26 CFR 1.954-6 - Foreign base company shipping income.

§ 1.954-6 Foreign base company shipping income.

(a)Scope -

(1)In general. This section prescribes rules for determining foreign base company shipping income under the provisions of section 954(f), as amended by the Tax Reduction Act of 1975.

(2)Effective date.

(i) The rules prescribed in this section apply to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 1975, and to taxable years of United States shareholders (as defined in section 951 (b)) within which or with which such taxable years of such foreign corporations end.

(ii) Except as described in paragraph (b)(1)(viii) of this section, foreign base company shipping income does not include amounts earned by a foreign corporation in a taxable year of such corporation beginning before January 1, 1976. See example 1 of paragraph (g)(2) of this section for an illustration of the effect of this subparagraph on partnership income. See example 3 of paragraph (f)(4)(ii) of this section for an illustration of the effect of this subparagraph on certain dividend income. See paragraph (f)(5)(iii) of this section for the effect of this subparagraph on certain interest and gains.

(b)Definitions -

(1)Foreign base company shipping income. The term “foreign base company shipping income” means -

(i) Gross income derived from, or in connection with, the use (or hiring or leasing for use) of any aircraft or vessel in foreign commerce (see paragraph (c) of this section),

(ii) Gross income derived from, or in connection with, the performance of services directly related to the use of any aircraft or vessel in foreign commerce (see paragraph (d) of this section),

(iii) Gross income incidental to income described in subdivisions (i) and (ii) of this subparagraph, as provided in paragraph (e) of this section,

(iv) Gross income derived from the sale, exchange, or other disposition of any aircraft or vessel used or held for use (by the seller or by a person related to the seller) in foreign commerce,

(v) In the case of a controlled foreign corporation, dividends, interest, and gains described in paragraph (f) of this section,

(vi) Income described in paragraph (g) of this section (relating to partnerships, trusts, etc.),

(vii) Exchange gain, to the extent allocable to foreign base company shipping income (see § 1.952-2(c)(2)(v)(b), and

(viii) In the case of a controlled foreign corporation and at its option, dividends, interest, and gains attributable to income derived from aircraft and vessels (as defined in 26 CFR 1.954-1(b)(2) (Revised as of April 1, 1975)) by a less developed country shipping company (described in § 1.955-5(b)) in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1962, and before January 1, 1976. The portion of a dividend, interest, or gain attributable to such income shall be determined by the same method as that for determining the portion of a dividend, interest, or gain attributable to foreign base company shipping income under paragraphs (f)(4), (5), and (6) of this section, but without regard to paragraphs (f)(6)(ii) and (iv)(B).

(2)Foreign base company shipping operations. For purposes of sections 951 through 964, the term “foreign base company shipping operations” means the trade or business from which gross income described in subparagraph (1)(i) and (ii) of this paragraph is derived.

(3)Foreign commerce. For purposes of sections 951 through 964 -

(i) An aircraft or vessel is used in foreign commerce to the extent it is used in transportation of property or passengers -

(A) Between a port (or airport) in the United States or possession of the United States and a port (or airport) in a foreign country, or

(B) Between a port (or airport) in a foreign country and another in the same country or between a port (or airport) in a foreign country and one in another foreign country.

Thus, for example, a trawler, a factory ship, and an oil drilling ship are not considered to be used in foreign commerce. On the other hand, a cruise ship which visits one or more foreign ports is considered to be so used. Notwithstanding subdivision (i)(B) of this paragraph (b)(3), foreign base company income does not include income derived from, or in connection with, the use of an aircraft or vessel in transportation of property or passengers between a port (or airport) in a foreign country and another port (or airport) in the same country if both the foreign corporation is created or organized and the aircraft or vessel is registered in that country.

(ii) The term vessel includes all water craft and other artificial contrivances of whatever description and at whatever stage of construction, whether on the stocks or launched, which are used or are capable of being used or are intended to be used as a means of transportation on water. This definition does not apply for purposes of section 956(b)(2)(G) and § 1.956-2(b)(1)(ix).

(iii) The term port means any place (whether on or off shore) where aircraft or vessels are accustomed to load or unload goods or to take on or let off passengers.

(iv) Any vessel (such as a lighter or beacon lightship) which serves other vessels used in foreign commerce (within the meaning of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph) shall, to the extent so used, also be considered to be used in foreign commerce.

(v) For the meaning of the term “foreign country”, see section 638(2).

(4)Use in foreign commerce. For purposes of sections 951 through 964, the use of an aircraft or vessel in foreign commerce includes the hiring or leasing (or subleasing) of an aircraft or vessel to another for use in foreign commerce. Thus, for example, an aircraft or vessel is “used in foreign commerce” within the meaning of section 955(b)(1)(A) if such aircraft or vessel is chartered (whether pursuant to a bareboat charter, time charter, or otherwise) to another for use in foreign commerce.

(5)Related person. With respect to a controlled foreign corporation, the term “related person” means a related person as defined in § 1.954-1(e)(1), and the term “unrelated person” means an unrelated person as defined in § 1.954-1(e)(2).

(c)Aircraft or vessel income -

(1)In general. The term “income derived from, or in connection with, the use (or hiring or leasing for use) of any aircraft or vessel in foreign commerce” as used in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section means -

(i) Income derived from transporting passengers or property by aircraft or vessel in foreign commerce and

(ii) Income derived from hiring or leasing an aircraft or vessel to another for use in foreign commerce.

(2)Illustrations. The application of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
Foreign corporation C owns a foreign flag vessel which it charters under a long-term charter to foreign corporation D. The vessel is used by D as a tramp which has no fixed or regular schedule. The vessel carries bulk and packaged cargoes, as well as occasional passengers, under charter parties, contracts of affreightment, or other contracts of carriage. The carriage of cargoes and passengers is between a port in the United States and a port in a foreign country or between a port in one foreign country and another port in the same or a different foreign country. The charter hire paid to C by D constitutes income derived from the use of the vessel in foreign commerce, but is not foreign base company income to the extent the charter hire is allocable to income derived from the use of the vessel between ports in the same foreign country in which both C is incorporated and the vessel is registered. The charter hire and freight and passenger revenue (including demurrage and dead freight) derived by D also constitute income derived from the use of the vessel in foreign commerce, but is not foreign base company income to the extent the charter hire and freight and passenger revenue are allocable to the use of the vessel between ports in the same foreign country in which both D is incorporated and the vessel is registered.
Example 2.
(a) Foreign corporation E owns a foreign flag tanker which it charters under a long-term bareboat charter to foreign corporation F for use in foreign commerce. F produces oil in a foreign country and ships the oil to other foreign countries and to the United States. The vessel, when not engaged in carrying F's oil, is used to carry bulk cargoes for unrelated persons in foreign commerce as opportunity offers. The charger hire received by E constitutes income derived from the use of the vessel in foreign commerce. The income derived by F from carrying bulk cargoes for unrelated persons also constitutes income derived from the use of the vessel in foreign commerce.

(b) F is forced to lay up the vessel as a result of adverse market developments. Pursuant to the terms of the charter, F continues to pay charter hire to E during the period of lay-up. The charter hire received by E during the period of lay-up constitutes income derived from the use of the vessel in foreign commerce.

Example 3.
(a) A shipment of cheese is loaded into a container owned by controlled foreign corporation S at the consignor's place of business in Hamar, Norway. The cheese is transported to Milan, Italy, by the following routings:

(1) Overland by road from Hamar, Norway, to Gothenburg, Sweden, by unrelated motor carriers via Oslo, Norway,

(2) By sea from Gothenburg to Rotterdam, Netherlands, by feeder vessel under foreign flag, time chartered to S by unrelated owner,

(3) By sea from Rotterdam to Algeciras, Spain, by feeder vessel under foreign flag, time chartered to S by unrelated owner.

(4) By sea from Algeciras to Genoa, Italy, by line-haul vessel under U.S. flag, chartered by S from related company, and

(5) Overland from Genoa to Milan, Italy, by unrelated motor carrier.

(b) The consignor pays S total charges of $1,710, and S pays $676 to unrelated third parties, which amounts may be broken down as follows:

Description of charges Amount billed to customer and collected by S Revenue collected by S on behalf of an unrelated party Costs paid to unrelated 3d party and absorbed by S
Ocean freight $1,420
Trucking charge of empty equipment to shipper's facility 50 $50
Trucking charges Hamar to Oslo 60 60
Trucking charges Oslo to Gothenburg $315
Trucking charges Genoa to Milan 180 180
Brokerage Commission in Europe 71
Total 1,710 290 386
(c) Of the $1,710 amount billed to the consignor and collected by S, $290 is collected by S on behalf of unrelated third parties. This $290 amount is not includable in S's gross income, and is therefore not includable in S's foreign base company shipping income. The remaining $1,420 amount (i.e., $1,710−$290) is includable in S's foreign base company shipping income. The $386 amount paid by S to unrelated third parties and absorbed by S is deductible from foreign base company shipping income under § 1.954-1(c).

(d)Services directly related -

(1)In general. The term “income derived from, or in connection with, the performance of services directly related to the use of an aircraft or vessel in foreign commerce”, as used in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section, means -

(i) Income derived from, or in connection with, the performance of services described in subparagraph (2) or (3) of this paragraph, and

(ii) Income treated as foreign base company shipping income under subparagraph (4) of this paragraph.

(2)Intragroup services. The services described in this subparagraph are services performed for a person who is the owner, lessor, lessee or operator of an aircraft or vessel used in foreign commerce, by such person or by a person related to such person, and which fall into one or more of the following categories:

(i) Terminal services, such as dockage, wharfage, storage, lights, water, refrigeration, and similar services;

(ii) Stevedoring and other cargo handling services;

(iii) Container related services (including the rental of containers and related equipment) performed either in connection with the local drayage or inland haulage of cargo or in the course of transportation in foreign commerce;

(iv) Services performed by tugs, lighters, barges, scows, launches, floating cranes, and other similar equipment;

(v) Maintenance and repairs;

(vi) Training of pilots and crews;

(vii) Licensing of patents, know-how, and similar intangible property developed and used in the course of foreign base company shipping operations;

(viii) Services performed by a booking, operating, or managing agent; and

(ix) Any service performed in the course of the actual transportation of passengers or property.

(3)Services for passenger, consignor, or consignee. The services described in this subparagraph are services provided by the operator (or person related to the operator) of an aircraft or vessel in foreign commerce for the passenger, consignor, or consignee, such as -

(i) Services described in one or more of the categories set out in subparagraphs (2)(i) through (iv) and (ix) of this paragraph,

(ii) The rental of staterooms, berths, or living accommodations and the furnishing of meals,

(iii) Barber shop and other services to passengers aboard vessels,

(iv) Excess baggage, and

(v) Demurrage, dispatch, and dead freight.

(4)The 70-percent test. At the option of the foreign corporation all the gross income for a taxable year derived by a foreign corporation from any facility used in connection with the performance of services described in one or more of the categories set out in subparagraph (2)(i) through (ix) of this paragraph is foreign base company shipping income if more than 70 percent of such gross income for either -

(i) Such taxable year, or

(ii) Such taxable year and the two preceding taxable years,

is foreign base company shipping income (determined without regard to this subparagraph). Thus, for example, if 80 percent of the gross income derived by a controlled foreign corporation at a stevedoring facility is treated as foreign base company shipping income under subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, then the remaining 20 percent is treated as foreign base company shipping income under this subparagraph.

(5)Rules for applying subparagraph (4).

(i) Solely for purposes of applying subparagraphs (4) of this paragraph, foreign base company shipping income and gross income shall be deemed to include an arm's length charge (see paragraph (h)(5) of this section) for services performed by the foreign corporation for itself.

(ii) In determining whether services performed by a foreign corporation are performed at a single facility or at two or more different facilities, all of the facts and circumstances involved will be taken into account. Ordinarily, all services performed by a foreign corporation within a single port area will be considered performed at a single facility.

(iii) The application of this subparagraph and subparagraph (4) of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following example in which it is assumed that the foreign corporation has chosen to apply the 70-percent test of subparagraph (4):

Example.
(a) Controlled foreign corporation X uses the calendar year as the taxable year. For 1976, X is divided into two operating divisions, A and B. Division A operates a number of vessels in foreign commerce. Division B operates a terminal facility at which it performs services described in subparagraph (2)(i) of this paragraph for vessels some of which are operated by division A, some of which are operated by persons related to X, and some of which are operated by persons unrelated to X. For 1976, X includes under subparagraph (5) as foreign base company shipping income and gross income, for purposes of subparagraph (4), an arm's length charge for services performed for itself. For 1976, the gross income derived by division B is reconstructed for purposes of subparagraph (4) of this paragraph as follows, based on the facts shown in the following table:
(1) Gross income derived from persons unrelated to X $20
(2) Gross income derived from persons related to X 10
(3) Actual gross income (line (1) plus line (2)) 30
(4) Hypothetical gross income derived from division A (determined by the application of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph) 70
(5) Total reconstructed gross income (line (3) plus line (4)) 100
(b) Since 80 percent of the reconstructed gross income derived by division B would be treated as foreign base company shipping income under subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, the entire $30 amount of the gross income actually derived by division B is treated as foreign base company shipping income under subparagraph (4) of this paragraph.

(6)Arm's length charge. For purposes of this section, the arm's length charge for services performed by a foreign corporation for itself shall be determined by applying the principles of section 482 and the regulations thereunder as if the party for whom the services are performed and the party by whom the services are performed were not the same person, but were controlled taxpayers within the meaning of § 1.482-1(a)(4).

(7)Illustrations. The application of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
Controlled foreign corporation A acts as a managing agent for foreign corporation B, a related person which contracts to construct and charter a foreign flag vessel for use in foreign commerce. As managing agent for B, A performs a broad range of services relating to the use of the vessel, including arranging for, and supervising of, construction and chartering of the vessel, and handling of operating services after construction is completed. The income derived by A from its management and operating services constitutes income derived in connection with the performance of services directly related to the use of the vessel in foreign commerce.
Example 2.
Controlled foreign corporation C uses the calendar year as the taxable year. During 1976, C is engaged in the trade or business of acting as a steamship agent solely for unrelated persons. C's activities as steamship agent range from “husbanding” (i.e., arranging for fuel, supplies and port services, and attending to crew and customs matters) to the solicitation and booking of cargo at a number of foreign ports. None of C's other gross income for 1976 is foreign base company shipping income. Under these circumstances, C's gross income derived from its steamship agency does not constitute foreign base company shipping income.

(e)Incidental income -

(1)In general. Foreign base company shipping income includes all incidental income derived by a foreign corporation in the course of its active conduct of foreign base company shipping operations.

(2)Examples. Examples of incidental income derived in the course of the active conduct of foreign base company shipping operations include -

(i) Gain from the sale, exchange or other disposition of assets which are related shipping assets within the meaning of § 1.955A-2(b),

(ii) Income derived from temporary investments described in § 1.955A-2(b)(2)(i) and (iii),

(iii) Interest on accounts receivable and evidences of indebtedness described in § 1.955A-2(b)(2)(ii),

(iv) Income derived from granting concessions to others aboard aircraft or vessels used in foreign commerce,

(v) Income derived from stock and currency futures described in § 1.955A-2(b)(2)(vii) and (viii),

(vi) Income derived by the lessor of an aircraft or vessel used in foreign commerce from additional rentals for the use of related equipment (such as a complement of containers), and

(vii) Interest derived by the seller from a purchase money mortgage loan in respect of the sale of an aircraft or vessel described in § 1.955A-2(a)(1)(i).

(f)Certain dividends, interest, and gain -

(1)In general.

(i) The foreign base company shipping income of a controlled foreign corporation (referred to in subdivision (ii)(A) of this paragraph (f)(1) as “first corporation”) includes -

(A) Dividends and interest received from foreign corporations listed in subdivision (ii) of this paragraph (f)(1), and

(B) Gain recognized from the sale, exchange, or other disposition of stock or obligations of foreign corporations listed in subdivision (ii) of this paragraph (f)(1),

but only to the extent that such dividends, interest, and gains are attributable to foreign base company shipping income of the foreign corporations listed in subdivision (ii) of this paragraph (f)(1).

(ii) The foreign corporations referred to in subdivision (i) of this paragraph (f)(1) are -

(A) Foreign corporations with respect to which the first corporation (see subdivision (i) of this paragraph (f)(1)) would be deemed under section 902(b) to pay taxes,

(B) Controlled foreign corporations which are related persons (within the meaning of section 954(d)(3)), and

(C) Less developed country shipping companies described in § 1.955-5(b).

(2)Corporation deemed to pay taxes.

(i) For purposes of this paragraph, a controlled foreign corporation would be deemed under section 902(b) to pay taxes in respect of any other foreign corporation if such controlled foreign corporation would be deemed, for purposes of applying section 902(a) to any United States shareholder of such controlled foreign corporation, to pay taxes in respect of dividends which were received from such other foreign corporation (whether or not such other foreign corporation actually pays any taxes or dividends). Solely for purposes of this subdivision, each United States shareholder (within the meaning of section 951(b)) shall be deemed to be a domestic corporation.

(ii) The application of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
Domestic corporation M owns 100 percent of the one class of stock of controlled foreign corporation X, which in turn owns 40 percent of the one class of stock of foreign corporation Y. Y is not a controlled foreign corporation. For purposes of subdivision (1) of this subparagraph, X is deemed to pay taxes in respect of Y.
Example 2.
The facts are the same as in example 1, except that United States shareholder A, an individual, owns 80 percent of the stock of corporation X, and United States shareholders B and C, parent and child, own the other 20 percent in equal shares. For purposes of applying this paragraph to all three United States shareholders (A, B, and C), X is deemed to pay taxes in respect of Y.

(3)Obligation defined. For purposes of this section, the term “obligation” means any bond, note, debenture, certificate, or other evidence of indebtedness, and a debt recorded in the books of account of both the creditor and the debtor. In the absence of legal, governmental, or business reasons to the contrary, the indebtedness must bear interest or be issued at a discount.

(4)Dividends.

(i) For purposes of this paragraph and § 1.954-1(b)(2), the portion of a dividend which is attributable to foreign base company shipping income is that amount which bears the same ratio to the total dividend received as the earnings and profits out of which such dividend is paid that are attributable to foreign base company shipping income bears to the total earnings and profits out of which such dividend is paid. For purposes of this subdivision, the source of the earnings and profits out of which a distribution is made shall be determined under section 316(a), except that the source of the earnings and profits out of which a distribution is made by a controlled foreign corporation with respect to stock owned (within the meaning of section 958(a)) by a United States shareholder of such controlled foreign corporation shall be determined under § 1.959-3.

(ii) The application of this subparagraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
Domestic corporation M owns 100 percent of the one class of stock of controlled foreign corporation X, which in turn owns 40 percent of the one class of stock of foreign corporation Y. Y, which is not (and has not been) either a controlled foreign corporation or a less developed country shipping company, makes a distribution of $100 to X. Under section 316(a), such distribution is made out of Y's earnings and profits for 1978. Sixty percent of Y's earnings and profits for 1978 are attributable to foreign base company shipping income. As a result, $60 of the $100 distribution constitutes foreign base company shipping income to X under subdivision (i) of this subparagraph.
Example 2.
The facts are the same as in example 1, except that under section 316(a) $20 of the $100 dividend is paid out of Y's earnings and profits for 1979, and the other $80 is paid out of Y's earnings and profits for 1978. Thirty percent of Y's earnings and profits for 1979 are attributable to foreign base company shipping income. Since 60 percent of Y's earnings and profits for 1978 are also attributable to foreign base company shipping income, $54, i.e. (.60 × $80) (.30 × $20), of the $100 distribution constitutes foreign base company shipping income to X under subdivision (i) of this subparagraph.
Example 3.
The facts are the same as in example 1 except that under section 316(a) the $100 dividend is made out of Y's earnings and profits for 1972. Since under paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section foreign base company shipping income does not include amounts earned by a foreign corporation (not a less developed country shipping company) in a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1978, no amount of such $100 distribution constitutes foreign base company shipping income to X under subdivision (i) of this subparagraph.
Example 4.
Domestic corporation N owns 100 percent of the one class of stock of controlled foreign corporation S, which in turn owns 100 percent of the one class of stock of controlled foreign corporation T. T makes a distribution of $100 to S, of which $80 is allocable under § 1.959-3 to earnings and profits for 1977 which are described in § 1.959-3(b)(2), and $20 is allocable to earnings and profits for 1978 which are described in § 1.959-3(b)(3). The $80 amount is excluded from S's gross income under section 959(b) and therefore is not included in S's foreign base company shipping income. One hundred percent of T's earnings and profits for 1978 described in § 1.959-3(b)(3) were attributable to reinvested foreign base company shipping income. As a result, the entire $20 amount is included in S's foreign base company shipping income under this paragraph. See § 1.954-1(b)(2) for the rule that such $20 amount may be excluded from the foreign base company income of S.

(5)Interest and gain.

(i) Except as provided in subdivisions (ii) and (iii) of this subparagraph, the portion of any interest paid by a foreign corporation, or gain recognized from the sale, exchange, or other disposition of stock or obligations of a foreign corporation, which is attributable to the foreign base company shipping income of such foreign corporation is that amount which bears the same ratio to such interest or gain as the foreign base company shipping income of such corporation for the period described in subparagraph (6) of this paragraph bears to its gross income for such period.

(ii) Interest which is paid by a controlled foreign corporation is attributable to such corporation's foreign base company shipping income to the same extent that such interest is allocable (under the principles of § 1.954-1(c)) to its foreign base company shipping income.

(iii) If interest is paid by a foreign corporation, or if stock obligations of a foreign corporation are sold, exchanged, or otherwise disposed of, during a taxable year of such foreign corporation beginning before January 1, 1976, then no portion of such interest or gain is attributable to foreign base company shipping income.

(iv) Solely for purposes of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph, if a controlled foreign corporation (the “first corporation”) owns more than 10 percent of the stock of another controlled foreign corporation (the “second corporation”), then

(A) The gross income of the first corporation for any taxable year shall be -

(1) Increased by its pro rata share of the gross income of the second corporation for the taxable year which ends with or within such taxable year of the first corporation, and

(2) Decreased by the amount of any dividends received from the second corporation; and

(B) The foreign base company shipping income of the first corporation for any taxable year shall be -

(1) Increased by its pro rata share of the foreign base company shipping income of the second corporation for the taxable year which ends with or within such taxable year of the first corporation, and

(2) Decreased by the amount of any dividends received from the second corporation which constitute foreign base company income.

(v) Solely for purposes of applying subdivision (i) of this subparagraph, the district director shall make such other adjustments to the gross income and the foreign base company shipping income of any foreign corporation as are necessary to properly determine the extent to which any interest or gain is attributable to foreign base company shipping income, including proper adjustments to reflect any transaction during the test period described in subparagraph (6) of this paragraph to which section 332, 351, 354, 355, 356, or 361 applies.

(6)Test period.

(i) Except as provided in subdivisions (ii) and (iii) of this subparagraph the period described in this subparagraph with respect to any foreign corporation is the 3-year period ending with the close of such corporation's taxable year preceding the year during which interest was paid or stock or obligations were sold, exchanged, or otherwise disposed of, or such part of such period as such corporation was in existence.

(ii) The period described in this paragraph shall not include any part of a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1976.

(iii) If interest is paid by a foreign corporation, or if stock or obligations of a foreign corporation are sold, exchanged, or otherwise disposed of during its first taxable year, then the period described in this paragraph shall be such first taxable year.

(iv) For purposes of subdivision (iii) of this subparagraph, the first taxable year of a foreign corporation is the later of -

(A) The first taxable year of its existence, or

(B) Its first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1975.

(g)Income from partnerships, trusts, etc -

(1)In general. The foreign base company shipping income of any foreign corporation includes -

(i) Its distributive share of the gross income of any partnership, and

(ii) Any amounts includible in its gross income under section 652(a), 662(a), 671, or 691(a),

to the extent that such items would have been includible in its foreign base company shipping income had they been realized by it directly.

(2)Illustrations. The application of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
Controlled foreign corporations X and Y are equal partners in partnership P. The taxable years end on December 31 for X, June 30 for Y, and March 31 for P. In the fiscal year ending March 31, 1976, P's sole business activity is the use of a vessel in foreign commerce. P derives gross income of $200 from the use of the vessel, and incurs expenses, taxes, and other deductions of $160. Assume X's distributive share of such
$200 of P's gross income is $100, all of which is includible in X's gross income. If X had realized its distributive share of $100 directly, then the amount which would have been includible in X's foreign base company shipping income under this paragraph is the portion allocable to the months of January, February, and March of 1976. Such amount, $25 (i.e., 1/2 × $200 × 3 months/12 months), is included in X's foreign base company shipping income for its taxable year ending December 31, 1976. Similarly, X is entitled under this paragraph to a deduction from foreign base company shipping income of $20 (i.e., 1/2 × $160 × 3 months/12 months). Since foreign base company shipping income does not include amounts earned by a foreign corporation (not a less developed country shipping corporation) in a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1976, Y has no foreign base company shipping income (under this paragraph or otherwise) for its taxable year beginning on July 1, 1975.
Example 2.
The facts are the same as in example 1, except that P incurs expenses, taxes, and deductions of $240 in its taxable year ending on March 31, 1976. Accordingly, $25 is includible in X's foreign base company shipping income, and the amount deductible therefrom under this paragraph is $30 (i.e., 1/2 × $240 × 3 months/12 months).

(3)Other income. Except as expressly provided in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, foreign base company shipping income does not include any amount includible in the gross income of a controlled foreign corporation under part I of subchapter J (section 641 and following, relating to estates, trusts, and beneficiaries), and gains from the sale or other disposition of any interest in an estate or trust.

(h)Additional rules -

(1)Gross income. For purposes of this section and § 1.955A-2, the gross income of a foreign corporation (whether or not a controlled foreign corporation) shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of section 952 and § 1.952-2. Thus, for example, section 883 (relating to exclusions from gross income of foreign corporations) is inapplicable under § 1.952-2 (a)(1) and (c)(1). In addition, the gross income of a controlled foreign corporation shall be determined, with respect to a United States shareholder of such controlled foreign corporation, by excluding distributions received by such corporation which are excluded from gross income under section 959(b) with respect to such shareholder.

(2)Earnings and profits. For purposes of this section, the earnings and profits of a foreign corporation (whether or not a controlled foreign corporation) shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of section 964 and the regulations thereunder.

(3)No double counting. No item of gross income shall be counted as foreign base company shipping income under more than one provision of this section. For example, If $200 of gross income derived from the use of a lighter is treated as foreign base company shipping income under both paragraphs (b)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section, then such $200 is counted only once as foreign base company shipping income. A taxpayer may choose under which provision to include an item of income.

(4)Losses.

(i) Generally, if a controlled foreign corporation has losses which are properly allocable to foreign base company shipping income, the extent to which such losses are deductible from such income shall be determined by treating such foreign corporation as a domestic corporation and applying the principles of section 63. See §§ 1.954-1(c) and 1.952-2(b). Thus for example, losses from sales or exchanges of capital assets are allowable only to the extent of gains from such sales or exchanges.

(ii) If gain from the sale, exchange, or other disposition of any stock or obligation would be treated (to any extent) as foreign base company shipping income, then loss from such sale, exchange, or other disposition is properly allocable to foreign base company shipping income (to the same extent).

(iii) In determining the extent to which any loss on the disposition of a qualified investment in foreign base company shipping operations is deductible from foreign base company shipping income, it is immaterial that such loss is taken into account under § 1.955A-1(b)(1)(ii) as a reduction in the amount of the decrease in (withdrawal from) qualified investments in foreign base company shipping operations.

(5)Hypothetical charges. Under paragraph (d)(5)(i) of this section and § 1.955A-2(a)(4)(ii)(A), gross income may be deemed to include hypothetical arm's length charges for services performed by a controlled foreign corporation for itself. Under paragraph (d)(2) of this section, certain of these hypothetical charges may be treated as foreign based company shipping income. Such hypothetical charges are deemed to be income solely for purposes of applying the “extent of use” tests prescribed by paragraph (d)(4) of this section and § 1.955A-2(a)(4). Charges for services performed by a controlled foreign corporation for itself shall in no event be included in income for any other purposes.

[T.D. 7894, 48 FR 22523, May 19, 1983]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 16-Jun-2017 03:58

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR Part 1 after this date.

  • 2017-06-30; vol. 82 # 125 - Friday, June 30, 2017
    1. 82 FR 29719 - Regulations Regarding Withholding of Tax on Certain U.S. Source Income Paid to Foreign Persons, Information Reporting and Backup Withholding on Payments Made to Certain U.S. Persons, and Portfolio Interest Treatment; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendment.
        Effective Date: These corrections are effective June 30, 2017. Applicability Date: The corrections to §§ 1.1441-0; 1.1441-1(b)(7)(ii)(B), (e)(3)(iv)(B) and (C), (e)(4)(ii)(B)( 11 ), (e)(4)(ix)(D), (e)(5)(ii) through (e)(5)(ii)(B), (e)(5)(ii)(D) through (e)(5)(v)(B)( 3 ), (e)(5)(v)(B)( 5 ) through (e)(5)(v)(D), and (f) through (f)(4); 1.1441-1T; 1.1441-3(d)(1); 1.1441-4; 1.6045-1(m)(2)(ii) and (n)(12)(ii); and 1.6049-5(c)(1) through (c)(4) are applicable on January 6, 2017.
      26 CFR Part 1

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