26 CFR § 301.6361-2 - Judicial and administrative proceedings; Federal representation of State interests.
(a) Civil proceedings -
(1) General rule. Any person shall have the same right to bring or contest a civil action, and to obtain a review thereof, with respect to a qualified tax (including the current collection thereof) in the same court or courts which would be available to him, and pursuant to the same requirements and procedures to which he would be subject, under chapter 76 (relating to judicial proceedings), and under title 28 of the United States Code (relating to the judiciary and judicial procedure), if the tax were imposed by section 1 or chapter 24 of the Internal Revenue Code. For purposes of this section, the term “person” includes the Federal Government. Except as provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph (a), to the extent that the preceding sentence provides judicial procedures (including review procedures) with respect to any matter, such procedures shall replace civil judicial procedures under State law.
(2) Exception. The right or power of the courts of any State to pass on matters involving the constitution of such State is unaffected by any provision of this paragraph; however, the jurisdiction of a State court in such matters shall not extend beyond the issue of constitutionality. Thus, if in a case involving the validity of a qualified tax statute under the State constitution, the State court holds such statute constitutional, such court shall not proceed to decide the amount of the tax liability.
(b) Criminal proceedings. Only the Federal Government shall have the right to bring a criminal action with respect to a qualified tax (including the current collection thereof). Such an action shall be brought in the same court or courts which would be available to the Federal Government, and pursuant to the same requirements and procedures to which the Federal Government would be subject, if the tax were imposed by section 1 or chapter 24 of the Internal Revenue Code.
(c) Administrative proceedings. Any person shall have the same rights in administrative proceedings of the Internal Revenue Service with respect to a qualified tax (including the current collection thereof) which would be available to him, and shall be subject to the same administrative requirements and procedures to which he would be subject, if the tax were imposed by section 1 or chapter 24 of the Internal Revenue Code.
(d) United States representation of State interests -
(1) General rule. Except as provided in subparagraphs (2) and (3) of this paragraph (d), the Federal Government shall appear on behalf of any State the qualified tax of which it collects (or did collect for the year in issue), and shall represent such State's interests in any administrative or judicial proceeding, either civil or criminal in nature, which relates to the administration and collection of such qualified tax, in the same manner as it represents the interests of the United States in corresponding proceedings involving Federal income tax matters.
(A) The proceeding is one which is initiated by the United States against the State, or by the State against the United States, and no individual (except in his official capacity as a governmental official) is an original party to the proceeding, or
(3) Finality of Federal administrative determinations. State and local government officials and employees may not review Federal administrative determinations concerning tax liabilities of, refunds owed to, or criminal prosecutions of, individuals with respect to qualified taxes. See, however, § 301.6363-3 relating to State administration of a qualified tax with respect to transition years. If requested by an electing State, the Commissioner or his delegate may, under terms and conditions set forth in an agreement with such State, permit such State to carry on operations supplementary to the Federal administration of the State's qualified tax (including supplemental audits or examinations of tax returns by State audit personnel), but all administrative determinations shall be made by the Federal Government without review by the State. An agreement which permits supplemental audits or examinations of tax returns by State audit personnel shall provide that the audits and examinations shall be conducted under the supervision and control of the Commissioner or his delegate, who shall have the authority to determine which returns shall be audited and when the audits shall occur. Also, such agreements shall provide that the results of any such supplemental audit shall be referred to the Commissioner or his delegate for final administrative determination. The Commissioner or his delegate shall, to the extent permitted by law, allow an electing State reasonable access to tax returns and other appropriate records and information relating to its qualified tax for the purpose of conducting any such supplemental operations. In addition, the Secretary or his delegate shall permit an electing State to inspect the workpapers which are compiled in the course of verification by the Treasury Department of the correctness of the accounting by which the amounts of the actual net collections attributable to the electing State's qualified taxes are determined.