26 CFR § 301.7425-2 - Discharge of liens; nonjudicial sales.

§ 301.7425-2 Discharge of liens; nonjudicial sales.

(a) In general. Section 7425(b) contains provisions with respect to the effect on the interest of the United States in property in which the United States has or claims a lien, or a title derived from the enforcement of a lien, of a sale made pursuant to -

(1) An instrument creating a lien on the property sold,

(2) A confession of judgment on the obligation secured by an instrument creating a lien on the property sold, or

(3) A statutory lien on the property sold.

For purposes of this section, such a sale is referred to as a “nonjudicial sale.” The term “nonjudicial sale” includes, but is not limited to, the divestment of the taxpayer's interest in property which occurs by operation of law, by public or private sale, by forfeiture, or by termination under provisions contained in a contract for a deed or a conditional sales contract. Under section 7425(b)(1), if a notice of lien is filed in accordance with section 6323 (f) or (g), or the title derived from the enforcement of a lien is recorded as provided by local law, more than 30 days before the date of sale, and the appropriate district director is not given notice of the sale (in the manner prescribed in § 301.7425-3), the sale shall be made subject to and without disturbing the lien or title of the United States. Under section 7425(b)(2)(C), in any case in which notice of the sale is given to the district director not less than 25 days prior to the date of sale (in the manner prescribed in section 7425(c)(1)), the sale shall have the same effect with respect to the discharge or divestment of the lien or title as may be provided by local law with respect to other junior liens or other titles derived from the enforcement of junior liens. A nonjudicial sale pursuant to a lien which is junior to a tax lien does not divest the tax lien, even though notice of the nonjudicial sale is given to the appropriate district director. However, under the provisions of section 6325(b) and § 301.6325-1, a district director may discharge the property from a tax lien, including a tax lien which is senior to another lien upon the property.

(b) Date of sale. In the case of a nonjudicial sale subject to the provisions of section 7425(b), in order to compute any period of time determined with reference to the date of sale, the date of sale shall be determined in accordance with the following rules:

(1) In the case of divestment of junior liens on property resulting directly from a public sale, the date of sale is deemed to be the date the public sale is held, regardless of the date under local law on which junior liens on the property are divested or the title to the property is transferred,

(2) In the case of divestment of junior liens on property resulting directly from a private sale, the date of sale is deemed to be the date title to the property is transferred, regardless of the date junior liens on the property are divested under local law, and

(3) In the case of divestment of junior liens on property not resulting directly from a public or private sale, the date of sale is deemed to be the date on which junior liens on the property are divested under local law.

For provisions relating to the right of redemption of the United States, see section 7425(d) and § 301.7425-4.

(c) Examples. The provisions of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
(i) Under the law of State M, upon entry of judgment, the judgment creditor obtains a statutory lien upon the real property of the judgment debtor, and certain procedures are provided by which the judgment creditor may execute by public sale upon such real property. These procedures provide, among other things, for notification by personal service or registered or certified mail to other lien creditors, if any, and publication of a notice of the sale in a local newspaper. After the expiration of a prescribed period of time after such notification and publication, the sheriff of the county where the real property is located may sell the property at public sale. After payment of the amount bid at the public sale, the sheriff issues to the purchaser a deed to the real property, and the interests of junior lienors in the property are divested.

(ii) For purposes of this section, such an execution sale is a nonjudicial sale described in section 7425(b) because the sale is made pursuant to a statutory lien on the property sold. The date of sale, for purposes of computing a period of time determined with reference to the date of sale, is the date on which the public sale is held because junior liens on the real property are divested directly as a result of the public sale. This result obtains even though the junior liens are legally divested on a later date when the sheriff issues the deed.

Example 2.
(i) Under the law of State N, mortgages on real property may contain a power of sale which authorizes the mortgagee, upon breach by the mortgagor of one of the conditions of the mortgage, to have the mortgaged property sold at public sale. This public sale must be preceded by notice by advertisement in a local newspaper, and the time, place, description of the property, and other terms of the sale must be specified. The purchaser at such a public sale obtains a title to the real property which is not subject to a right of redemption by the mortgagor and which divests the interests of the junior lienors in the property.

(ii) For purposes of this section, a sale pursuant to such a power of sale is a nonjudicial sale described in section 7425(b) because the sale is made pursuant to the mortgage instrument which created a lien on the property sold. The date of the sale, for purposes of computing a period of time determined with reference to the date of sale, is the date of the public sale because junior liens on the property are divested directly as a result of the public sale.

Example 3.
Assume the same facts as in example 2 except that the purchaser at the public sale obtains a title which is defeasible by the exercise of a right of redemption in the mortgagor. The purchaser's title divests the interests of junior lienors in the property as of the time of public sale. The interests of junior leinors in the property revive if the mortgagor exercises his right of redemption. The date of the sale, for purposes of computing a period of time determined with reference to the date of sale, is the date of the public sale because junior liens on the property are divested directly as a result of the public sale although such junior liens may be revived by a subsequent redemption by the mortgagor.
Example 4.
(i) Under the law of State O, upon breach by a mortgagor of real property of one of the conditions of the mortgage, the mortgagee may foreclose the mortgage by securing possession of the property by one of several procedures provided by statute. These procedures are generally referred to as “strict foreclosure.” In order for a foreclosure to be effective under these procedures, a certificate attesting the fact of entry must be recorded with the proper registrar of deeds within 30 days after the mortgagee enters the property. During the one-year period following the date on which the certificate of entry is recorded, the mortgagor or a junior lienor may redeem the property by paying the mortgagee the amount of the mortgage obligation. If, during such one-year period the property is not redeemed and the mortgagee's possession is continued, the interests of the mortgagor and the junior lienors in the property are divested as of the date such one-year period expires.

(ii) For purposes of this section, such a foreclosure procedure is a nonjudicial sale described in section 7425(b) because it results in the divestment of the mortgagor's interest in the property by operation of law pursuant to the mortgage which created a lien on the property. In addition, because there is no public or private sale which directly results in the divestment of junior liens on the property, the date of sale, for purposes of computing a period of time determined with reference to the date of sale, is the date on which the one-year period following the recording of the certificate of entry expires.

Example 5.
The law of State P contains a procedure which permits a county to collect a delinquent tax assessment with respect to real property by the means of a tax sale of the property. First, a notice of a public auction with respect to the tax assessment on the real property is published in a local newspaper. At the public auction, the purchaser, upon payment of the delinquent taxes and interest, obtains from the county tax collector a tax certificate with respect to the real property. Because the obtaining of this tax certificate does not directly result in the divestment of either the owner's title or junior liens with respect to the property, the public auction is not a nonjudicial sale described in section 7425(b). At any time before a tax deed with respect to the property is issued by the clerk of the county court, the owner or any holder of a lien or other interest with respect to the property may obtain the tax certificate by paying the holder of the tax certificate the amount of the taxes, interest, and costs. After a date which is two years after the date on which the tax assessment became delinquent, the holder of the tax certificate may request the clerk of the county court to have the property advertised for sale. After advertisement of the sale, the clerk of the county court conducts a public sale of the real property and the purchaser obtains a tax deed. The interests of all junior lienors in the property are divested and the property is not subject to a right of redemption under the law of State P. For purposes of this section, this public sale is considered to be a nonjudicial sale described in section 7425(b) because the sale is made pursuant to a statutory lien on the property sold. The date of the sale, for purposes of computing a period of time determined with reference to the date of sale, is the date on which the public sale is held at which the purchaser obtains a tax deed as this sale directly results in the divestment of junior liens on the property.
Example 6.
The law of State Q contains a provision which permits a county to collect a delinquent tax assessment with respect to real property by the means of a tax sale of the property. After public notice is given, a “tax sale” of the real property is conducted. Upon payment of the delinquent taxes and interest, a purchaser obtains a tax certificate with respect to the real property. If there is no purchaser at the tax sale, the property is deemed to be bid in by the State. Because the obtaining of this tax certificate by a purchaser or State Q does not directly result in the divestment of either the owner's title or junior liens with respect to the property, the tax sale is not a nonjudicial sale described in section 7425(b). Following the tax sale, there is a three-year period during which any person having an interest in the property may redeem the property by paying the holder of the tax certificate the amount of taxes, interest, and costs. Unless, redeemed, the holder of the tax certificate may obtain an absolute title at the expiration of the period of redemption provided he serves a notice of the expiration of the redemption period upon the owner at least 60 days prior to the date of expiration. Because there is no public or private sale which directly results in the divestment of junior liens on the property, the date of sale, for purposes of computing a period of time determined with reference to the date of sale, is the date on which the holder of the tax certificate obtains absolute title.
[T.D. 7430, 41 FR 35178, Aug. 20, 1976]