personal holding company income that is passive) for purposes of section 954(b)(4) and this paragraph (d) is the United States dollar amount of foreign income taxes that would be deemed paid under section 960 with respect to that item if that item were included in the gross income of a United States shareholder under section 951(a)(1)(A) (determined, in the case of a United States shareholder that is an individual, as if an election under section 962 has been made, whether or not such election is actually made). For this purpose, in accordance with the regulations under section 960, the amounts that would be deemed paid under section 960 shall be determined separately with respect to each controlled foreign corporation and without regard to the limitation applicable under section 904(a). The amount of foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to a net item of income, determined in the manner provided in this paragraph (d), will not be affected by a subsequent reduction in foreign income taxes attributable to a distribution to shareholders of all or part of such income.

(ii)Passive foreign personal holding company income. The amount of income taxes paid or accrued with respect to a net item of foreign personal holding company income that is passive for purposes of section 954(b)(4) and this paragraph (d) is the United States dollar amount of foreign income taxes that would be deemed paid under section 960 and that would be taken into account for purposes applying the provisions of § 1.904-4(c) with respect to that net item of income.

(4)Special rules -

(i)Consistency rule. An election to exclude income from the computation of subpart F income for a taxable year must be made consistently with respect to all items of passive foreign personal holding company income eligible to be excluded for the taxable year. Thus, high-taxed passive foreign personal holding company income of a controlled foreign corporation must either be excluded in its entirety, or remain subject to subpart F in its entirety.

(ii)Coordination with earnings and profits limitation. If the amount of income included in subpart F income for the taxable year is reduced by the earnings and profits limitation of section 952(c)(1), the amount of income that is a net item of income, within the meaning of paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section, is determined after the application of the rules of section 952(c)(1).

(iii)Example. The following example illustrates the provisions of paragraph (d)(4)(ii) of this section. All of the taxes referred to in the following example are foreign income taxes. For simplicity, this example assumes that the amount of taxes that are taken into account as a deduction under section 954(b)(5) and the amount of the gross-up required under sections 960 and 78 are equal. Therefore, this example does not separately illustrate the deduction for taxes and gross-up.

Example.
During its 1995 taxable year, CFC, a controlled foreign corporation, earns royalty income, net of taxes, of $100 that is foreign personal holding company income. CFC has no expenses associated with this royalty income. CFC pays $50 of foreign income taxes with respect to the royalty income. For 1995, CFC has current earnings and profits of $50. CFC's subpart F income, as determined prior to the application of this paragraph (d), exceeds its current earnings and profits. Thus, under paragraph (d)(4)(ii) of this section, the amount of CFC's only net item of income, the royalty income, will be limited to $50. The remaining $50 will be subject to recharacterization in a subsequent taxable year under section 952(c)(2). Because the amount of foreign income taxes paid with respect to this net item of income is $50, the effective rate of tax on the item, for purposes of this paragraph (d), is 50 percent ($50 of taxes/$50 net item $50 of taxes). Accordingly, an election under paragraph (d)(5) of this section may be made to exclude the item of income from the computation of subpart F income.

(5)Procedure. An election made under the procedure provided by this paragraph (d)(5) is binding on all United States shareholders of the controlled foreign corporation and must be made -

(i) By the controlling United States shareholders, as defined in § 1.964-1(c)(5), by attaching a statement to such effect with their original or amended income tax returns, and including any additional information required by applicable administrative pronouncements; or

(ii) In such other manner as may be prescribed in applicable administrative pronouncements.

(6)Coordination of full inclusion and high tax exception rules. Notwithstanding paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section, full inclusion foreign base company income will be excluded from subpart F income if more than 90 percent of the adjusted gross foreign base company income and adjusted gross insurance company income of a controlled foreign corporation (determined without regard to the full inclusion test of paragraph (b)(1) of this section) is attributable to net amounts excluded from subpart F income pursuant to an election to have the high tax exception described in section 954(b)(4) and this paragraph (d) apply.

(7)Examples.

(i) The following examples illustrate the rules of this paragraph (d). All of the taxes referred to in the following examples are foreign income taxes. For simplicity, these examples assume that the amount of taxes that are taken into account as a deduction under section 954(b)(5) and the amount of the gross-up required under sections 960 and 78 are equal. Therefore, these examples do not separately illustrate the deduction for taxes and gross-up. Except as otherwise stated, these examples assume there are no earnings, deficits, or foreign income taxes in the post-1986 pools of earnings and profits or foreign income taxes.

Example 1.
(i)Items of income. During its 1995 taxable year, controlled foreign corporation CFC earns from outside its country of operation portfolio dividend income of $100 and interest income, net of taxes, of $100 (consisting of a gross payment of $150 reduced by a third-country withholding tax of $50). For purposes of illustration, assume that CFC incurs no expenses. None of the income is taxed in CFC's country of operation. The dividend income was not subject to third-country withholding taxes. Pursuant to the operation of section 904, the interest income is high withholding tax interest and the dividend income is passive income. Accordingly, pursuant to paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section, CFC has two net items of income -

(1) $100 of foreign personal holding company (FPHC)/passive income (the dividends); and

(2) $100 of FPHC/high withholding tax income (the interest).

(ii)Effective rates of tax. No foreign tax would be deemed paid under section 960 with respect to the net item of income described in paragraph (i)(1) of this Example 1. Therefore, the effective rate of foreign tax is 0, and the item may not be excluded from subpart F income under the rules of this paragraph (d). Foreign tax of $50 would be deemed paid under section 960 with respect to the net item of income described in paragraph (i)(2) of this Example 1. Therefore, the effective rate of foreign tax is 33 percent ($50 of creditable taxes paid, divided by $150, consisting of the net item of foreign base company income ($100) plus creditable taxes paid thereon ($50)). The highest rate of tax specified in section 11 for the 1995 taxable year is 35 percent. Accordingly, the net item of income described in paragraph (i)(2) of this Example 1 may be excluded from subpart F income if an election under paragraph (d)(5) of this section is made, since it is subject to foreign tax at an effective rate that is greater than 31.5 percent (90 percent of 35 percent). However, for purposes of section 904(d), it remains high withholding tax interest.

Example 2.
(i) The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that CFC's country of operation imposes a tax of $50 with respect to CFC's dividend income (and thus CFC earns portfolio dividend income, net of taxes, of only $50). The interest income is still high withholding tax interest. The dividend income is still passive income (without regard to the possible applicability of the high tax exception of section 904(d)(2)). Accordingly, CFC has two items of income for purposes of this paragraph (d) -

(1) $50 of FPHC/passive income (net of the $50 foreign tax); and

(2) $100 of FPHC/high withholding tax interest income.

(ii) Each item is taxed at an effective rate greater than 31.5 percent. The net item of income described in paragraph (i)(1) of this Example 2: foreign tax ($50) divided by sum ($100) of net item of income ($50) plus creditable tax thereon ($50) equals 50 percent. The net item of income described in paragraph (i)(2) of this Example 2: foreign tax ($50) divided by sum ($150) of income item ($100) plus creditable tax thereon ($50) equals 33 percent. Accordingly, an election may be made under paragraph (d)(5) of this section to exclude either or both of the net items of income described in paragraphs (i)(1) and (2) of this Example 2 from subpart F income. If no election is made the items would be included in the subpart F income of CFC.

Example 3.
(i) The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that the $100 of portfolio dividend income is subject to a third-country withholding tax of $50, and the $150 of interest income is from sources within CFC's country of operation, is subject to a $10 income tax therein, and is not subject to a withholding tax. Although the interest income and the dividend income are both passive income, under paragraph (c)(1)(iii)(B) of this section they constitute separate items of income pursuant to the application of the grouping rules of § 1.904-4(c). Accordingly, CFC has two net items of income for purposes of this paragraph (d) -

(1) $50 (net of $50 tax) of FPHC/non-country of operation/greater than 15 percent withholding tax income; and

(2) $140 (net of $10 tax) of FPHC/country of operation income.

(ii) The item described in paragraph (i)(1) of this Example 3 is taxed at an effective rate greater than 31.5 percent, but Item 2 is not. The net item of income described in paragraph (i)(1) of this Example 3: foreign tax ($50) divided by sum ($100) of net item of income ($50) plus creditable tax thereon ($50) equals 50 percent. The net item of income described in paragraph (i)(2) of this Example 3: foreign tax ($10) divided by sum ($150) of net item of income ($140) plus creditable tax thereon ($10) equals 6.67 percent. Therefore, an election may be made under paragraph (d)(5) of this section to exclude the net item of income described in paragraph (i)(1) of this Example 3 but not the net item of income described in paragraph (i)(2) of this Example 3 from subpart F income.

Example 4.
The facts are the same as in Example 3, except that the $150 of interest income is subject to an income tax of $50 in CFC's country of operation. Accordingly, CFC's items of income are the same as in Example 3, but both items are taxed at an effective rate greater than 31.5 percent. The net item of income described in paragraph (i)(1) of Example 3: foreign tax ($50) divided by sum ($100) of net item of income ($50) plus creditable tax thereon ($50) equals 50 percent. The net item of income described in paragraph (i)(2) of Example 3: foreign tax ($50) divided by sum ($150) of net item of income ($100) plus creditable tax thereon ($50) equals 33 percent. Pursuant to the consistency rule of paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section, an election made by CFC's controlling United States shareholders must exclude from subpart F income both items of FPHC income under the high tax exception of section 954(b)(4) and this paragraph (d). The election may not be made only with respect to one item.
Example 5.
The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that CFC earns $5 of portfolio dividend income and $150 of interest income. In addition, CFC earns $45 for performing consulting services within its country of operation for unrelated persons. CFC's gross foreign base company income for 1995 of $155 ($150 of gross interest income and $5 of portfolio dividend income) is greater than 70 percent of its gross income of $200. Therefore, under the full inclusion test of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section, CFC's adjusted gross foreign base company income is $200, and under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the $45 of consulting income is full inclusion foreign base company income. If CFC elects, under paragraph (d)(5) of this section, to exclude the interest income from subpart F income pursuant to the high tax exception, the $45 of full inclusion foreign base company income will be excluded from subpart F income under paragraph (d)(6) of this section because the $150 of gross interest income excluded under the high tax exception is more than 90 percent of CFC's adjusted gross foreign base company income of $155.

(ii) The following examples generally illustrate the application of paragraph (c) of this section and this paragraph (d). Example 1 illustrates the order of computations. Example 2 illustrates the computations required by sections 952 and 954 and this § 1.954-1 if the full inclusion test of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section is met and the income is not excluded from subpart F income under section 952(b). Computations in these examples involving the operation of section 952(c) are included for purposes of illustration only and do not provide substantive rules concerning the operation of that section. For simplicity, these examples assume that the amount of taxes that are taken into account as a deduction under section 954(b)(5) and the amount of the gross-up required under sections 960 and 78 are equal. Therefore, these examples do not separately illustrate the deduction for taxes and gross-up.

Example 1.
(i)Gross income. CFC, a controlled foreign corporation, has gross income of $1000 for the current taxable year. Of that $1000 of income, $100 is interest income that is included in the definition of foreign personal holding company income under section 954(c)(1)(A) and § 1.954-2(b)(1)(ii), is not income from a trade or service receivable described in section 864(d)(1) or (6), or portfolio interest described in section 881(c), and is not excluded from foreign personal holding company income under any provision of section 952(b) or section 954(c). Another $50 is foreign base company sales income under section 954(d). The remaining $850 of gross income is not included in the definition of foreign base company income or insurance income under sections 954 (c), (d), (e), (f) or (g) or 953, and is foreign source general limitation income described in section 904(d)(1)(I).

(ii)Expenses. For the current taxable year, CFC has expenses of $500. This amount includes $8 of interest paid to a related person that is allocable to foreign personal holding company income under section 904, and $2 of other expense that is directly related to foreign personal holding company income. Another $20 of expense is directly related to foreign base company sales. The remaining $470 of expenses is allocable to general limitation income that is not foreign base company income or insurance income.

(iii)Earnings and losses. CFC has earnings and profits for the current taxable year of $500. In the prior taxable year, CFC had losses with respect to income other than gross foreign base company income or gross insurance income. By reason of the limitation provided under section 952(c)(1)(A), those losses reduced the subpart F income (consisting entirely of foreign source general limitation income) of CFC by $600 for the prior taxable year.

(iv)Taxes. Foreign income tax of $30 is considered imposed on the interest income under the rules of section 954(b)(4), this paragraph (d), and § 1.904-6. Foreign income tax of $14 is considered imposed on the foreign base company sales income under the rules of section 954(b)(4), paragraph (d) of this section, and § 1.904-6. Foreign income tax of $177 is considered imposed on the remaining foreign source general limitation income under the rules of section 954(b)(4), this paragraph (d), and § 1.904-6. For the taxable year of CFC, the maximum United States rate of taxation under section 11 is 35 percent.

(v)Conclusion. Based on these facts, if CFC elects to exclude all items of income subject to a high foreign tax under section 954(b)(4) and this paragraph (d), it will have $500 of subpart F income as defined in section 952(a) (consisting entirely of foreign source general limitation income) determined as follows:

Step 1 - Determine gross income:
(1) Gross income $1000
Step 2 - Determine gross foreign base company income and gross insurance income:
(2) Interest income included in gross foreign personal holding company income under section 954(c) 100
(3) Gross foreign base company sales income under section 954(d) 50
(4) Total gross foreign base company income and gross insurance income as defined in sections 954 (c), (d), (e), (f) and (g) and 953 (line (2) plus line (3)) 150
Step 3 - Compute adjusted gross foreign base company income and adjusted gross insurance income:
(5) Five percent of gross income (.05 × line (1)) 50
(6) Seventy percent of gross income (.70 × line (1)) 700
(7) Adjusted gross foreign base company income and adjusted gross insurance income after the application of the de minimis test of paragraph (b) (line (4), or zero if line (4) is less than the lesser of line (5) or $1,000,000) (if the amount on this line 7 is zero, proceed to Step 8) 150
(8) Adjusted gross foreign base company income and adjusted gross insurance income after the application of the full inclusion test of paragraph (b) (line (4), or line (1) if line (4) is greater than line (6)) 150
Step 4 - Compute net foreign base company income:
(9) Expenses directly related to adjusted gross foreign base company sales income 20
(10) Expenses (other than related person interest expense) directly related to adjusted gross foreign personal holding company income 2
(11) Related person interest expense allocable to adjusted gross foreign personal holding company income under section 904 8
(12) Net foreign personal holding company income after allocating deductions under section 954(b)(5) and paragraph (c) of this section (line (2) reduced by lines (10) and (11)) 90
(13) Net foreign base company sales income after allocating deductions under section 954(b)(5) and paragraph (c) of this section (line (3) reduced by line (9)) 30
(14) Total net foreign base company income after allocating deductions under section 954(b)(5) and paragraph (c) of this section (line (12) plus line (13)) 120
Step 5 - Compute net insurance income:
(15) Net insurance income under section 953 0
Step 6 - Compute adjusted net foreign base company income:
(16) Foreign income tax imposed on net foreign personal holding company income (as determined under section 954(b)(4) and this paragraph (d)) 30
(17) Foreign income tax imposed on net foreign base company sales income (as determined under section 954(b)(4) and this paragraph (d)) 14
(18) Ninety percent of the maximum United States corporate tax rate 31.5%
(19) Effective rate of foreign income tax imposed on net foreign personal holding company income ($90 of interest) under section 954(b)(4) and this paragraph (d) (line (16) divided by line (12)) 33%
(20) Effective rate of foreign income tax imposed on $30 of net foreign base company sales income under section 954(b)(4) and this paragraph (d) (line (17) divided by line (13)) 47%
(21) Net foreign personal holding company income subject to a high foreign tax under section 954(b)(4) and this paragraph (d) (zero, or line (12) if line (19) is greater than line (18)) 90
(22) Net foreign base company sales income subject to a high foreign tax under section 954(b)(4) and this paragraph (d) (zero, or line (13) if line (20) is greater than line (18)) 30
(23) Adjusted net foreign base company income after applying section 954(b)(4) and this paragraph (d) (line (14), reduced by the sum of line (21) and line (22)) 0
Step 7 - Compute adjusted net insurance income:
(24) Adjusted net insurance income 0
Step 8 - Additions to or reduction of adjusted net foreign base company income by reason of section 952(c):
(25) Earnings and profits for the current year 500
(26) Amount subject to being recharacterized as subpart F income under section 952(c)(2) (excess of line (25) over the sum of lines (23) and (24)); if there is a deficit, then the limitation of section 952(c)(1) may apply for the current year 500
(27) Amount of reduction in subpart F income for prior taxable years by reason of the limitation of section 952(c)(1) 600
(28) Subpart F income as defined in section 952(a), assuming section 952(a)(3), (4), and (5) do not apply (the sum of line (23), line (24), and the lesser of line (26) or line (27)) 500
(29) Amount of prior year's deficit to be recharacterized as subpart F income in later years under section 952(c) (excess of line (27) over line (26)) 100
Example 2.
(i)Gross income. CFC, a controlled foreign corporation, has gross income of $1000 for the current taxable year. Of that $1000 of income, $720 is interest income that is included in the definition of foreign personal holding company income under section 954(c)(1)(A) and § 1.954-2(b)(1)(ii), is not income from trade or service receivables described in section 864(d)(1) or (6), or portfolio interest described in section 881(c), and is not excluded from foreign personal holding company income under any provision of section 954(c) and § 1.954-2 or section 952(b). The remaining $280 is services income that is not included in the definition of foreign base company income or insurance income under sections 954 (c), (d), (e), (f), or (g) or 953, and is foreign source general limitation income for purposes of section 904(d)(1)(I).

(ii)Expenses. For the current taxable year, CFC has expenses of $650. This amount includes $350 of interest paid to related persons that is allocable to foreign personal holding company income under section 904, and $50 of other expense that is directly related to foreign personal holding company income. The remaining $250 of expenses is allocable to services income other than foreign base company income or insurance income.

(iii)Earnings and losses. CFC has earnings and profits for the current taxable year of $350. In the prior taxable year, CFC had losses with respect to income other than foreign base company income or insurance income. By reason of the limitation provided under section 952(c)(1)(A), those losses reduced the subpart F income of CFC (consisting entirely of foreign source general limitation income) by $600 for the prior taxable year.

(iv)Taxes. Foreign income tax of $120 is considered imposed on the $720 of interest income under the rules of section 954(b)(4), paragraph (d) of this section, and § 1.904-6. Foreign income tax of $2 is considered imposed on the services income under the rules of section 954(b)(4), paragraph (d) of this section, and § 1.904-6. For the taxable year of CFC, the maximum United States rate of taxation under section 11 is 35 percent.

(v)Conclusion. Based on these facts, if CFC elects to exclude all items of income subject to a high foreign tax under section 954(b)(4) and this paragraph (d), it will have $350 of subpart F income as defined in section 952(a), determined as follows.

Step 1 - Determine gross income:
(1) Gross income $1000
Step 2 - Determine gross foreign base company income and gross insurance income:
(2) Gross foreign base company income and gross insurance income as defined in sections 954 (c), (d), (e), (f) and (g) and 953 (interest income) 720
Step 3 - Compute adjusted gross foreign base company income and adjusted gross insurance income:
(3) Seventy percent of gross income (.70 × line (1)) 700
(4) Adjusted gross foreign base company income and adjusted gross insurance income after the application of the full inclusion rule of this paragraph (b)(1) (line (2), or line (1) if line (2) is greater than line (3)) 1000
(5) Full inclusion foreign base company income under paragraph (b)(1)(ii) (line (4) minus line (2)) 280
Step 4 - Compute net foreign base company income:
(6) Expenses (other than related person interest expense) directly related to adjusted gross foreign personal holding company income 50
(7) Related person interest expense allocable to adjusted gross foreign personal holding company income under section 904 350
(8) Deductions allocable to full inclusion foreign base company income under section 954(b)(5) and paragraph (c) of this section 250
(9) Net foreign personal holding company income after allocating deductions under section 954(b)(5) and paragraph (c) of this section (line (2) reduced by line (6) and line (7)) 320
(10) Full inclusion foreign base company income after allocating deductions under section 954(b)(5) and paragraph (c) of this section (line (5) reduced by line (8)) 30
(11) Total net foreign base company income after allocating deductions under section 954(b)(5) and paragraph (c) of this section (line (9) plus line (10)) 350
Step 5 - Compute net insurance income:
(12) Net insurance income under section 953 0
Step 6 - Compute adjusted net foreign base company income:
(13) Foreign income tax imposed on net foreign personal holding company income (interest) 120
(14) Foreign income tax imposed on net full inclusion foreign base company income 2
(15) Ninety percent of the maximum United States corporate tax rate 31.5%
(16) Effective rate of foreign income tax imposed on $320 of net foreign personal holding company income under section 954(b)(4) and this paragraph (d) (line (13) divided by line (9)) 38%
(17) Effective rate of foreign income tax imposed on $30 of net full inclusion foreign base company income under section 954(b)(4) and this paragraph (d) (line (14) divided by line (10)) 7%
(18) Net foreign personal holding company income subject to a high foreign tax under section 954(b)(4) and this paragraph (d) (zero, or line (9) if line (16) is greater than line (15)) 320
(19) Net full inclusion foreign base company income subject to a high foreign tax under section 954(b)(4) and this paragraph (d) (zero, or line (10) if line (17) is greater than line (15)) 0
(20) Adjusted net foreign base company income after applying section 954(b)(4) and this paragraph (d) (line (11) reduced by the sum of line (18) and line (19)) 30
Step 7 - Compute adjusted net insurance income:
(21) Adjusted net insurance income 0
Step 8 - Reduction of adjusted net foreign base company income or adjusted net insurance income by reason of paragraph (d)(6) of this section:
(22) Adjusted gross foreign base company income and adjusted gross insurance income (determined without regard to the full inclusion test of paragraph (b)(1) of this section) (line (4) reduced by line (5)) 720
(23) Ninety percent of adjusted gross foreign base company income and adjusted gross insurance income (determined without regard to the full inclusion test of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section) (90% of the amount on line (22)) 648
(24) Net foreign base company income and net insurance income excluded from subpart F income under section 954(b)(4), increased by the amount of expenses that reduced this income under section 954(b)(5) and paragraph (c) of this section (line (18) increased by the sum of line (6) and line (7)) 720
(25) Adjusted net full inclusion foreign base company income excluded from subpart F income under paragraph (d)(6) of this section (zero, or line (10) reduced by line (19) if line (24) is greater than line (23)) 30
(26) Adjusted net foreign base company income after application of paragraph (d)(6) of this section (line (20) reduced by line (25)) 0
Step 9 - Additions to or reduction of subpart F income by reason of section 952(c):
(27) Earnings and profits for the current year 350
(28) Amount subject to being recharacterized as subpart F income under section 952(c)(2) (excess of line (27) over the sum of line (21) and line (26)); if there is a deficit, then the limitation of 952(c)(1) may apply for the current year 350
(29) Amount of reduction in subpart F income for prior taxable years by reason of the limitation of section 952(c)(1) 600
(30) Subpart F income as defined in section 952(a), assuming section 952(a)(3), (4), and (5) do not apply (the sum of line (21) and line (26) plus the lesser of line (28) or line (29)) 350
(31) Amount of prior years' deficit remaining to be recharacterized as subpart F income in later years under section 952(c) (excess of line (29) over line (28)) 250

(e)Character of income -

(1)Substance of the transaction. For purposes of section 954, income shall be characterized in accordance with the substance of the transaction, and not in accordance with the designation applied by the parties to the transaction. For example, an amount that is designated as rent by the taxpayer but actually constitutes income from the sale of property, royalties, or income from services shall not be characterized as rent but shall be characterized as income from the sale of property, royalties or income from services, as the case may be. Local law shall not be controlling in characterizing income.

(2)Separable character. To the extent the definitional provisions of section 953 or 954 describe the income or gain derived from a transaction, or any portion or portions thereof, that income or gain, or portion or portions thereof, is so characterized for purposes of subpart F. Thus, a single transaction may give rise to income in more than one category of foreign base company income described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. For example, if a controlled foreign corporation, in its business of purchasing personal property and selling it to related persons outside its country of incorporation, also performs services outside its country of incorporation with respect to the property it sells, the sales income will be treated as foreign base company sales income and the services income will be treated as foreign base company services income for purposes of these rules.

(3)Predominant character. The portion of income or gain derived from a transaction that is included in the computation of foreign personal holding company income is always separately determinable and thus must always be segregated from other income and separately classified under paragraph (e)(2) of this section. However, the portion of income or gain derived from a transaction that would meet a particular definitional provision under section 954 or 953 (other than the definition of foreign personal holding company income) in unusual circumstances may not be separately determinable. If such portion is not separately determinable, it must be classified in accordance with the predominant character of the transaction. For example, if a controlled foreign corporation engineers, fabricates, and installs a fixed offshore drilling platform as part of an integrated transaction, and the portion of income that relates to services is not accounted for separately from the portion that relates to sales, and is otherwise not separately determinable, then the classification of income from the transaction shall be made in accordance with the predominant character of the arrangement.

(4)Coordination of categories of gross foreign base company income or gross insurance income -

(i)In general. The computations of gross foreign base company income and gross insurance income are limited by the following rules:

(A) If income is foreign base company shipping income, pursuant to section 954(f), it shall not be considered insurance income or income in any other category of foreign base company income.

(B) If income is foreign base company oil related income, pursuant to section 954(g), it shall not be considered insurance income or income in any other category of foreign base company income, except as provided in paragraph (e)(4)(i)(A) of this section.

(C) If income is insurance income, pursuant to section 953, it shall not be considered income in any category of foreign base company income except as provided in paragraph (e)(4)(i)(A) or (B) of this section.

(D) If income is foreign personal holding company income, pursuant to section 954(c), it shall not be considered income in any other category of foreign base company income, other than as provided in paragraph (e)(4)(i)(A), (B) or (C) of this section.

(ii)Income excluded from other categories of gross foreign base company income. Income shall not be excluded from a category of gross foreign base company income or gross insurance income under this paragraph (e)(4) by reason of being included in another category of gross foreign base company income or gross insurance income, if the income is excluded from that other category by a more specific provision of section 953 or 954. For example, income derived from a commodity transaction that is excluded from foreign personal holding company income under § 1.954-2(f) as income from a qualified active sale may be included in gross foreign base company income if it also meets the definition of foreign base company sales income. See § 1.954-2(a)(2) for the coordination of overlapping categories within the definition of foreign personal holding company income.

(f)Definition of related person -

(1)Persons related to controlled foreign corporation. Unless otherwise provided, for purposes of section 954 and §§ 1.954-1 through 1.954-8 inclusive, the following persons are considered under section 954(d)(3) to be related persons with respect to a controlled foreign corporation:

(i)Individuals. An individual, whether or not a citizen or resident of the United States, who controls the controlled foreign corporation.

(ii)Other persons. A foreign or domestic corporation, partnership, trust or estate that controls or is controlled by the controlled foreign corporation, or is controlled by the same person or persons that control the controlled foreign corporation.

(2)Control -

(i)Corporations. With respect to a corporation, control means the ownership, directly or indirectly, of stock possessing more than 50 percent of the total voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or of the total value of the stock of the corporation.

(ii)Partnerships. With respect to a partnership, control means the ownership, directly or indirectly, of more than 50 percent (by value) of the capital or profits interest in the partnership.

(iii)Trusts and estates. With respect to a trust or estate, control means the ownership, directly or indirectly, of more than 50 percent (by value) of the beneficial interest in the trust or estate.

(iv)Direct or indirect ownership. For purposes of this paragraph (f), to determine direct or indirect ownership, the principles of section 958 shall be applied without regard to whether a corporation, partnership, trust or estate is foreign or domestic or whether or not an individual is a citizen or resident of the United States.

(g)Distributive share of partnership income -

(1)Application of related person and country of organization tests. Unless otherwise provided, to determine the extent to which a controlled foreign corporation's distributive share of any item of gross income of a partnership would have been subpart F income if received by it directly, under § 1.952-1(g), if a provision of subpart F requires a determination of whether an entity is a related person, within the meaning of section 954(d)(3), or whether an activity occurred within or outside the country under the laws of which the controlled foreign corporation is created or organized, this determination shall be made by reference to such controlled foreign corporation and not by reference to the partnership.

(2)Application of related person test for sales and purchase transactions between a partnership and its controlled foreign corporation partner. For purposes of determining whether a controlled foreign corporation's distributive share of any item of gross income of a partnership is foreign base company sales income under section 954(d)(1) when the item of income is derived from the sale by the partnership of personal property purchased by the partnership from (or sold by the partnership on behalf of) the controlled foreign corporation; or the sale by the partnership of personal property to (or the purchase of personal property by the partnership on behalf of) the controlled foreign corporation (CFC-partnership transaction), the CFC-partnership transaction will be treated as a transaction with an entity that is a related person, within the meaning of section 954(d)(3), under paragraph (g)(1) of this section, if -

(i) The controlled foreign corporation purchased such personal property from (or sold it to the partnership on behalf of), or sells such personal property to (or purchases it from the partnership on behalf of), a related person with respect to the controlled foreign corporation (other than the partnership), within the meaning of section 954(d)(3); or

(ii) The branch rule of section 954(d)(2) applies to treat as foreign base company sales income the income of the controlled foreign corporation from selling to the partnership (or a third party) personal property that the controlled foreign corporation has manufactured, in the case where the partnership purchases personal property from (or sells personal property on behalf of) the controlled foreign corporation.

(3)Examples. The application of this paragraph (g) is illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
CFC, a controlled foreign corporation organized in Country A, is an 80-percent partner in Partnership, a partnership organized in Country A. All of the stock of CFC is owned by USP, a U.S. corporation. Partnership earns commission income from purchasing Product O on behalf of USP, from unrelated manufacturers in Country B, for sale in the United States. To determine whether CFC's distributive share of Partnership's commission income is foreign base company sales income under section 954(d), CFC is treated as if it purchased Product O on behalf of USP. Under section 954(d)(3), USP is a related person with respect to CFC. Thus, with respect to CFC, the sales income is deemed to be derived from the purchase of personal property on behalf of a related person. Because the property purchased is both manufactured and sold for use outside of Country A, CFC's country of organization, CFC's distributive share of the sales income is foreign base company sales income.
Example 2.
(i) CFC1, a controlled foreign corporation organized in Country A, is an 80-percent partner in Partnership, a partnership organized in Country B. CFC2, a controlled foreign corporation organized in Country B, owns the remaining 20 percent interest in Partnership. CFC1 and CFC2 are owned by a common U.S. parent, USP. CFC2 manufactures Product A in Country B. Partnership earns sales income from purchasing Product A from CFC2 and selling it to third parties located in Country B that are not related persons with respect to CFC1 or CFC2. To determine whether CFC1's distributive share of Partnership's sales income is foreign base company sales income under section 954(d), CFC1 is treated as if it purchased Product A from CFC2 and sold it to third parties in Country B. Under section 954(d)(3), CFC2 is a related person with respect to CFC1. Thus, with respect to CFC1, the sales income is deemed to be derived from the purchase of personal property from a related person. Because the property purchased is both manufactured and sold for use outside of Country A, CFC1's country of organization, CFC1's distributive share of the sales income is foreign base company sales income.

(ii) Because Product A is both manufactured and sold for use within CFC2's country of organization, CFC2's distributive share of Partnership's sales income is not foreign base company sales income.

Example 3.
CFC, a controlled foreign corporation organized in Country A, is an 80 percent partner in MJK Partnership, a Country B partnership. CFC purchased goods from J Corp, a Country C corporation that is a related person with respect to CFC. CFC sold the goods to MJK Partnership. In turn, MJK Partnership sold the goods to P Corp, a Country D corporation that is unrelated to CFC. P Corp sold the goods to unrelated customers in Country D. The goods were manufactured in Country C by persons unrelated to J Corp . CFC's distributive share of the income of MJK Partnership from the sale of goods to P Corp will be treated as income from the sale of goods purchased from a related person for purposes of section 954(d)(1) because CFC purchased the goods from J Corp, a related person. Because the goods were both manufactured and sold for use outside of Country A, CFC's distributive share of the income attributable to the sale of the goods is foreign base company sales income. Further, CFC's income from the sale of the goods to MJK Partnership will also be foreign base company sales income.
Example 4.
The facts are the same as Example 3, except that MJK Partnership purchased the goods from P Corp and sold those goods to CFC. CFC sold the goods to J Corp. J Corp sold the goods to unrelated customers in Country C. CFC's distributive share of the income of MJK Partnership from the sale of the goods by the partnership to itself will be treated as income from the sale of goods to a related person, for purposes of section 954(d)(1). Because the goods were both manufactured and sold for use outside of Country A, CFC's distributive share of income attributable to the sale of the goods is foreign base company sales income. Further, CFC's income from the sale of the goods to J Corp is also foreign base company sales income.

(4)Effective date. This paragraph (g) applies to taxable years of a controlled foreign corporation beginning on or after July 23, 2002.

[T.D. 8618, 60 FR 46509, Sept. 7, 1995; 60 FR 62024, 62025, Dec. 4, 1995, as amended by T.D. 8704, 62 FR 20, Jan. 2, 1997; T.D. 8767, 63 FR 14615, Mar. 26, 1998; T.D. 8827, 64 FR 37677, July 13, 1999; T.D. 9008, 67 FR 48023, July 23, 2002]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 16-Jun-2017 03:58

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR Part 1 after this date.

  • 2017-06-30; vol. 82 # 125 - Friday, June 30, 2017
    1. 82 FR 29719 - Regulations Regarding Withholding of Tax on Certain U.S. Source Income Paid to Foreign Persons, Information Reporting and Backup Withholding on Payments Made to Certain U.S. Persons, and Portfolio Interest Treatment; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendment.
        Effective Date: These corrections are effective June 30, 2017. Applicability Date: The corrections to §§ 1.1441-0; 1.1441-1(b)(7)(ii)(B), (e)(3)(iv)(B) and (C), (e)(4)(ii)(B)( 11 ), (e)(4)(ix)(D), (e)(5)(ii) through (e)(5)(ii)(B), (e)(5)(ii)(D) through (e)(5)(v)(B)( 3 ), (e)(5)(v)(B)( 5 ) through (e)(5)(v)(D), and (f) through (f)(4); 1.1441-1T; 1.1441-3(d)(1); 1.1441-4; 1.6045-1(m)(2)(ii) and (n)(12)(ii); and 1.6049-5(c)(1) through (c)(4) are applicable on January 6, 2017.
      26 CFR Part 1

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