26 CFR § 301.6225-2 - Modification of imputed underpayment.

§ 301.6225-2 Modification of imputed underpayment.

(a)Partnership may request modification of an imputed underpayment. A partnership that has received a notice of proposed partnership adjustment (NOPPA) under section 6231(a)(2) from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) may request modification of a proposed imputed underpayment set forth in the NOPPA in accordance with this section and any forms, instructions, and other guidance prescribed by the IRS. The effect of modification on a proposed imputed underpayment is described in paragraph (b) of this section. Unless otherwise described in paragraph (d) of this section, a partnership may request any type of modification of an imputed underpayment described in paragraph (d) of this section in the time and manner described in paragraph (c) of this section. A partnership may request modification with respect to a partnership adjustment (as defined in § 301.6241-1(a)(6)) that does not result in an imputed underpayment (as described in § 301.6225-1(f)(1)(ii)) as described in paragraph (e) of this section. Only the partnership representative may request modification under this section. See section 6223 and § 301.6223-2 for rules regarding the binding authority of the partnership representative. For purposes of this section, the term relevant partner means any person for whom modification is requested by the partnership that is -

(1) A reviewed year partner (as defined in § 301.6241-1(a)(9)), including any pass-through partner (as defined in § 301.6241-1(a)(5)), except for any reviewed year partner that is a wholly-owned entity disregarded as separate from its owner for Federal income tax purposes; or

(2) An indirect partner (as defined in § 301.6241-1(a)(4)) except for any indirect partner that is a wholly-owned entity disregarded as separate from its owner for Federal income tax purposes.

(b)Effect of modification-(1) In general. A modification of an imputed underpayment under this section that is approved by the IRS may result in an increase or decrease in the amount of an imputed underpayment set forth in the NOPPA. A modification under this section has no effect on the amount of any partnership adjustment determined under subchapter C of chapter 63 of the Internal Revenue Code (subchapter C of chapter 63). See paragraph (e) of this section for the effect of modification on adjustments that do not result in an imputed underpayment. A modification may increase or decrease an imputed underpayment by affecting the extent to which adjustments factor into the determination of the imputed underpayment (as described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section), the tax rate that is applied in calculating the imputed underpayment (as described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section), and the number and composition of imputed underpayments, including the placement of adjustments in groupings and subgroupings (if applicable) (as described in paragraph (b)(4) of this section), as well as to the extent of other modifications allowed under rules provided in forms, instructions, or other guidance prescribed by the IRS (as described in paragraph (b)(5) of this section). If a partnership requests more than one modification under this section, modifications are taken into account in the following order:

(i) Modifications that affect the extent to which an adjustment factors into the determination of the imputed underpayment under paragraph (b)(2) of this section;

(ii) Modification of the number and composition of imputed underpayments under paragraph (b)(4) of this section; and

(iii) Modifications that affect the tax rate under paragraph (b)(3) of this section.

(2)Modifications that affect partnership adjustments for purposes of determining the imputed underpayment. If the IRS approves modification with respect to a partnership adjustment, such partnership adjustment is excluded from the determination of the imputed underpayment as determined under § 301.6225-1(b). This paragraph (b)(2) applies to modifications under -

(i)Paragraph (d)(2) of this section (amended returns and the alternative procedure to filing amended returns);

(ii)Paragraph (d)(3) of this section (tax-exempt status);

(iii)Paragraph (d)(5) of this section (specified passive activity losses);

(iv)Paragraph (d)(7) of this section (qualified investment entities);

(v)Paragraph (d)(8) of this section (closing agreements), if applicable;

(vi)Paragraph (d)(9) of this section (tax treaty modifications), if applicable; and

(vii)Paragraph (d)(10) of this section (other modifications), if applicable.

(3)Modifications that affect the tax rate -

(i)In general. If the IRS approves a modification with respect to the tax rate applied to a partnership adjustment, such modification results in a reduction in tax rate applied to the total netted partnership adjustment with respect to the partnership adjustments in accordance with this paragraph (b)(3). A modification of the tax rate does not affect how the partnership adjustment factors into the calculation of the total netted partnership adjustment. This paragraph (b)(3) applies to modifications under -

(A)Paragraph (d)(4) of this section (rate modification);

(B)Paragraph (d)(8) of this section (closing agreements), if applicable;

(C)Paragraph (d)(9) of this section (tax treaty modifications), if applicable; and

(D)Paragraph (d)(10) of this section (other modifications), if applicable.

(ii)Determination of the imputed underpayment in the case of rate modification. Except as described in paragraph (b)(3)(iv) of this section, in the case of an approved modification described under paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section, the imputed underpayment is the sum of the total netted partnership adjustment consisting of the net positive adjustments not subject to rate reduction under paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section (taking into account any approved modifications under paragraph (b)(2) of the section), plus the rate-modified netted partnership adjustment determined under paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section, reduced or increased by any adjustments to credits (taking into account any modifications under paragraph (b)(4) of this section). The total netted partnership adjustment not subject to rate reduction under paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section (taking into account any approved modifications under paragraph (b)(2) of the section) is determined by multiplying the partnership adjustments included in the total netted partnership adjustment that are not subject to rate modification under paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section (including any partnership adjustment that remains after applying paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section) by the highest tax rate (as described in § 301.6225-1(b)(1)(iv)).

(iii)Calculation of rate-modified netted partnership adjustment in the case of a rate modification. The rate-modified netted partnership adjustment is determined as follows -

(A) Determine each relevant partner's distributive share of the partnership adjustments subject to an approved modification under paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section based on how each adjustment subject to rate modification was allocated in the NOPPA, or if the appropriate allocation was not addressed in the NOPPA, how the adjustment would be properly allocated under subchapter K of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code (subchapter K) to such relevant partner in the reviewed year (as defined in § 301.6241-1(a)(8)).

(B) Multiply each partnership adjustment determined under paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(A) of this section by the tax rate applicable to such adjustment based on the approved modification described under paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section.

(C) Add all of the amounts calculated under paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(B) of this section with respect to each partnership adjustment subject to an approved modification described under paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section.

(iv)Rate modification in the case of special allocations. If an imputed underpayment results from adjustments to more than one partnership-related item and any relevant partner for whom modification described under paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section is approved has a distributive share of such items that is not the same with respect to all such items, the imputed underpayment as modified based on the modification types described under paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section is determined as described in paragraphs (b)(3)(ii) and (iii) of this section except that each relevant partner's distributive share is determined based on the amount of net gain or loss to the partner that would have resulted if the partnership had sold all of its assets at their fair market value as of the close of the reviewed year appropriately adjusted to reflect any approved modification under paragraphs (d)(2), (3), and (5) through (10) of this section with respect to any relevant partner. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, the partnership may request that the IRS apply the rule in paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(A) of this section when determining each relevant partner's distributive share for purposes of this paragraph (b)(3)(iv). Upon request by the IRS, the partnership may be required to provide the relevant partners' capital account calculation through the end of the reviewed year, a calculation of asset liquidation gain or loss, and any other information necessary to determine whether rate modification is appropriate, consistent with the rules of paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Any calculation by the partnership that is necessary to comply with the rules in this paragraph (b)(3)(iv) is not considered a revaluation for purposes of section 704.

(4)Modification of the number and composition of imputed underpayments. Once approved by the IRS, a modification under paragraph (d)(6) of this section affects the manner in which adjustments are placed into groupings and subgroupings (as described in § 301.6225-1(c) and (d)) or whether the IRS designates one or more specific imputed underpayments (as described in § 301.6225-1(g)). If the IRS approves a request for modification under this paragraph (b)(4), the imputed underpayment and any specific imputed underpayment affected by or resulting from the modification is determined according to the rules of § 301.6225-1 subject to any other modifications approved by the IRS under this section.

(5)Other modifications. The effect of other modifications described in paragraph (d)(10) of this section, including the order that such modification will be taken into account for purposes of paragraph (b)(1) of this section, may be set forth in forms, instructions, or other guidance prescribed by the IRS.

(c)Time, form, and manner for requesting modification -

(1)In general. In addition to the requirements described in paragraph (d) of this section, a request for modification under this section must be submitted in accordance with, and include the information required by, the forms, instructions, and other guidance prescribed by the IRS. The partnership representative must submit any request for modification and all relevant information (including information required under paragraphs (c)(2) and (d) of this section) to the IRS within the time described in paragraph (c)(3) of this section. The IRS will notify the partnership representative in writing of the approval or denial, in whole or in part, of any request for modification. A request for modification, including a request by the IRS for information related to a request for modification, and the determination by the IRS to approve or not approve all or a portion of a request for modification, is part of the administrative proceeding with respect to the partnership under subchapter C of chapter 63 and does not constitute an examination, inspection, or other administrative proceeding with respect to any other person for purposes of section 7605(b).

(2)Partnership must substantiate facts supporting a request for modification -

(i)In general. A partnership requesting modification under this section must substantiate the facts supporting such a request to the satisfaction of the IRS. The documents and other information necessary to substantiate a particular request for modification are based on the facts and circumstances of each request, as well as the type of modification requested under paragraph (d) of this section, and may include tax returns, partnership operating documents, certifications in the form and manner required with respect to the particular modification, and any other information necessary to support the requested modification. The IRS may, in forms, instructions, or other guidance, set forth procedures with respect to information and documents supporting the modification, including procedures to require particular documents or other information to substantiate a particular type of modification, the manner for submitting documents and other information to the IRS, and recordkeeping requirements. Pursuant to section 6241(10), the IRS may require the partnership to file or submit anything required to be filed or submitted under this section to be filed or submitted electronically. The IRS will deny a request for modification if a partnership fails to provide information the IRS determines is necessary to substantiate a request for modification, or if the IRS determines there is a failure by any person to make any required payment, within the time restrictions described in paragraph (c) of this section.

(ii)Information to be furnished for any modification request. In the case of any modification request, the partnership representative must furnish to the IRS such information as is required by forms, instructions, and other guidance prescribed by the IRS or that is otherwise requested by the IRS related to the requested modification. Such information may include a detailed description of the partnership's structure, allocations, ownership, and ownership changes, its relevant partners for each taxable year relevant to the request for modification, as well as the partnership agreement as defined in § 1.704-1(b)(2)(ii)(h) of this chapter for each taxable year relevant to the modification request. In the case of any modification request with respect to a relevant partner that is an indirect partner, the partnership representative must provide to the IRS any information that the IRS may require relevant to any pass-through partner or wholly-owned entity disregarded as separate from its owner for Federal income tax purposes through which the relevant partner holds its interest in the partnership. For instance, if the partnership requests modification with respect to an amended return filed by a relevant partner pursuant to paragraph (d)(2) of this section, the partnership representative may be required to provide to the IRS information that would have been required to have been filed by pass-through partners through which the relevant partner holds its interest in the partnership as if those pass-through partners had also filed their own amended returns.

(3)Time for submitting modification request and information -

(i)Modification request. Unless the IRS grants an extension of time, all information required under this section with respect to a request for modification must be submitted to the IRS in the form and manner prescribed by the IRS on or before 270 days after the date the NOPPA is mailed.

(ii)Extension of the 270-day period. The IRS may, in its discretion, grant a request for extension of the 270-day period described in paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section provided the partnership submits such request to the IRS, in the form and manner prescribed by forms, instructions, or other guidance prescribed by the IRS before expiration of such period, as extended by any prior extension granted under this paragraph (c)(3)(ii).

(iii)Expiration of the 270-day period by agreement. The 270-day period described in paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section (including any extensions under paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section) expires as of the date the partnership and the IRS agree, in the form and manner prescribed by form, instructions, or other guidance prescribed by the IRS to waive the 270-day period after the mailing of the NOPPA and before the IRS may issue a notice of final partnership adjustment. See section 6231(b)(2)(A); § 301.6231-1(b)(2).

(4)Approval of modification by the IRS. Notification of approval will be provided to the partnership only after receipt of all relevant information (including any supplemental information required by the IRS) and all necessary payments with respect to the particular modification requested before expiration of the 270-day period in paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section plus any extension granted by the IRS under paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section.

(d)Types of modification -

(1)In general. Except as otherwise described in this section, a partnership may request one type of modification or more than one type of modification described in paragraph (d) of this section.

(2)Amended returns by partners -

(i)In general. A partnership may request a modification of an imputed underpayment based on an amended return filed by a relevant partner provided all of the partnership adjustments properly allocable to such relevant partner are taken into account and any amount due is paid in accordance with paragraph (d)(2) of this section. Only adjustments to partnership-related items or adjustments to a relevant partner's tax attributes affected by adjustments to partnership-related items may be taken into account on an amended return under paragraph (d)(2) of this section. A partnership may request a modification for purposes of paragraph (d)(2) of this section by submitting a modification request based on the alternative procedure to filing amended returns as described in paragraph (d)(2)(x) of this section. The partnership may not request an additional modification of any imputed underpayment for a partnership taxable year under this section with respect to any relevant partner that files an amended return (or utilizes the alternative procedure to filing amended returns) under paragraph (d)(2) of this section or with respect to any partnership adjustment allocated to such relevant partner.

(ii)Requirements for approval of a modification request based on amended return. Except as otherwise provided under the alternative procedure described in paragraph (d)(2)(x) of this section, an amended return modification request under paragraph (d)(2) of this section will not be approved unless the provisions of this paragraph (d)(2)(ii) are satisfied. The partnership may satisfy the requirements of paragraph (d)(2) of this section by demonstrating in accordance with forms, instructions, and other guidance provided by the IRS that a relevant partner has previously taken into account the partnership adjustments described in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section, made any required adjustments to tax attributes resulting from the partnership adjustments for the years described in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(B) of this section, and made all required payments under paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section.

(A)Full payment required. An amended return modification request under paragraph (d)(2) of this section will not be approved unless the relevant partner filing the amended return has paid all tax, penalties, additions to tax, additional amounts, and interest due as a result of taking into account all partnership adjustments in the first affected year (as defined in § 301.6226-3(b)(2)) and all modification years (as described in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(B) of this section) at the time such return is filed with the IRS. Except for a pass-through partner calculating its payment amount pursuant to paragraph (d)(2)(vi) of this section, for purposes of this paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A), the term tax means tax imposed by chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code (chapter 1).

(B)Amended returns for all relevant taxable years must be filed. Modification under paragraph (d)(2) of this section will not be approved by the IRS unless a relevant partner files an amended return for the first affected year and any modification year. A modification year is any taxable year with respect to which any tax attribute (as defined in § 301.6241-1(a)(10)) of the relevant partner is affected by reason of taking into account the relevant partner's distributive share of all partnership adjustments in the first affected year. A modification year may be a taxable year before or after the first affected year, depending on the effect on the relevant partner's tax attributes of taking into account the relevant partner's distributive share of the partnership adjustments in the first affected year.

(C)Amended returns for partnership adjustments that reallocate distributive shares. Except as described in this paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(C), in the case of partnership adjustments that reallocate the distributive shares of any partnership-related item from one partner to another, a modification under paragraph (d)(2) of this section will be approved only if all partners affected by such adjustments file amended returns in accordance with paragraph (d)(2) of this section. The IRS may determine that the requirements of this paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(C) are satisfied even if not all relevant partners affected by such adjustments file amended returns provided any relevant partners affected by the reallocation not filing amended returns take into account their distributive share of the adjustments through other modifications approved by the IRS (including the alternative procedure to filing amended returns under paragraph (d)(2)(x) of this section) or if a pass-through partner takes into account the relevant adjustments in accordance with paragraph (d)(2)(vi) of this section. For instance, in the case of adjustments that reallocate a loss from one partner to another, the IRS may determine that the requirements of this paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(C) have been satisfied if one affected relevant partner files an amended return taking into account the adjustments and the other affected relevant partner signs a closing agreement with the IRS taking into account the adjustments. Similarly, in the case of adjustment that reallocate income from one partner to another, the IRS may determine that the requirements of this paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(C) have been satisfied to the extent an affected relevant partner meets the requirements of paragraph (d)(3) of this section (regarding tax-exempt partners) and through such modification fully takes into account all adjustments reallocated to the affected relevant partner.

(iii)Form and manner for filing amended returns. A relevant partner must file all amended returns required for modification under paragraph (d)(2) of this section with the IRS in accordance with forms, instructions, and other guidance prescribed by the IRS. Except as otherwise provided under the alternative procedure described in paragraph (d)(2)(x) of this section, the IRS will not approve modification under paragraph (d)(2) of this section unless prior to the expiration of the 270-day period described in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, the partnership representative provides to the IRS, in the form and manner prescribed by the IRS, an affidavit from each relevant partner signed under penalties of perjury by such partner stating that all of the amended returns required to be filed under paragraph (d)(2) of this section has been filed (including the date on which such amended returns were filed) and that the full amount of tax, penalties, additions to tax, additional amounts, and interest was paid (including the date on which such amounts were paid).

(iv)Period of limitations. Generally, the period of limitations under sections 6501 and 6511 do not apply to an amended return filed under paragraph (d)(2) of this section provided the amended return otherwise meets the requirements of paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

(v)Amended returns in the case of adjustments allocated through certain pass-through partners. A request for modification related to an amended return of a relevant partner that is an indirect partner holding its interest in the partnership (directly or indirectly) through a pass-through partner that could be subject to tax imposed by chapter 1 (chapter 1 tax) on the partnership adjustments that are properly allocated to such pass-through partner will not be approved unless the partnership -

(A) Establishes that the pass-through partner is not subject to chapter 1 tax on the adjustments that are properly allocated to such pass-through partner; or

(B)Requests modification with respect to the adjustments resulting in chapter 1 tax for the pass-through partner, including full payment of such chapter 1 tax for the first affected year and all modification years under paragraph (d)(2) of this section or in accordance with forms, instructions, or other guidance prescribed by the IRS.

(vi)Amended returns in the case of pass-through partners -

(A)Pass-through partners may file amended returns. A relevant partner that is a pass-through partner, including a partnership-partner (as defined in § 301.6241-1(a)(7)) that has a valid election under section 6221(b) in effect for a partnership taxable year, may, in accordance with forms, instructions, and other guidance provided by the IRS and solely for purposes of modification under paragraph (d)(2) of this section, take into account its share of the partnership adjustments and determine and pay an amount calculated in the same manner as the amount computed under § 301.6226-3(e)(4)(iii) subject to paragraph (d)(2)(vi)(B) of this section.

(B)Modifications with respect to upper-tier partners of the pass-through partner. In accordance with forms, instructions, and other guidance provided by the IRS, for purposes of determining and calculating the amount a pass-through partner must pay under paragraph (d)(2)(vi)(A) of this section, the pass-through partner may take into account modifications with respect to its direct and indirect partners to the extent that such modifications are requested by the partnership requesting modification and approved by the IRS under this section.

(vii)Limitations on amended returns -

(A)In general. A relevant partner may not file an amended return or claim for refund that takes into account partnership adjustments except as described in paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

(B)Further amended returns restricted. Except as described in paragraph (d)(2)(vii)(C) of this section, if a relevant partner files an amended return under paragraph (d)(2) of this section, or satisfies paragraph (d)(2) of this section by following the alternative procedure under paragraph (d)(2)(x) of this section (the alternative procedure), such partner may not file a subsequent amended return or claim for refund to change the treatment of partnership adjustments taken into account through amended return or the alternative procedure.

(C)Subsequent returns in the case of changes to partnership adjustments or denial of modification. Notwithstanding paragraph (d)(2)(vii)(B) of this section, a relevant partner that has previously filed an amended return under paragraph (d)(2) of this section, or satisfied the requirements of paragraph (d)(2) of this section through the alternative procedure, to take partnership adjustments into account may, in accordance with forms, instructions, and other guidance prescribed by the IRS, file a subsequent return or claim for refund if a determination is made by a court or by the IRS that results in a change to the partnership adjustments taken into account in modification under paragraph (d)(2) of this section or a denial of modification by the IRS under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section with respect to a modification request under paragraph (d)(2) of this section. Such determinations include a court decision that changes the partnership adjustments for which modification was requested or a settlement between the IRS and the partnership pursuant to which the partnership is not liable for all or a portion of the imputed underpayment for which modification was requested. Any amended return or claim for refund filed under this paragraph (d)(2)(vii) is subject to the period of limitations under section 6511.

(viii)Penalties. The applicability of any penalties, additions to tax, or additional amounts that relate to an adjustment to a partnership-related item is determined at the partnership level in accordance with section 6221(a). However, the amount of penalties, additions to tax, and additional amounts a relevant partner must pay under paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section for the first affected year and for any modification year is based on the underpayment or understatement of tax, if any, reflected on the amended return filed by the relevant partner under paragraph (d)(2) of this section. For instance, if after taking into account the adjustments, the return of the relevant partner for the first affected year or any modification year reflects an underpayment or an understatement that falls below the applicable threshold for the imposition of a penalty under section 6662(d), no penalty would be due from that relevant partner for such year. Unless forms, instructions or other guidance provided by the IRS allow for an alternative procedure for raising a partner-level defense (as described in § 301.6226-3(d)(3)), a relevant partner may raise a partner-level defense by first paying the penalty, addition to tax, or additional amount with the amended return filed under paragraph (d)(2) of this section and then filing a claim for refund in accordance with forms, instructions, and other guidance.

(ix)Effect on tax attributes binding. Any adjustments to the tax attributes of any relevant partner which are affected by modification under paragraph (d)(2) of this section are binding on the relevant partner with respect to the first affected year and all modification years (as defined in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(B) of this section). A failure to adjust any tax attribute in accordance with this paragraph (d)(2)(ix) is a failure to treat a partnership-related item in a manner which is consistent with the treatment of such item on the partnership return within the meaning of section 6222. The provisions of section 6222(c) and § 301.6222-1(c) (regarding notification of inconsistent treatment) do not apply with respect to tax attributes under this paragraph (d)(2)(ix).

(x)Alternative procedure to filing amended returns -

(A)In general. A partnership may satisfy the requirements of paragraph (d)(2) of this section by submitting on behalf of a relevant partner, in accordance with forms, instructions, and other guidance provided by the IRS, all information and payment of any tax, penalties, additions to tax, additional amounts, and interest that would be required to be provided if the relevant partner were filing an amended return under paragraph (d)(2) of this section, except as otherwise provided in relevant forms, instructions, and other guidance provided by the IRS. A relevant partner for which the partnership seeks modification under paragraph (d)(2)(x) of this section must agree to take into account, in accordance with forms, instructions, and other guidance provided by the IRS, adjustments to any tax attributes of such relevant partner. A modification request submitted in accordance with the alternative procedure under paragraph (d)(2)(x) of this section is not a claim for refund with respect to any person.

(B)Modifications with respect to reallocation adjustments. A submission made in accordance with paragraph (d)(2)(x) of this section with respect to any relevant partner is treated as if such relevant partner filed an amended return for purposes of paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(C) of this section (regarding the requirement that all relevant partners affected by a reallocation must file an amended return to be eligible to for the modification under paragraph (d)(2) of this section) provided the submission is with respect to the first affected year and all modification years of such relevant partner as required under paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

(3)Tax-exempt partners -

(i)In general. A partnership may request modification of an imputed underpayment with respect to partnership adjustments that the partnership demonstrates to the satisfaction of the IRS are allocable to a relevant partner that would not owe tax by reason of its status as a tax-exempt entity (as defined in paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section) in the reviewed year (tax-exempt partner).

(ii)Definition of tax-exempt entity. For purposes of paragraph (d)(3) of this section, the term tax-exempt entity means a person or entity defined in section 168(h)(2)(A), (C), or (D).

(iii)Modification limited to portion of partnership adjustments for which tax-exempt partner not subject to tax. Only the portion of the partnership adjustments properly allocated to a tax-exempt partner with respect to which the partner would not be subject to tax for the reviewed year (tax-exempt portion) may form the basis of a modification of the imputed underpayment under paragraph (d)(3) of this section. A modification under paragraph (d)(3) of this section will not be approved by the IRS unless the partnership provides documentation in accordance with paragraph (c)(2) of this section to support the tax-exempt partner's status and the tax-exempt portion of the partnership adjustment allocable to the tax-exempt partner.

(4)Modification based on a rate of tax lower than the highest applicable tax rate. A partnership may request modification based on a lower rate of tax for the reviewed year with respect to adjustments that are attributable to a relevant partner that is a C corporation and adjustments with respect to capital gains or qualified dividends that are attributable to a relevant partner who is an individual. In no event may the lower rate determined under the preceding sentence be less than the highest rate in effect for the reviewed year with respect to the type of income and taxpayer. For instance, with respect to adjustments that are attributable to a C corporation, the highest rate in effect for the reviewed year with respect to all C corporations would apply to that adjustment, regardless of the rate that would apply to the C corporation based on the amount of that C corporation's taxable income. For purposes of this paragraph (d)(4), an S corporation is treated as an individual.

(5)Certain passive losses of publicly traded partnerships -

(i)In general. In the case of a publicly traded partnership (as defined in section 469(k)(2)) requesting modification under this section, an imputed underpayment is determined without regard to any adjustment that the partnership demonstrates would be reduced by a specified passive activity loss (as defined in paragraph (d)(5)(ii) of this section) which is allocable to a specified partner (as defined in paragraph (d)(5)(iii) of this section) or qualified relevant partner (as defined in paragraph (d)(5)(iv) of this section).

(ii)Specified passive activity loss. A specified passive activity loss carryover amount for any specified partner or qualified relevant partner of a publicly traded partnership is the lesser of the section 469(k) passive activity loss of that partner which is separately determined with respect to such partnership -

(A) At the end of the first affected year (affected year loss); or

(B) At the end of -

(1) The specified partner's taxable year in which or with which the adjustment year (as defined in § 301.6241-1(a)(1)) of the partnership ends, reduced to the extent any such partner has utilized any portion of its affected year loss to offset income or gain relating to the ownership or disposition of its interest in such publicly traded partnership during either the adjustment year or any other year; or

(2) If the adjustment year has not yet been determined, the most recent year for which the publicly traded partnership has filed a return under section 6031, reduced to the extent any such partner has utilized any portion of its affected year loss to offset income or gain relating to the ownership or disposition of its interest in such publicly traded partnership during any year.

(iii)Specified partner. A specified partner is a person that for each taxable year beginning with the first affected year through the person's taxable year in which or with which the partnership adjustment year ends satisfies the following three requirements-

(A) The person is a partner of the publicly traded partnership requesting modification under this section;

(B) The person is an individual, estate, trust, closely held C corporation, or personal service corporation; and

(C) The person has a specified passive activity loss with respect to the publicly traded partnership.

(iv)Qualified relevant partner. A qualified relevant partner is a relevant partner that meets the three requirements to be a specified partner (as described in paragraphs (d)(5)(iii)(A), (B), and (C) of this section) for each year beginning with the first affected year through the year described in paragraph (d)(5)(ii)(B)(2) of this section. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, an indirect partner of the publicly traded partnership requesting modification under this section may also be a qualified relevant partner under this paragraph (d)(5)(iv) if that indirect partner meets the requirements of paragraph (d)(5)(iii)(B) and (C) of this section for each year beginning with the first affected year through the year described in paragraph (d)(5)(ii)(B)(2) of this section.

(v)Partner notification requirement to reduce passive losses. If the IRS approves a modification request under paragraph (d)(5) of this section, the partnership must report, in accordance with forms, instructions, or other guidance prescribed by the IRS, to each specified partner the amount of that specified partner's reduction of its suspended passive activity loss carryovers at the end of the adjustment year to take into account the amount of any passive activity losses applied in connection with such modification request. In the case of a qualified relevant partner, the partnership must report, in accordance with forms, instructions, or other guidance prescribed by the IRS, to each qualified relevant partner the amount of that qualified relevant partner's reduction of its suspended passive activity loss carryovers at the end of the taxable year for which the partnership's next return is due to be filed under section 6031 to be taken into account by the qualified relevant partner on the partner's return for the year that includes the end of the partnership's taxable year for which the partnership's next return is due to be filed under section 6031. In the case of an indirect partner that is a qualified relevant partner, the IRS may prescribe additional guidance through forms, instructions, or other guidance to require reporting under this paragraph (d)(5)(v). The reduction in suspended passive activity loss carryovers as reported to a specified partner or qualified relevant partner under this paragraph (d)(5)(v) is a determination of the partnership under subchapter C of chapter 63 and is binding on the specified partners and qualified relevant partners under section 6223.

(6)Modification of the number and composition of imputed underpayments -

(i)In general. A partnership may request modification of the number or composition of any imputed underpayment included in the NOPPA by requesting that the IRS include one or more partnership adjustments in a particular grouping or subgrouping (as described in § 301.6225-1(c) and (d)) or specific imputed underpayments (as described in § 301.6225-1(g)) different from the grouping, subgrouping, or imputed underpayment set forth in the NOPPA. For example, a partnership may request under paragraph (d)(6) of this section that one or more partnership adjustments taken into account to determine a general imputed underpayment set forth in the NOPPA be taken into account to determine a specific imputed underpayment.

(ii)Request for particular treatment regarding limitations or restrictions. A modification request under paragraph (d)(6) of this section includes a request that one or more partnership adjustments be treated as if no limitations or restrictions under § 301.6225-1(d) apply and as a result such adjustments may be subgrouped with other adjustments.

(7)Partnerships with partners that are “qualified investment entities” described in section 860 -

(i)In general. A partnership may request a modification of an imputed underpayment based on the partnership adjustments allocated to a relevant partner where the modification is based on deficiency dividends distributed as described in section 860(f) by a relevant partner that is a qualified investment entity (QIE) under section 860(b) (which includes both a regulated investment company (RIC) and a real estate investment trust (REIT)). Modification under paragraph (d)(7) of this section is available only to the extent that the deficiency dividends take into account adjustments described in § 301.6225-1 that are also adjustments within the meaning of section 860(d)(1) or (d)(2) (whichever applies).

(ii)Documentation of deficiency dividend. The partnership must provide documentation in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section of the “determination” described in section 860(e). Under section 860(e)(2), § 1.860-2(b)(1)(i) of this chapter, and paragraph (d)(8) of this section, a closing agreement entered into by the QIE partner pursuant to section 7121 and paragraph (d)(8) of this section is a determination described in section 860(e), and the date of the determination is the date in which the closing agreement is approved by the IRS. In addition, under section 860(e)(4), a determination also includes a Form 8927, Determination Under Section 860(e)(4) by a Qualified Investment Entity, properly completed and filed by the RIC or REIT pursuant to section 860(e)(4). To establish the date of the determination under section 860(e)(4) and the amount of deficiency dividends actually paid, the partnership must provide a copy of Form 976, Claim for Deficiency Dividends Deductions by a Personal Holding Company, Regulated Investment Company, or Real Estate Investment Trust, properly completed by or on behalf of the QIE pursuant to section 860(g), together with a copy of each of the required attachments for Form 976.

(8)Closing agreements. A partnership may request modification based on a closing agreement entered into by the IRS and the partnership or any relevant partner, or both if appropriate, pursuant to section 7121. If modification under this paragraph (d)(8) is approved by the IRS, any partnership adjustment that is taken into account under such closing agreement and for which any required payment under the closing agreement is made will not be taken into account in determining the imputed underpayment under § 301.6225-1. Any required payment under the closing agreement may include amounts of tax, including tax under chapters other than chapter 1, interest, penalties, additions to tax and additional amounts. Generally, the IRS will not approve any additional modification under this section with respect to a relevant partner to which a modification under this paragraph (d)(8) has been approved.

(9)Tax treaty modifications. A partnership may request a modification under this paragraph (d)(9) with respect to a relevant partner's distributive share of an adjustment to a partnership-related item if, in the reviewed year, the relevant partner was a foreign person who qualified under an income tax treaty with the United States for a reduction or exemption from tax with respect to such partnership-related item. A partnership requesting modification under this section may also request a treaty modification under this paragraph (d)(9) regardless of the treaty status of its partners if, in the reviewed year, the partnership itself was an entity eligible for such treaty benefits.

(10)Other modifications. A partnership may request a modification not otherwise described in paragraph (d) of this section, and the IRS will determine whether such modification is accurate and appropriate in accordance with paragraph (c)(4) of this section. Additional types of modifications and the documentation necessary to substantiate such modifications may be set forth in forms, instructions, or other guidance prescribed by the IRS.

(e)Modification of adjustments that do not result in an imputed underpayment. A partnership may request modification of adjustments that do not result in an imputed underpayment (as described in § 301.6225-1(f)(1)(ii)) using modifications described in paragraph (d)(2) of this section (amended returns and the alternative procedure to filing amended returns), paragraph (d)(6) of this section (number and composition of the imputed underpayment), paragraph (d)(8) of this section (closing agreements), or, if applicable, paragraph (d)(10) of this section (other modifications).

(f)Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this section. For purposes of these examples, each partnership is subject to the provisions of subchapter C of chapter 63, each partnership and its relevant partners are calendar year taxpayers, all relevant partners are U.S. persons (unless otherwise stated), the highest rate of income tax in effect for all taxpayers is 40 percent for all relevant periods, and no partnership requests modification under this section except as provided in the example.

(1)Example 1.Partnership has two partners during its 2019 partnership taxable year: P and S. P is a partnership, and S is an S corporation. P has four partners during its 2019 partnership taxable year: A, C, T and DE. A is an individual, C is a C corporation, T is a trust, and DE is a wholly-owned entity disregarded as separate from its owner for Federal income tax purposes. The owner of DE is B, an individual. T has two beneficiaries during its 2019 taxable year: F and G, both individuals. S has 3 shareholders during its 2019 taxable year: H, J, and K, all individuals. For purposes of this section, if Partnership requests modification with respect to A, B, C, F, G, H, J, and K, those persons are all relevant partners (as defined in paragraph (a) of this section). P, S, and DE are not relevant partners (as defined in paragraph (a) of this section) because DE is a wholly-owned entity disregarded as separate from its owner for Federal income tax purposes and modification was not requested with respect to P and S.

(2)Example 2. The IRS initiates an administrative proceeding with respect to Partnership's 2019 taxable year. The IRS mails a NOPPA to Partnership for the 2019 partnership taxable year proposing a single partnership adjustment increasing ordinary income by $100, resulting in a $40 imputed underpayment ($100 multiplied by the 40 percent tax rate). Partner A, an individual, held a 20 percent interest in Partnership during 2019. Partnership timely requests modification under paragraph (d)(2) of this section based on A's filing an amended return for the 2019 taxable year taking into account $20 of the partnership adjustment and paying the tax and interest due attributable to A's share of the increased income and the tax rate applicable to A for the 2019 tax year. No tax attribute in any other taxable year of A is affected by A's taking into account A's share of the partnership adjustment for 2019. In accordance with paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section, Partnership's partnership representative provides the IRS with documentation demonstrating that A filed the 2019 return and paid all tax and interest due. The IRS approves the modification and, in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the $20 increase in ordinary income allocable to A is not included in the calculation of the total netted partnership adjustment (determined in accordance with § 301.6225-1). Partnership's total netted partnership adjustment is reduced to $80 ($100 adjustment less $20 taken into account by A), and the imputed underpayment is reduced to $32 (total netted partnership adjustment of $80 after modification multiplied by 40 percent).

(3)Example 3. The IRS initiates an administrative proceeding with respect to Partnership's 2019 taxable year. Partnership has two equal partners during its entire 2019 taxable year: an individual, A, and a partnership-partner, B. During all of 2019, B has two equal partners: a tax-exempt entity, C, and an individual, D. The IRS mails a NOPPA to Partnership for its 2019 taxable year proposing a single partnership adjustment increasing Partnership's ordinary income by $100, resulting in a $40 imputed underpayment ($100 total netted partnership adjustment multiplied by 40 percent). Partnership timely requests modification under paragraph (d)(3) of this section with respect to B's partner, C, a tax-exempt entity. In accordance with paragraph (d)(3)(iii) of this section, Partnership's partnership representative provides the IRS with documentation substantiating to the IRS's satisfaction that C held a 25 percent indirect interest in Partnership through its interest in B during the 2019 taxable year, that C was a tax-exempt entity defined in paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section during the 2019 taxable year, and that C was not subject to tax with respect to its entire allocable share of the partnership adjustment allocated to B (which is $25 (50 percent × 50 percent × $100)). The IRS approves the modification and, in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the $25 increase in ordinary income allocated to C, through B, is not included in the calculation of the total netted partnership adjustment (determined in accordance with § 301.6225-1). Partnership's total netted partnership adjustment is reduced to $75 ($100 adjustment less C's share of the adjustment, $25), and the imputed underpayment is reduced to $30 (total netted partnership adjustment of $75, after modification, multiplied by 40 percent).

(4)Example 4. The facts are the same as in Example 3 in paragraph (f)(3) of this section, except $10 of the $25 of the adjustment allocated to C is unrelated business taxable income (UBTI) as defined in section 512 because it is debt-financed income within the meaning of section 514 (no section 512 UBTI modifications apply) with respect to which C would be subject to tax if taken into account by C. As a result, the modification under paragraph (d)(3) of this section with respect to C relates only to $15 of the $25 of ordinary income allocated to C that is not UBTI. Therefore, only a modification of $15 ($25 less $10) of the total $100 partnership adjustment may be approved by the IRS under paragraph (d)(3) of this section and, in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section, excluded when determining the imputed underpayment for Partnership's 2019 taxable year. The total netted partnership adjustment (determined in accordance with § 301.6225-1) is reduced to $85 ($100 less $15), and the imputed underpayment is reduced to $34 (total netted partnership adjustment of $85, after modification, multiplied by 40 percent).

(5)Example 5. The facts are the same as in Example 3 in paragraph (f)(3) of this section, except that Partnership also timely requests modification under paragraph (d)(2) of this section with respect to an amended return filed by B, and, in accordance with (d)(2)(iii) of this section, Partnership's partnership representative provides the IRS with documentation demonstrating that B filed the 2019 return and paid all tax and interest due. B reports 50 percent of the partnership adjustments ($50) on its amended return, and B calculates an amount under paragraph (d)(2)(vi)(A) of this section and § 301.6226-3(e)(4)(iii) that, pursuant to paragraph (d)(2)(vi)(B) of this section, takes into account the modification under paragraph (d)(3) of this section approved by the IRS with respect to B's partner C, a tax-exempt entity. B makes a payment pursuant to paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section, and the IRS approves the requested modification. Partnership's total netted partnership adjustment is reduced by $50 (the amount taken into account by B). Partnership's total netted partnership adjustment (determined in accordance with § 301.6225-1) is $50, and the imputed underpayment, after modification, is $20.

(6)Example 6. The facts are the same as in Example 3 in paragraph (f)(3) of this section, except that in addition to the modification with respect to tax-exempt entity C, which reduced the imputed underpayment by excluding from the determination of the imputed underpayment $25 of the $100 partnership adjustment reflected in the NOPPA, Partnership timely requests modification under paragraph (d)(2) of this section with respect to an amended return filed by individual D, and, in accordance with paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section, Partnership's partnership representative provides the IRS with documentation demonstrating that D filed the 2019 return and paid all tax and interest due. D's amended return for D's 2019 taxable year takes into account D's share of the partnership adjustment (50 percent of B's 50 percent interest in Partnership, or $25) and D paid the tax and interest due as a result of taking into account D's share of the partnership adjustment in accordance with paragraph (d)(2) of this section. No tax attribute in any other taxable year of D is affected by D taking into account D's share of the partnership adjustment for 2019. The IRS approves the modification and the $25 increase in ordinary income allocable to D is not included in the calculation of the total netted partnership adjustment (determined in accordance with § 301.6225-1). As a result, Partnership's total netted partnership adjustment is $50 ($100, less $25 allocable to C, less $25 taken into account by D), and the imputed underpayment, after modification, is $20.

(7)Example 7. The IRS initiates an administrative proceeding with respect to Partnership's 2019 taxable year. All of Partnership's partners during its 2019 taxable year are individuals. The IRS mails a NOPPA to Partnership for the 2019 taxable year proposing three partnership adjustments. The first partnership adjustment is an increase to ordinary income of $75 for 2019. The second partnership adjustment is an increase in the depreciation deduction allowed for 2019 of $25, which under § 301.6225-1(d)(2)(i) is treated as a $25 decrease in income. The third adjustment is an increase in long-term capital gain of $10 for 2019. Under the partnership agreement in effect for Partnership's 2019 taxable year, the long-term capital gain and the increase in depreciation would be specially allocated to B and the increase in ordinary income would be specially allocated to A. In accordance with § 301.6225-1(c) and (d), the three adjustments are placed into three separate subgroupings within the residual grouping because the partnership adjustments would not have been netted at the partnership level and would not have been required to be allocated to the partners of the partnership as a single, net partnership-related item for purposes of section 702(a), other provisions of the Code, regulations, forms, instructions, or other guidance prescribed by the IRS. Accordingly, the total netted partnership adjustment is $85 ($75 net positive adjustment to ordinary income plus $10 net positive adjustment to long term capital gain), and the imputed under payment is $34 ($85 multiplied by 40 percent). The net negative adjustment to depreciation is an adjustment that does not result in an imputed underpayment subject to treatment under § 301.6225-3. Partnership requests a modification under paragraph (d)(6) of this section to determine a specific imputed underpayment with respect to the $75 adjustment to ordinary income allocated to A. The specific imputed underpayment is with respect to $75 of the increase in income specially allocated to A and the general imputed underpayment is with respect to $10 of the increase in capital gain and the $25 increase in depreciation deduction specially allocated to B. If the modification is approved by the IRS, the specific imputed underpayment would consist of the $75 increase in ordinary income, and thus the total netted partnership adjustment for the specific imputed underpayment would be $75. The specific imputed underpayment is thus $30 ($75 multiplied by 40 percent). The general imputed underpayment would consist of two adjustments: The long term capital gain adjustment and the depreciation adjustment. The long term capital gain adjustment and the depreciation adjustment would be placed in different subgroupings under § 301.6225-1(d) because they are treated separately under section 702. Accordingly, the long term capital gain adjustment and the depreciation adjustment are not netted, and the long term capital gain adjustment would be a net positive adjustment while the depreciation adjustment would be a net negative adjustment. The long term capital gain net positive adjustment would be the only net positive adjustment, resulting in a total netted partnership adjustment of $10. The general imputed underpayment is $4 ($10 multiplied by 40 percent), and the net negative adjustment to depreciation of $25 would be an adjustment that does not result in an imputed underpayment under § 301.6225-1(f) associated with the general imputed underpayment.

(8)Example 8.Partnership has two reviewed year partners, C1 and C2, both of which are C corporations. The IRS mails to Partnership a NOPPA with two adjustments, both based on rental real estate activity. The first adjustment is an increase of rental real estate income of $100 attributable to Property A. The second adjustment is an increase of rental real estate loss of $30 attributable to Property B. The Partnership did not treat the leasing arrangement with respect to Property A and Property B as an appropriate economic unit for purposes of section 469. If the $100 increase in income attributable to Property A and the $30 increase in loss attributable to Property B were included in the same subgrouping and netted, then taking the $30 increase in loss into account would result in a decrease in the amount of the imputed underpayment. Also, the $30 increased loss might be limited or restricted if taken into account by any person under the passive activity rules under section 469. For instance, under section 469, rental activities of the two properties could be treated as two activities, which could limit a partner's ability to claim the loss. In addition to the potential limitations under section 469, there are other potential limitations that might apply if the $30 loss were taken into account by any person. Therefore, in accordance with § 301.6225-1(d), the two adjustments are placed in separate subgroupings within the residual grouping, the total netted partnership adjustment is $100, the imputed underpayment is $40 ($100 × 40 percent), and the $30 increase in loss is an adjustment that does not result in an imputed underpayment under § 301.6225-1(f). Partnership requests modification under paragraph (d)(6) of this section, substantiating to the satisfaction of the IRS that C1 and C2 are publicly traded C corporations, and therefore, the passive activity loss limitations under section 469 of the Code do not apply. Partnership also substantiates to the satisfaction of the IRS that no other limitation or restriction applies that would prevent the grouping of the $100 with the $30 loss. The IRS approves Partnership's modification request and places the $100 of income and the $30 loss into the subgrouping in the residual grouping under the rules described in § 301.6225-1(c)(5). Under § 301.6225-1(e), because the two adjustments are in one subgrouping, they are netted together, resulting in a total netted partnership adjustment of $70 ($100 plus −$30) and an imputed underpayment of $28 ($70 × 40 percent). After modification, none of the adjustments is an adjustment that does not result in an imputed underpayment under § 301.6225-1(f) because the $30 loss is now netted with the $100 of income in a net positive adjustment for the residual grouping.

(g)Applicability date -

(1)In general. Except as provided in paragraph (g)(2) of this section, this section applies to partnership taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, and ending after August 12, 2018.

(2)Election under § 301.9100-22 in effect. This section applies to any partnership taxable year beginning after November 2, 2015, and before January 1, 2018, for which a valid election under § 301.9100-22 is in effect.

[T.D. 9844, 84 FR 6539, Feb. 27, 2019]