26 CFR 521.104 - Definitions.
(a) As used in §§ 521.101 to 521.117, unless the context otherwise requires, the terms defined in the convention shall have the meanings so assigned to them. Any term used in §§ 521.101 to 521.117, which is not defined in the convention but which is defined in the Internal Revenue Code shall be given the definition contained therein unless the context otherwise requires.
(b) As used in §§ 521.101 to 521.117.
(1) The term “permanent establishment” means a branch office, factory, warehouse or other fixed place of business, but does not include the casual and temporary use of merely storage facilities. The fact that a Danish corporation has a domestic subsidiary corporation or a foreign subsidiary corporation having a branch in the United States, does not of itself constitute either subsidiary corporation a permanent establishment of the parent Danish enterprise. The fact that a Danish enterprise has business dealings in the United States through a bona fide commission agent, broker, or custodian, acting in the ordinary course of his business as such, or maintains in the United States an office or other fixed place of business used exclusively for the purchase of goods or merchandise, does not mean that such Danish enterprise has a permanent establishment in the United States. If, however, a Danish enterprise carries on business in the United States through an agent who has, and habitually exercises, a general authority to negotiate and conclude contracts on behalf of such enterprise or if it has an agent who maintains within the United States a stock of merchandise from which he regularly fills orders on behalf of his principal, then such enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the United States. However, an agent having power to contract on behalf of his principal but only at fixed prices and under conditions determined by the principal does not necessarily constitute a permanent establishment of such principal. The mere fact that an agent (assuming he has no general authority to contract on behalf of his employer or principal) maintains samples or occasionally fills orders from incidental stocks of goods maintained in the United States will not constitute a permanent establishment within the United States. The mere fact that salesmen, employees of a Danish enterprise, promote the sale of their employer's products in the United States or that such enterprise transacts business in the United States by means of mail order activities, does not mean such enterprise has a permanent establishment therein. The term “permanent establishment” as used in the convention implies the active conduct therein of a business enterprise. The mere ownership, for example, of timberlands or a warehouse in the United States by a Danish enterprise does not mean that such enterprise has a permanent establishment therein. As to the effect of the maintenance of a permanent establishment within the United States upon exemption from United States tax in the case of interest and royalties and reduction in the rate of United States tax in the case of dividends, see § 521.108.
(2) The term “enterprise” means any commercial or industrial undertaking whether conducted by an individual, partnership, corporation, or other entity. It includes such activities as manufacturing, merchandising, mining, processing, and banking. It does not include the rendition of personal services. Hence, a non resident alien who is a resident of Denmark and who renders personal services is not, merely by reason of such services, engaged in an enterprise within the meaning of the convention and his liability to United States tax is not affected by Article III of the convention.
(3) The term “Danish enterprise” means an enterprise carried on in Denmark by a resident of Denmark or by a Danish corporation or other entity. The term “Danish corporation or other entity” means a partnership, corporation or other entity created or organized in Denmark or under the laws of Denmark.
(4) The term “industrial or commercial profits” means profits arising from industrial, commercial, mercantile, manufacturing, and like activities of a Danish enterprise as defined in this section. Such term does not include rentals, royalties, interest, dividends, fees, compensation for personal services, nor gains derived from the sale or exchange of capital assets. Such enumerated items of income are not governed by the provisions of Article III of the convention.