26 CFR § 1.954-1 - Foreign base company income.

§ 1.954-1 Foreign base company income.

(a) In general -

(1) Purpose and scope. Section 954 and §§ 1.954-1 and 1.954-2 provide rules for computing the foreign base company income of a controlled foreign corporation. Foreign base company income is included in the subpart F income of a controlled foreign corporation under the rules of section 952. Subpart F income is included in the gross income of a United States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation under the rules of section 951 and thus is subject to current taxation under section 1, 11 or 55 of the Internal Revenue Code. The determination of whether a foreign corporation is a controlled foreign corporation, the subpart F income of which is included currently in the gross income of its United States shareholders, is made under the rules of section 957.

(2) Gross foreign base company income. The gross foreign base company income of a controlled foreign corporation consists of the following categories of gross income (determined after the application of section 952(b)) -

(i) Foreign personal holding company income, as defined in section 954(c);

(ii) Foreign base company sales income, as defined in section 954(d);

(iii) Foreign base company services income, as defined in section 954(e);

(iv) Foreign base company shipping income, as defined in section 954(f); and

(v) Foreign base company oil related income, as defined in section 954(g).

(3) Adjusted gross foreign base company income. The term adjusted gross foreign base company income means the gross foreign base company income of a controlled foreign corporation as adjusted by the de minimis and full inclusion rules of paragraph (b) of this section.

(4) Net foreign base company income. The term net foreign base company income means the adjusted gross foreign base company income of a controlled foreign corporation reduced so as to take account of deductions (including taxes) properly allocable or apportionable to such income under the rules of section 954(b)(5) and paragraph (c) of this section.

(5) Adjusted net foreign base company income. The term adjusted net foreign base company income means the net foreign base company income of a controlled foreign corporation reduced, first, by any items of net foreign base company income excluded from subpart F income pursuant to section 952(c) and, second, by any items excluded from subpart F income pursuant to the high tax exception of section 954(b). See paragraph (d)(4)(ii) of this section. The term foreign base company income as used in the Internal Revenue Code and elsewhere in the Income Tax Regulations means adjusted net foreign base company income, unless otherwise provided.

(6) Insurance income. The term gross insurance income includes all gross income taken into account in determining insurance income under section 953. The term adjusted gross insurance income means gross insurance income as adjusted by the de minimis and full inclusion rules of paragraph (b) of this section. The term net insurance income means adjusted gross insurance income reduced under section 953 so as to take into account deductions (including taxes) properly allocable or apportionable to such income. The term adjusted net insurance income means net insurance income reduced by any items of net insurance income that are excluded from subpart F income pursuant to section 952(b) or pursuant to the high tax exception of section 954(b). The term insurance income as used in subpart F of the Internal Revenue Code and in the regulations under that subpart means adjusted net insurance income, unless otherwise provided.

(7) Additional items of adjusted net foreign base company income or adjusted net insurance income by reason of section 952(c). Earnings and profits of the controlled foreign corporation that are recharacterized as foreign base company income or insurance income under section 952(c) are items of adjusted net foreign base company income or adjusted net insurance income, respectively. Amounts subject to recharacterization under section 952(c) are determined after adjusted net foreign base company income and adjusted net insurance income are otherwise determined under subpart F and are not again subject to any exceptions or special rules that would affect the amount of subpart F income. Thus, for example, items of gross foreign base company income or gross insurance income that are excluded from adjusted gross foreign base company income or adjusted gross insurance income because the de minimis test is met are subject to recharacterization under section 952(c). Further, the de minimis and full inclusion tests of paragraph (b) of this section, and the high tax exception of paragraph (d) of this section, for example, do not apply to such amounts.

(b) Computation of adjusted gross foreign base company income and adjusted gross insurance income -

(1) De minimis and full inclusion tests -

(i) De minimis test - (A) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(1)(i)(C) of this section, adjusted gross foreign base company income and adjusted gross insurance income are equal to zero if the sum of the gross foreign base company income and the gross insurance income of a controlled foreign corporation is less than the lesser of -

(1) 5 percent of gross income; or

(2) $1,000,000.

(B) Currency translation. Controlled foreign corporations having a functional currency other than the United States dollar shall translate the $1,000,000 threshold using the exchange rate provided under section 989(b)(3) for amounts included in income under section 951(a).

(C) Coordination with sections 864(d) and 881(c). Adjusted gross foreign base company income or adjusted gross insurance income of a controlled foreign corporation always includes income from trade or service receivables described in section 864(d)(1) or (6), and portfolio interest described in section 881(c), even if the de minimis test of this paragraph (b)(1)(i) is otherwise satisfied.

(ii) Seventy percent full inclusion test. Except as provided in section 953, adjusted gross foreign base company income consists of all gross income of the controlled foreign corporation other than gross insurance income and amounts described in section 952(b), and adjusted gross insurance income consists of all gross insurance income other than amounts described in section 952(b), if the sum of the gross foreign base company income and the gross insurance income for the taxable year exceeds 70 percent of gross income. See paragraph (d)(6) of this section, under which certain items of full inclusion foreign base company income may nevertheless be excluded from subpart F income.

(2) Character of gross income included in adjusted gross foreign base company income. The gross income included in the adjusted gross foreign base company income of a controlled foreign corporation generally retains its character as foreign personal holding company income, foreign base company sales income, foreign base company services income, foreign base company shipping income, or foreign base company oil related income. However, gross income included in adjusted gross foreign base company income because the full inclusion test of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section is met is termed full inclusion foreign base company income, and constitutes a separate category of adjusted gross foreign base company income for purposes of allocating and apportioning deductions under paragraph (c) of this section.

(3) Coordination with section 952(c). Income that is included in subpart F income because the full inclusion test of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section is met does not reduce amounts that, under section 952(c), are subject to recharacterization.

(4) Anti-abuse rule -

(i) In general. For purposes of applying the de minimis test of paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, the income of two or more controlled foreign corporations shall be aggregated and treated as the income of a single corporation if a principal purpose for separately organizing, acquiring, or maintaining such multiple corporations is to prevent income from being treated as foreign base company income or insurance income under the de minimis test. A purpose may be a principal purpose even though it is outweighed by other purposes (taken together or separately).

(ii) Presumption. Two or more controlled foreign corporations are presumed to have been organized, acquired or maintained to prevent income from being treated as foreign base company income or insurance income under the de minimis test of paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section if the corporations are related persons, as defined in paragraph (b)(4)(iii) of this section, and the corporations are described in paragraph (b)(4)(ii)(A), (B), or (C) of this section. This presumption may be rebutted by proof to the contrary.

(A) The activities carried on by the controlled foreign corporations, or the assets used in those activities, are substantially the same activities that were previously carried on, or assets that were previously held, by a single controlled foreign corporation. Further, the United States shareholders of the controlled foreign corporations or related persons (as determined under paragraph (b)(4)(iii) of this section) are substantially the same as the United States shareholders of the one controlled foreign corporation in a prior taxable year. A presumption made in connection with the requirements of this paragraph (b)(4)(ii)(A) may be rebutted by proof that the activities carried on by each controlled foreign corporation would constitute a separate branch under the principles of § 1.367(a)-6T(g)(2) if carried on directly by a United States person.

(B) The controlled foreign corporations carry on a business, financial operation, or venture as partners directly or indirectly in a partnership (as defined in section 7701(a)(2) and § 301.7701-3 of this chapter) that is a related person (as defined in paragraph (b)(4)(iii) of this section) with respect to each such controlled foreign corporation.

(C) The activities carried on by the controlled foreign corporations would constitute a single branch operation under § 1.367(a)-6T(g)(2) if carried on directly by a United States person.

(iii) Related persons. For purposes of this paragraph (b), two or more persons are related persons if they are in a relationship described in section 267(b). In determining for purposes of this paragraph (b) whether two or more corporations are members of the same controlled group under section 267(b)(3), a person is considered to own stock owned directly by such person, stock owned with the application of section 1563(e)(1), and stock owned with the application of section 267(c). In determining for purposes of this paragraph (b) whether a corporation is related to a partnership under section 267(b)(10), a person is considered to own the partnership interest owned directly by such person and the partnership interest owned with the application of section 267(e)(3).

(iv) Example. The following example illustrates the application of this paragraph (b)(4).

Example.
(i)
(1) USP is the sole United States shareholder of three controlled foreign corporations: CFC1, CFC2 and CFC3. The three controlled foreign corporations all have the same taxable year. The three controlled foreign corporations are partners in FP, a foreign entity classified as a partnership under section 7701(a)(2) and § 301.7701-3 of the regulations. For their current taxable years, each of the controlled foreign corporations derives all of its income other than foreign base company income from activities conducted through FP, and its foreign base company income from activities conducted both jointly through FP and separately without FP. Based on the facts in the table below, the foreign base company income derived by each controlled foreign corporation for its current taxable year, including income derived from FP, is less than five percent of the gross income of each controlled foreign corporation and is less than $1,000,000:
CFC1 CFC2 CFC3
Gross income $4,000,000 $8,000,000 $12,000,000
Five percent of gross income 200,000 400,000 600,000
Foreign base company income 199,000 398,000 597,000
(2) Thus, without the application of the anti-abuse rule of this paragraph (b)(4), each controlled foreign corporation would be treated as having no foreign base company income after the application of the de minimis test of section 954(b)(3)(A) and paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section.

(ii) However, under these facts, the requirements of paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section are met unless the presumption of paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section is successfully rebutted. The sum of the foreign base company income of the controlled foreign corporations is $1,194,000. Thus, the amount of gross foreign base company income of each controlled foreign corporation will not be reduced by reason of the de minimis rule of section 954(b)(3)(A) and this paragraph (b).

(c) Computation of net foreign base company income -

(1) General rule. The net foreign base company income of a controlled foreign corporation (as defined in paragraph (a)(4) of this section) is computed under the rules of this paragraph (c)(1). The principles of § 1.904-5(k) shall apply where payments are made between controlled foreign corporations that are related persons (within the meaning of section 954(d)(3)). Consistent with these principles, only payments described in § 1.954-2(b)(4)(ii)(B)(2) may be offset as provided in § 1.904-5(k)(2).

(i) Deductions against gross foreign base company income. The net foreign base company income of a controlled foreign corporation is computed first by taking into account deductions in the following manner:

(A) First, the gross amount of each item of income described in paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section is determined.

(B) Second, any expenses definitely related to less than all gross income as a class shall be allocated and apportioned under the principles of sections 861, 864 and 904(d) to the gross income described in paragraph (c)(1)(i)(A) of this section.

(C) Third, foreign personal holding company income that is passive within the meaning of section 904 (determined before the application of the high-taxed income rule of § 1.904-4(c)) is reduced by related person interest expense allocable to passive income under § 1.904-5(c)(2); such interest must be further allocated and apportioned to items described in paragraph (c)(1)(iii)(B) of this section.

(D) Fourth, the amount of each item of income described in paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section is reduced by other expenses allocable and apportionable to such income under the principles of sections 861, 864 and 904(d).

(ii) Losses reduce subpart F income by operation of earnings and profits limitation. Except as otherwise provided in § 1.954-2(g)(4), if after applying the rules of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, the amount remaining in any category of foreign base company income or foreign personal holding company income is less than zero, the loss in that category may not reduce any other category of foreign base company income or foreign personal holding company income except by operation of the earnings and profits limitation of section 952(c)(1).

(iii) Items of income -

(A) Income other than passive foreign personal holding company income. A single item of income (other than foreign personal holding company income that is passive) is the aggregate amount from all transactions that falls within a single separate category (as defined in § 1.904-5(a)(4)(v)), and either -

(1) Falls within a single category of foreign personal holding company income as -

(i) Dividends, interest, rents, royalties and annuities;

(ii) Gain from certain property transactions;

(iii) Gain from commodities transactions;

(iv) Foreign currency gain; or

(v) Income equivalent to interest; or

(2) Falls within a single category of foreign base company income, other than foreign personal holding company income, as -

(i) Foreign base company sales income;

(ii) Foreign base company services income; or

(iii) - (iv) [Reserved]

(v) Full inclusion foreign base company income.

(3) For purposes of paragraph (c)(1)(iii)(A) of this section, the aggregate amount from all transactions that falls within a single separate category (as defined in § 1.904-5(a)(4)(v)) and is described in paragraph (c)(1)(iii)(A)(1)(i) of this section is a single item of income. Similarly, the aggregate amount from all transactions that falls within a single separate category (as defined in § 1.904-5(a)(4)(v)) and is described in each one of paragraphs (c)(1)(iii)(A)(1)(ii) through (c)(1)(iii)(A)(1)(v) of this section is in each case a separate single item of income. The same principles apply for transactions described in each one of paragraphs (c)(1)(iii)(A)(2)(i) through (v) of this section.

(B) Passive foreign personal holding company income. A single item of foreign personal holding company income that is passive is an amount of income that falls within a single group of passive income under the grouping rules of § 1.904-4(c)(3), (4) and (5) and a single category of foreign personal holding company income described in paragraphs (c)(1)(iii)(A)(1) (i) through (v).

(iv) Treatment of deductions or loss attributable to disqualified basis. For purposes of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section (and in the case of insurance income, paragraph (a)(6) of this section), in determining the amount of a net item of foreign base company income or insurance income, deductions or loss described in § 1.951A-2(c)(5) or (c)(6) are not allocated and apportioned to gross foreign base company income or gross insurance income.

(2) Computation of net foreign base company income derived from same country insurance income. Deductions relating to foreign base company income attributable to the issuing (or reinsuring) of any insurance or annuity contract in connection with risks located in the country under the laws of which the controlled foreign corporation is created or organized shall be allocated and apportioned in accordance with the rules set forth in section 953.

(d) Computation of adjusted net foreign base company income or adjusted net insurance income -

(1) Application of high tax exception. Adjusted net foreign base company income (or adjusted net insurance income) equals the net foreign base company income (or net insurance income) of a controlled foreign corporation, reduced by any net item of such income that qualifies for the high tax exception provided by section 954(b)(4) and this paragraph (d). Any item of income that is portfolio interest, as described in section 881(c), does not qualify for the high tax exception. See paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section for the definition of the term item of income. For rules concerning the treatment for foreign tax credit purposes of amounts excluded from subpart F under section 954(b)(4), see § 1.904-4(c). For rules concerning the application of the high-tax exception of sections 954(b)(4) and 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(III) to tentative gross tested income items, see § 1.951A-2(c)(1)(iii), (c)(3)(ii), and (c)(7) and (8). A net item of income qualifies for the high tax exception only if -

(i) An election is made under section 954(b)(4) and paragraph (d)(5) of this section to exclude the income from the computation of subpart F income; and

(ii) It is established that the net item of income was subject to foreign income taxes at an effective rate that is greater than 90 percent of the maximum rate of tax specified in section 11 for the taxable year of the controlled foreign corporation.

(2) Effective rate at which taxes are imposed. The effective rate with respect to a net item of income shall be determined separately for each controlled foreign corporation. The effective rate at which taxes are imposed on a net item of income is -

(i) The United States dollar amount of foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to the net item of income, determined under paragraph (d)(3) of this section; divided by

(ii) The United States dollar amount of the net item of foreign base company income or insurance income, described in paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section, increased by the amount of foreign income taxes referred to in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section.

(3) Taxes paid or accrued with respect to an item of income -

(i) In general. The amount of foreign income taxes paid or accrued by a controlled foreign corporation with respect to a net item of income for purposes of section 954(b)(4) and this paragraph (d) is the U.S. dollar amount of the controlled foreign corporation's current year taxes (as defined in § 1.960-1(b)(4)) that are allocated and apportioned under § 1.960-1(d)(3)(ii) to the subpart F income group (as defined in § 1.960-1(d)(2)(ii)(B)) that corresponds with the net item of income.

(ii) [Reserved]

(iii) Effect of potential and actual changes in taxes paid or accrued. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (d)(3)(iii), the amount of foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to a net item of income, determined in the manner provided in this paragraph (d), does not take into account any potential reduction in foreign income taxes that may occur by reason of a future distribution to shareholders of all or part of such income. However, to the extent the foreign income taxes paid or accrued by the controlled foreign corporation are reasonably certain to be returned by the foreign jurisdiction imposing such taxes to a shareholder, directly or indirectly, through any means (including, but not limited to, a refund, credit, payment, discharge of an obligation, or any other method) on a subsequent distribution to such shareholder, the foreign income taxes are not treated as paid or accrued for purposes of this paragraph (d)(3).

(4) Special rules -

(i) Consistency rule. An election to exclude income from the computation of subpart F income for a taxable year must be made consistently with respect to all items of passive foreign personal holding company income eligible to be excluded for the taxable year. Thus, high-taxed passive foreign personal holding company income of a controlled foreign corporation must either be excluded in its entirety, or remain subject to subpart F in its entirety.

(ii) Coordination with earnings and profits limitation. If the amount of income included in subpart F income for the taxable year is reduced by the earnings and profits limitation of section 952(c)(1), the amount of income that is a net item of income, within the meaning of paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section, is determined after the application of the rules of section 952(c)(1).

(iii) Example. The following example illustrates the provisions of paragraph (d)(4)(ii) of this section. All of the taxes referred to in the following example are foreign income taxes. For simplicity, this example assumes that the amount of taxes that are taken into account as a deduction under section 954(b)(5) and the amount of the gross-up required under sections 960 and 78 are equal. Therefore, this example does not separately illustrate the deduction for taxes and gross-up.

Example.
During its 1995 taxable year, CFC, a controlled foreign corporation, earns royalty income, net of taxes, of $100 that is foreign personal holding company income. CFC has no expenses associated with this royalty income. CFC pays $50 of foreign income taxes with respect to the royalty income. For 1995, CFC has current earnings and profits of $50. CFC's subpart F income, as determined prior to the application of this paragraph (d), exceeds its current earnings and profits. Thus, under paragraph (d)(4)(ii) of this section, the amount of CFC's only net item of income, the royalty income, will be limited to $50. The remaining $50 will be subject to recharacterization in a subsequent taxable year under section 952(c)(2). Because the amount of foreign income taxes paid with respect to this net item of income is $50, the effective rate of tax on the item, for purposes of this paragraph (d), is 50 percent ($50 of taxes/$50 net item + $50 of taxes). Accordingly, an election under paragraph (d)(5) of this section may be made to exclude the item of income from the computation of subpart F income.

(5) Procedure. An election made under the procedure provided by this paragraph (d)(5) is binding on all United States shareholders of the controlled foreign corporation and must be made -

(i) By the controlling United States shareholders, as defined in § 1.964-1(c)(5), by attaching a statement to such effect with their original or amended income tax returns, and including any additional information required by applicable administrative pronouncements; or

(ii) In such other manner as may be prescribed in applicable administrative pronouncements.

(6) Coordination of full inclusion and high tax exception rules. Notwithstanding paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section, full inclusion foreign base company income will be excluded from subpart F income if more than 90 percent of the adjusted gross foreign base company income and adjusted gross insurance company income of a controlled foreign corporation (determined without regard to the full inclusion test of paragraph (b)(1) of this section) is attributable to net amounts excluded from subpart F income pursuant to an election to have the high tax exception described in section 954(b)(4) and this paragraph (d) apply.

(e) Character of income -

(1) Substance of the transaction. For purposes of section 954, income shall be characterized in accordance with the substance of the transaction, and not in accordance with the designation applied by the parties to the transaction. For example, an amount that is designated as rent by the taxpayer but actually constitutes income from the sale of property, royalties, or income from services shall not be characterized as rent but shall be characterized as income from the sale of property, royalties or income from services, as the case may be. Local law shall not be controlling in characterizing income.

(2) Separable character. To the extent the definitional provisions of section 953 or 954 describe the income or gain derived from a transaction, or any portion or portions thereof, that income or gain, or portion or portions thereof, is so characterized for purposes of subpart F. Thus, a single transaction may give rise to income in more than one category of foreign base company income described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. For example, if a controlled foreign corporation, in its business of purchasing personal property and selling it to related persons outside its country of incorporation, also performs services outside its country of incorporation with respect to the property it sells, the sales income will be treated as foreign base company sales income and the services income will be treated as foreign base company services income for purposes of these rules.

(3) Predominant character. The portion of income or gain derived from a transaction that is included in the computation of foreign personal holding company income is always separately determinable and thus must always be segregated from other income and separately classified under paragraph (e)(2) of this section. However, the portion of income or gain derived from a transaction that would meet a particular definitional provision under section 954 or 953 (other than the definition of foreign personal holding company income) in unusual circumstances may not be separately determinable. If such portion is not separately determinable, it must be classified in accordance with the predominant character of the transaction. For example, if a controlled foreign corporation engineers, fabricates, and installs a fixed offshore drilling platform as part of an integrated transaction, and the portion of income that relates to services is not accounted for separately from the portion that relates to sales, and is otherwise not separately determinable, then the classification of income from the transaction shall be made in accordance with the predominant character of the arrangement.

(4) Coordination of categories of gross foreign base company income or gross insurance income -

(i) In general. The computations of gross foreign base company income and gross insurance income are limited by the following rules:

(A) If income is foreign base company shipping income, pursuant to section 954(f), it shall not be considered insurance income or income in any other category of foreign base company income.

(B) If income is foreign base company oil related income, pursuant to section 954(g), it shall not be considered insurance income or income in any other category of foreign base company income, except as provided in paragraph (e)(4)(i)(A) of this section.

(C) If income is insurance income, pursuant to section 953, it shall not be considered income in any category of foreign base company income except as provided in paragraph (e)(4)(i)(A) or (B) of this section.

(D) If income is foreign personal holding company income, pursuant to section 954(c), it shall not be considered income in any other category of foreign base company income, other than as provided in paragraph (e)(4)(i)(A), (B) or (C) of this section.

(ii) Income excluded from other categories of gross foreign base company income. Income shall not be excluded from a category of gross foreign base company income or gross insurance income under this paragraph (e)(4) by reason of being included in another category of gross foreign base company income or gross insurance income, if the income is excluded from that other category by a more specific provision of section 953 or 954. For example, income derived from a commodity transaction that is excluded from foreign personal holding company income under § 1.954-2(f) as income from a qualified active sale may be included in gross foreign base company income if it also meets the definition of foreign base company sales income. See § 1.954-2(a)(2) for the coordination of overlapping categories within the definition of foreign personal holding company income.

(f) Definition of related person -

(1) Persons related to controlled foreign corporation. Unless otherwise provided, for purposes of section 954 and §§ 1.954-1 through 1.954-8 inclusive, the following persons are considered under section 954(d)(3) to be related persons with respect to a controlled foreign corporation:

(i) Individuals. An individual, whether or not a citizen or resident of the United States, who controls the controlled foreign corporation.

(ii) Other persons. A foreign or domestic corporation, partnership, trust or estate that controls or is controlled by the controlled foreign corporation, or is controlled by the same person or persons that control the controlled foreign corporation.

(2) Control -

(i) Corporations. With respect to a corporation, control means the ownership, directly or indirectly, of stock possessing more than 50 percent of the total voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or of the total value of the stock of the corporation.

(ii) Partnerships. With respect to a partnership, control means the ownership, directly or indirectly, of more than 50 percent (by value) of the capital or profits interest in the partnership.

(iii) Trusts and estates. With respect to a trust or estate, control means the ownership, directly or indirectly, of more than 50 percent (by value) of the beneficial interest in the trust or estate.

(iv) Direct or indirect ownership. For purposes of section 954(d)(3) and this paragraph (f), to determine direct or indirect ownership -

(A) The principles of § 1.958-1 and section 958(a) apply without regard to whether a corporation, partnership, trust, or estate is foreign or domestic or whether an individual is a citizen or resident of the United States; and

(B) The principles of § 1.958-2 and section 958(b) apply, except that -

(1) Neither section 318(a)(3), nor § 1.958-2(d) or the principles thereof, applies to attribute stock or other interests to a corporation, partnership, estate, or trust; and

(2) Neither section 318(a)(4), nor § 1.958-2(e) or the principles thereof, applies to treat dividends, interest, rents, or royalties received or accrued from a foreign corporation as received or accrued from a controlled foreign corporation payor if a principal purpose of the use of an option to acquire stock or an equity interest, or an interest similar to such an option, that causes the foreign corporation to be a controlled foreign corporation payor is to qualify dividends, interest, rents, or royalties paid by the foreign corporation for the section 954(c)(6) exception. For purposes of this paragraph (f)(2)(iv)(B)(2), an interest that is similar to an option to acquire stock or an equity interest includes, but is not limited to, a warrant, a convertible debt instrument, an instrument other than debt that is convertible into stock or an equity interest, a put, a stock or equity interest subject to risk of forfeiture, and a contract to acquire or sell stock or an equity interest.

(3) Neither section 318(a)(4), nor § 1.958-2(e) or the principles thereof, applies to treat a person that has an option to acquire stock or an equity interest, or an interest similar to such an option, as owning the stock or equity interest if a principal purpose for the use of the option or similar interest is to treat a person as a related person with respect to a controlled foreign corporation under this paragraph (f). For purposes of this paragraph (f)(2)(iv)(B)(3), an interest that is similar to an option to acquire stock or an equity interest includes, but is not limited to, a warrant, a convertible debt instrument, an instrument other than debt that is convertible into stock or an equity interest, a put, a stock or equity interest subject to risk of forfeiture, and a contract to acquire or sell stock or an equity interest.

(3) Applicability dates -

(i) General rule. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (f)(3), paragraph (f)(2)(iv) of this section applies to taxable years of controlled foreign corporations ending on or after November 19, 2019, and taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years end.

(ii) Option rule in paragraph (f)(2)(iv)(B)(2) of this section. Paragraph (f)(2)(iv)(B)(2) of this section applies to taxable years of controlled foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 2006, and ending before November 19, 2019, and taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years end.

(iii) Anti-abuse rule. Paragraphs (f)(2)(iv)(B)(1) and (3) of this section apply to taxable years of controlled foreign corporations ending on or after May 17, 2019, and to taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years end, with respect to amounts that are received or accrued by a controlled foreign corporation on or after May 17, 2019 to the extent the amounts are received or accrued in advance of the period to which such amounts are attributable with a principal purpose of avoiding the application of paragraph (f)(2)(iv)(B)(1) or (3) of this section with respect to such amounts.

(g) Distributive share of partnership income -

(1) Application of related person and country of organization tests. Unless otherwise provided, to determine the extent to which a controlled foreign corporation's distributive share of any item of gross income of a partnership would have been subpart F income if received by it directly, under § 1.952-1(g), if a provision of subpart F requires a determination of whether an entity is a related person, within the meaning of section 954(d)(3), or whether an activity occurred within or outside the country under the laws of which the controlled foreign corporation is created or organized, this determination shall be made by reference to such controlled foreign corporation and not by reference to the partnership.

(2) Application of related person test for sales and purchase transactions between a partnership and its controlled foreign corporation partner. For purposes of determining whether a controlled foreign corporation's distributive share of any item of gross income of a partnership is foreign base company sales income under section 954(d)(1) when the item of income is derived from the sale by the partnership of personal property purchased by the partnership from (or sold by the partnership on behalf of) the controlled foreign corporation; or the sale by the partnership of personal property to (or the purchase of personal property by the partnership on behalf of) the controlled foreign corporation (CFC-partnership transaction), the CFC-partnership transaction will be treated as a transaction with an entity that is a related person, within the meaning of section 954(d)(3), under paragraph (g)(1) of this section, if -

(i) The controlled foreign corporation purchased such personal property from (or sold it to the partnership on behalf of), or sells such personal property to (or purchases it from the partnership on behalf of), a related person with respect to the controlled foreign corporation (other than the partnership), within the meaning of section 954(d)(3); or

(ii) The branch rule of section 954(d)(2) applies to treat as foreign base company sales income the income of the controlled foreign corporation from selling to the partnership (or a third party) personal property that the controlled foreign corporation has manufactured, in the case where the partnership purchases personal property from (or sells personal property on behalf of) the controlled foreign corporation.

(3) Examples. The application of this paragraph (g) is illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
CFC, a controlled foreign corporation organized in Country A, is an 80-percent partner in Partnership, a partnership organized in Country A. All of the stock of CFC is owned by USP, a U.S. corporation. Partnership earns commission income from purchasing Product O on behalf of USP, from unrelated manufacturers in Country B, for sale in the United States. To determine whether CFC's distributive share of Partnership's commission income is foreign base company sales income under section 954(d), CFC is treated as if it purchased Product O on behalf of USP. Under section 954(d)(3), USP is a related person with respect to CFC. Thus, with respect to CFC, the sales income is deemed to be derived from the purchase of personal property on behalf of a related person. Because the property purchased is both manufactured and sold for use outside of Country A, CFC's country of organization, CFC's distributive share of the sales income is foreign base company sales income.
Example 2.
(i) CFC1, a controlled foreign corporation organized in Country A, is an 80-percent partner in Partnership, a partnership organized in Country B. CFC2, a controlled foreign corporation organized in Country B, owns the remaining 20 percent interest in Partnership. CFC1 and CFC2 are owned by a common U.S. parent, USP. CFC2 manufactures Product A in Country B. Partnership earns sales income from purchasing Product A from CFC2 and selling it to third parties located in Country B that are not related persons with respect to CFC1 or CFC2. To determine whether CFC1's distributive share of Partnership's sales income is foreign base company sales income under section 954(d), CFC1 is treated as if it purchased Product A from CFC2 and sold it to third parties in Country B. Under section 954(d)(3), CFC2 is a related person with respect to CFC1. Thus, with respect to CFC1, the sales income is deemed to be derived from the purchase of personal property from a related person. Because the property purchased is both manufactured and sold for use outside of Country A, CFC1's country of organization, CFC1's distributive share of the sales income is foreign base company sales income.

(ii) Because Product A is both manufactured and sold for use within CFC2's country of organization, CFC2's distributive share of Partnership's sales income is not foreign base company sales income.

Example 3.
CFC, a controlled foreign corporation organized in Country A, is an 80 percent partner in MJK Partnership, a Country B partnership. CFC purchased goods from J Corp, a Country C corporation that is a related person with respect to CFC. CFC sold the goods to MJK Partnership. In turn, MJK Partnership sold the goods to P Corp, a Country D corporation that is unrelated to CFC. P Corp sold the goods to unrelated customers in Country D. The goods were manufactured in Country C by persons unrelated to J Corp . CFC's distributive share of the income of MJK Partnership from the sale of goods to P Corp will be treated as income from the sale of goods purchased from a related person for purposes of section 954(d)(1) because CFC purchased the goods from J Corp, a related person. Because the goods were both manufactured and sold for use outside of Country A, CFC's distributive share of the income attributable to the sale of the goods is foreign base company sales income. Further, CFC's income from the sale of the goods to MJK Partnership will also be foreign base company sales income.
Example 4.
The facts are the same as Example 3, except that MJK Partnership purchased the goods from P Corp and sold those goods to CFC. CFC sold the goods to J Corp. J Corp sold the goods to unrelated customers in Country C. CFC's distributive share of the income of MJK Partnership from the sale of the goods by the partnership to itself will be treated as income from the sale of goods to a related person, for purposes of section 954(d)(1). Because the goods were both manufactured and sold for use outside of Country A, CFC's distributive share of income attributable to the sale of the goods is foreign base company sales income. Further, CFC's income from the sale of the goods to J Corp is also foreign base company sales income.

(h) Applicability dates -

(1) Paragraph (d)(3) of this section for taxable years ending on or after December 4, 2018, and before July 23, 2020. For the application of paragraph (d)(3) of this section to taxable years of controlled foreign corporations ending on or after December 4, 2018, and before July 23, 2020, and to taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years of the controlled foreign corporations end, see § 1.954-1, as contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 1, 2020.

(2) Paragraph (g) of this section. Paragraph (g) of this section applies to taxable years of a controlled foreign corporation beginning on or after July 23, 2002.

(3) Paragraphs (c)(1)(iii)(A)(3), (c)(1)(iv), and (d)(3)(i) of this section for taxable years beginning on or after July 23, 2020. Paragraphs (c)(1)(iii)(A)(3), (c)(1)(iv), and (d)(3)(i) of this section apply to taxable years of a controlled foreign corporation beginning on or after July 23, 2020, and to taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years of foreign corporations end. In addition, taxpayers may choose to apply the rules in paragraphs (c)(1)(iii)(A)(3), (c)(1)(iv), and (d)(3)(i) of this section to taxable years of controlled foreign corporations that begin after December 31, 2017, and before July 23, 2020, and to taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years of the controlled foreign corporations end, provided that they consistently apply those rules and the rules in § 1.951A-2(c)(1)(iii), (c)(3)(ii), and (c)(7) and (8) to such taxable years.

[T.D. 8618, 60 FR 46509, Sept. 7, 1995; 60 FR 62024, 62025, Dec. 4, 1995, as amended by T.D. 8704, 62 FR 20, Jan. 2, 1997; T.D. 8767, 63 FR 14615, Mar. 26, 1998; T.D. 8827, 64 FR 37677, July 13, 1999; T.D. 9008, 67 FR 48023, July 23, 2002; T.D. 9883, 84 FR 63803, Nov. 19, 2019; T.D. 9882, 84 FR 69107, Dec. 17, 2019; T.D. 9902, 85 FR 44649, July 23, 2020]