26 CFR § 1.985-5 - Adjustments required upon change in functional currency.

§ 1.985-5 Adjustments required upon change in functional currency.

(a) In general. This section applies in the case of a taxpayer or qualified business unit (QBU) (including a section 987 QBU (as defined in § 1.987-1(b)(2)) changing from one functional currency (old functional currency) to another functional currency (new functional currency). A taxpayer or QBU subject to the rules of this section shall make the adjustments set forth in the 3-step procedure described in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the adjustments shall be made on the last day of the last taxable year ending before the year of change (as defined in § 1.481-1(a)(1)). Gain or loss required to be recognized under paragraphs (b), (d)(2), (e)(2), and (e)(4)(iii) of this section is not subject to section 481 and, therefore, the full amount of the gain or loss must be included in income on the last day of the last taxable year ending before the year of change.

(b) Step 1 - Taking into account exchange gain or loss on certain section 988 transactions. The taxpayer or QBU shall recognize or otherwise take into account for all purposes of the Internal Revenue Code the amount of any unrealized exchange gain or loss attributable to a section 988 transaction (as defined in section 988(c)(1)(A) through (C)) that, after applying section 988(d), is denominated in terms of or determined by reference to the new functional currency. The amount of such gain or loss shall be determined without regard to the limitations of section 988(b) (that is, whether any gain or loss would be realized on the transaction as a whole). The character and source of such gain or loss shall be determined under section 988.

(c) Step 2 - Determining the new functional currency basis of property and the new functional currency amount of liabilities and any other relevant items. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the new functional currency adjusted basis of property and the new functional currency amount of liabilities and any other relevant items (for example, items described in section 988(c)(1)(B)(iii)) shall equal the product of the old functional currency adjusted basis or liability and the new functional currency/old functional currency spot rate on the last day of the last taxable year ending before the year of change.

(d) Step 3A - Additional adjustments that are necessary when a QBU changes functional currency -

(1) QBU changing to a functional currency other than the owner's functional currency -

(i) Rule. If a QBU changes its functional currency, and after the change the QBU is a section 987 QBU that is subject to §§ 1.987-1 through 1.987-11 pursuant to § 1.987-1(b)(1), then the adjustments described in either paragraph (d)(1)(ii) or (d)(1)(iii) of this section shall be taken into account for purposes of section 987.

(ii) QBU and the owner had different functional currencies prior to the change. If the QBU and the owner of the QBU had different functional currencies prior to the change and as a result the QBU was a section 987 QBU prior to the change, then the adjustments described in paragraphs (d)(1)(ii)(A) and (d)(1)(ii)(B) of this section shall be taken into account.

(A) Determining new historic rates. The historic rate (as defined in § 1.987-1(c)(3)) for the year of change and subsequent taxable years with respect to a historic item (as defined in § 1.987-1(e)) reflected on the balance sheet of the section 987 QBU immediately prior to the year of change shall be equal to the historic rate prior to the year of change (that is, a rate that translates the section 987 QBU's old functional currency into the owner's functional currency) divided by the spot rate (as defined in § 1.987-1(c)(1)) for translating an amount denominated in the section 987 QBU's old functional currency into the section 987 QBU's new functional currency on the last day of the last taxable year ending before the year of change. For example, if a taxpayer with a U.S. dollar (USD) functional currency owns a section 987 QBU that changes from a British pound (GBP) functional currency to a euro (EUR) functional currency, the historic rate for translating a specific historic item of this section 987 QBU from GBP to USD is 1.50, and the spot rate for translating GBP to EUR on the last day of the last taxable year before the change is 1.30, then the new historic rate for translating this historic item from EUR to USD is 1.15 (1.50/1.30).

(B) Determining the owner functional currency net value of the QBU on the last day of the last taxable year ending before the year of change under § 1.987-4(d)(1)(i)(B). For purposes of determining the owner functional currency net value of the section 987 QBU on the last day of the last taxable year ending before the year of change under § 1.987-4(d)(1)(i)(B) and § 1.987-4(e), the section 987 QBU's marked items (as defined in § 1.987-1(d)) shall be translated from the section 987 QBU's old functional currency into the owner's functional currency using the spot rate on the last day of the last taxable year ending before the year of change.

(iii) QBU and the taxpayer had the same functional currency prior to the change. If a QBU that has the same functional currency as a taxpayer changes its functional currency to a new functional currency that is different than the functional currency of the taxpayer, and as a result the taxpayer becomes an owner of a section 987 QBU (see § 1.987-1), the taxpayer and section 987 QBU will become subject to section 987 for the year of change and subsequent years.

(2) QBU changing to the owner's functional currency. If a section 987 QBU changes its functional currency to the functional currency of its owner, the section 987 QBU shall be treated as if it terminated on the last day of the last taxable year ending before the year of change. See §§ 1.987-5 and 1.987-8 for the effect of a termination of a section 987 QBU that is subject to §§ 1.987-1 through 1.987-11.

(e) Step 3B - Additional adjustments that are necessary when a taxpayer/owner changes functional currency -

(1) Corporations. The amount of a corporation's new functional currency earnings and profits and the amount of its new functional currency paid-in capital shall equal the old functional currency amounts of such items multiplied by the spot rate for translating an amount denominated in the corporation's old functional currency into the corporation's new functional currency on the last day of the last taxable year ending before the year of change. The foreign income taxes and accumulated profits or deficits in accumulated profits of a foreign corporation that were maintained in foreign currency for purposes of section 902 and that are attributable to taxable years of the foreign corporation beginning before January 1, 1987, also shall be translated into the new functional currency at the spot rate.

(2) Collateral consequences to a United States shareholder of a corporation changing to the United States dollar as its functional currency. A United States shareholder (within the meaning of section 951(b) or section 953(c)(1)(A)) of a controlled foreign corporation (within the meaning of section 957 or section 953(c)(1)(B)) changing its functional currency to the dollar shall recognize foreign currency gain or loss computed under section 986(c) as if all previously taxed earnings and profits, if any, (including amounts attributable to pre-1987 taxable years that were translated from dollars into functional currency in the foreign corporation's first post-1986 taxable year) were distributed immediately prior to the change.

(3) Taxpayers that are not corporations. [Reserved]

(4) Adjustments to a section 987 QBU's balance sheet and net accumulated unrecognized section 987 gain or loss when an owner changes functional currency -

(i) Owner changing to a functional currency other than the section 987 QBU's functional currency. If an owner of a section 987 QBU, subject to §§ 1.987-1 through 1.987-11 pursuant to § 1.987-1(b)(1), changes to a functional currency other than the functional currency of the section 987 QBU, the adjustments described in paragraphs (e)(4)(i)(A) through (C) of this section shall be taken into account for purposes of section 987.

(A) Determining new historic rates. The historic rate (as defined in § 1.987-1(c)(3)) for the year of change and subsequent taxable years with respect to a historic item (as defined in § 1.987-1(e)) reflected on the balance sheet of the section 987 QBU immediately prior to the year of change shall be equal to the historic rate prior to the year of change (that is, a rate that translates the section 987 QBU's functional currency into the owner's old functional currency) divided by the spot rate for translating an amount denominated in the owner's new functional currency into the owner's old functional currency on the last day of the last taxable year ending before the year of change. For example, if a taxpayer that owns a section 987 QBU with a British pound functional currency changes from a U.S. dollar functional currency to a euro functional currency, and the historic rate for translating a specific item of the section 987 QBU from GBP to USD is 1.50 and the spot rate for translating EUR to USD on the last day of the last taxable year before the change is 1.10, then the new historic rate for translating this historic item from GBP to EUR is 1.36 (1.50/1.10).

(B) Determining the owner functional currency net value of the section 987 QBU on the last day of the last taxable year ending before the year of change under § 1.987-4(d)(1)(i)(B). For purposes of determining the change in the owner functional currency net value of the section 987 QBU on the last day of the last taxable year preceding the year of change under §§ 1.987-4(d)(1)(i)(B) and 1.987-4(e), the section 987 QBU's marked items shall be translated into the owner's new functional currency at the spot rate on the last day of the last taxable year ending before the year of change.

(C) Translation of net accumulated unrecognized section 987 gain or loss. Any net accumulated unrecognized section 987 gain or loss determined under § 1.987-4 shall be translated from the owner's old functional currency into the owner's new functional currency using the spot rate for translating an amount denominated in the owner's old functional currency into the owner's new functional currency on the last day of the last taxable year ending before the year of change.

(ii) Taxpayer with the same functional currency as its QBU changing to a different functional currency. If a taxpayer with the same functional currency as its QBU changes to a new functional currency and as a result the taxpayer becomes an owner of a section 987 QBU (see § 1.987-1), the taxpayer and the section 987 QBU shall become subject to section 987 for the year of change and subsequent years.

(iii) Owner changing to the same functional currency as the section 987 QBU. If an owner changes its functional currency to the functional currency of its section 987 QBU, the section 987 QBU shall be treated as if it terminated on the last day of the last taxable year ending before the year of change. See §§ 1.987-5 and 1.987-8 for the consequences of a termination of a section 987 QBU that is subject to §§ 1.987-1 through 1.987-11.

(f) Example. The provisions of this section are illustrated by the following example:

Example.
(i) Facts. FC, a foreign corporation, owns all of the stock of DC, a domestic corporation. The Commissioner granted permission to change FC's functional currency from the British pound to the euro beginning January 1, 2020. The EUR/GBP exchange rate on December 31, 2019, is €1:£0.50.

(ii) Determining new functional currency basis of property and liabilities. The following table shows how FC must convert the items on its balance sheet from the British pound to the euro on December 31, 2019.

GBP EUR
Assets:
Cash on hand £40,000 €80,000
Accounts Receivable 10,000 20,000
Inventory 100,000 200,000
€100,000 Euro Bond (£100,000 historical basis) 50,000 100,000
Fixed assets:
Property 200,000 400,000
Plant 500,000 1,000,000
Accumulated Depreciation (200,000) (400,000)
Equipment 1,000,000 2,000,000
Accumulated Depreciation (400,000) (800,000)
Total Assets 1,300,000 2,600,000
Liabilities:
Accounts Payable 50,000 100,000
Long-term Liabilities 400,000 800,000
Paid-in-Capital 800,000 1,600,000
Retained Earnings 50,000 100,000
Total Liabilities and Equity 1,300,000 2,600,000
(iii) Exchange gain or loss on section 988 transactions. Under paragraph (b) of this section, FC will recognize a £50,000 loss (£50,000 current value minus £100,000 historical basis) on the Euro Bond resulting from the change in functional currency because, after the change, the Euro Bond will no longer be an asset denominated in a non-functional currency. The amount of FC's retained earnings on its December 31, 2019, balance sheet reflects the £50,000 loss on the Euro Bond.

(g) Effective/applicability date. Generally, this regulation shall apply to taxable years beginning on or after one year after the first day of the first taxable year following December 7, 2016. If pursuant to § 1.987-11(b) a taxpayer applies §§ 1.987-1 through 1.987-11 beginning in a taxable year prior to the earliest taxable year described in § 1.987-11(a), then this section shall apply to taxable years of the taxpayer beginning on or after the first day of such prior taxable year.

[T.D. 9794, 81 FR 88819, Dec. 8, 2016]

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