26 CFR 5f.103-2 - Public approval of industrial development bonds.
(a) General rule. An industrial development bond (within the meaning of § 1.103-7(b)(1) issued after December 31, 1982, shall be treated as an obligation not described in section 103(a) unless it is issued as part of an issue which satisfies the public approval requirement of section 103(k) and paragraph (c) of this section or is described in the exceptions set forth in paragraph (b) of this section.
(b) Exceptions - (1) No extension of maturity. Paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to a refunding obligation if -
(i) It refunds an obligation which was approved under section 103(k) and this section (or which is treated as approved pursuant to paragraph (f) of this section), and
(ii) It has a maturity date which is not later than the maturity date of the obligation to be refunded.
(2) Refunding of pre-July 1, 1982, obligation. Paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to an obligation issued solely to refund an obligation which -
(i) Was issued before July 1, 1982, and
(ii) Has a term which does not exceed 3 years.
(c) Public approval requirement - (1) In general. An issue is publicly approved if prior to the date of issue the governmental unit(s) described in subparagraphs (2) and (3) this paragraph (c) approve the issue, in the manner described in paragraph (d) of this section. See paragraph (f) for rules pertaining to determining the scope of an approval and paragraph (g)(1) for the definition of “governmental unit”.
(2) Issuer approval. The governmental unit (i) which will issue the obligations or (ii) on behalf of which the issue is to be issued must approve the issue (“issuer approval”). If the issuer is not a governmental unit, the governmental unit on behalf of which the issuer acts shall be determined in a manner consistent with determinations under § 1.103-1, and such unit must approve the issue. However, in the case of an issuer which issues obligations on behalf of more than one governmental unit (e.g., an authority which acts for two counties), any one of such units may give the issuer approval required by this paragraph (c)(2).
(3) Host approval. Each governmental unit the geographic jurisdiction (as defined in paragraph (g)(4)) of which contains the site of a facility to be financed by the issue must approve the issue (“host approval”). However, if the entire site of a facility to be financed by the issue is within the geographic jurisdiction of more than one governmental unit within a State (counting the State as a governmental unit within such State), then any one of such units may provide host approval for the issue with respect to that facility. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(3), if property to be financed by the issue is located within two or more governmental units but not entirely within either of such units, each portion of the property which is located entirely within the smallest respective governmental units may be treated as a separate facility. The issuer approval (as described in paragraph (c)(2)) may be treated as a host approval if the governmental unit giving the issuer approval is also a governmental unit described in this paragraph (c)(3). See paragraph (e)(2) with respect to host approval by a governmental unit with no applicable elected representative.
(d) Method of public approval. For purposes of this section, an issue is approved by a governmental unit only if -
(1) An applicable elected representative (as defined in paragraph (e)) of such unit approves the issue following a public hearing (as defined in paragraph (g)(2)) held in a location which, under the facts and circumstances, is convenient for residents of the unit, and for which there was reasonable public notice (as defined in paragraph (g)(3)), or
(2) A referendum of the voters of the unit (as defined in paragraph (g)(5)) approves the issue.
(e) Applicable elected representative - (1) In general. The applicable elected representative of a governmental unit means -
(i) Its elected legislative body,
(ii) Its chief elected executive officer,
(iii) In the case of a State, the chief elected legal officer of the State's executive branch of government, or
(iv) Any official elected by the voters of the unit and designated for purposes of this section by the unit's chief elected executive officer or by State or local law to approve issues for the unit.
(2) Governmental unit with no applicable elected representative. (i) The applicable elected representatives of a governmental unit with no representative (but for this paragraph (e)(2) and section 103(k)(2)(E)(ii)) are deemed to be those of the next higher governmental unit (with an applicable elected representative) from which the governmental unit derives its authority. For purposes of this subparagraph (2), a governmental unit derives its authority from another unit which -
(A) Enacts a specific law (e.g., a provision in a State constitution, charter or statute) by or under which the governmental unit is created,
(B) Otherwise empowers or approves the creation of the governmental unit, or
(C) Appoints members to the governing body of the governmental unit.
(ii) In the case of a host approval (as required under paragraph (c)(3) of this section), a unit may be treated as the next higher unit, only if -
(A) The facility is located within its geographic jurisdiction, and
(B) Eligible individuals, if any, residing at the site of the facility are entitled to vote for the applicable elected representative of that unit (as determined under this paragraph (e)).
(3) On behalf of issuers. In the case of an issuer which is not a governmental unit but which issues bonds on behalf of a governmental unit, the applicable elected representative is any applicable elected representative of the unit on behalf of which the bonds are issued. If the unit on behalf of which the bonds are issued has no applicable elected representative (but for paragraph (e)(2) of this section), the applicable elected representative of the governmental unit is determined in the manner described in paragraph (e)(2).
(f) Scope of approval - (1) In general. Public approval is required by section 103(k) and this section for issues of industrial development bonds, except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. An issue is treated as approved if the governmental units (described in paragraph (c) of this section in relation to the issue) have approved either -
(i) The issue (by approving each facility to be financed), not more than one year before the date of issue, or
(ii) A plan of financing for each facility financed by the issue pursuant to which the issue in question is timely issued (as required in paragraph (f)(3) of this section).
(2) Information required. A facility is within the scope of an approval if the notice of hearing (when required) and the approval contain -
(i) A general, functional description of the type and use of the facility to be financed (e.g., “a 10,000 square foot machine shop and hardware manufacturing plant”, “400-room airport hotel building”, “dock facility for supertankers”, “convention center auditorium and sports arena with 25,000 seating capacity”, “air and water pollution control facilities for oil refinery”),
(ii) The maximum aggregate face amount of obligations to be issued with respect to the facility,
(iii) The initial owner, operator, or manager of the facility,
(iv) The prospective location of the facility by its street address or, if none, by a general description designed to inform readers of its specific location.
(3) Timely issuance pursuant to a plan of financing. An issue is timely issued pursuant to a plan of financing for a facility if -
(i) The issue is issued no later than 3 years after the first issue pursuant to the plan, and
(ii) The first such issue in whole or in part issued pursuant to the plan was issued no later than 1 year after the date of approval.
(4) Facility - definition. For purposes of this paragraph (f), the term “facility” includes a tract or adjoining tracts of land, the improvements thereon and any personal property used in connection with such real property. Separate tracts of land (including improvements and connected personal property) may be treated as one facility only if they are used in an integrated operation.
(g) Definitions. For purposes of this section -
(1) Governmental unit. Governmental unit has the same meaning as in § 1.103-1. Thus, a governmental unit is a State, territory, a possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, or any political subdivision thereof. The term “political subdivision” denotes any division of any State or local governmental unit which is a municipal corporation or which has been delegated the right to exercise part of the sovereign power of the unit.
(2) Public hearing. Public hearing means a forum providing a reasonable opportunity for interested individuals to express their views, both orally and in writing, on the proposed issue of bonds and the location and nature of a proposed facility to be financed. In general, a governmental unit may select its own procedure for the hearing, provided that interested individuals have a reasonable opportunity to express their views. Thus, it may impose reasonable requirements on persons who wish to participate in the hearing, such as a requirement that persons desiring to speak at the hearing so request in writing at least 24 hours before the hearing or that they limit their oral remarks to 10 minutes. For purposes of this public hearing requirement, it is not necessary, for example, that the applicable elected representative who will approve the bonds be present at the hearing, that a report on the hearing be submitted to that official, or that State administrative procedural requirements for public hearings in general be observed. However, compliance with such State procedural requirements (except those at variance with a specific requirement set forth in this section) will generally assure that the hearing satisfies the requirements of this section. The hearing may be conducted by any individual appointed or employed to perform such function by the governmental unit or its agencies, or by the issuer (if on behalf of issuer). Thus, for example, for bonds to be issued by an authority that acts on behalf of a county, the hearing may be conducted by the authority, the county, or an appointee or employee of either.
(3) Reasonable public notice. Reasonable public notice means published notice which is reasonably designed to inform residents of the affected governmental units, including residents of the issuing unit and the governmental unit where a facility is to be located, of the proposed issue. The notice must state the time and place for the hearing and contain the information contained in paragraph (f)(2) of this section. Notice is presumed reasonable if published no fewer than 14 days before the hearing. Except in the locality of the facility, publication is presumed to be reasonably designed to inform residents of the approving governmental unit if given in the same manner and same locations as required of the approving governmental unit for any other purposes for which applicable State or local law specifies a notice of public hearing requirement (including laws relating to notice of public meetings of the governmental unit). Notice is presumed reasonably designed to inform affected residents in the locality of the facility only if published in one or more newspapers of general circulation available to residents of that locality or if announced by radio or television broadcast to those residents.
(4) Geographic jurisdiction. Geographic jurisdiction is the area encompassed by the boundaries prescribed by State or local law for a governmental unit or, if there are no such boundaries, the area in which a unit may exercise such sovereign powers that make that unit a governmental unit for purposes of § 1.103-1 and this section.
(5) Voter referendum. A voter referendum is a vote by the voters of the affected governmental unit conducted in the manner and at such a time as voter referenda on matters relating to governmental spending or bond issuances by the governmental unit under applicable State and local law.
(h) Examples. The provisions of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:
(ii) State Z has a governor, an elected bicameral legislature and an appointed attorney general who is the chief legal officer of State Z. Under the laws of State Z, the attorney general must approve any issue of industrial development bonds. The approval by the attorney general is not a sufficient approval under this section, since the attorney general is not an applicable elected representative within the meaning of this section. Under the provisions of paragraphs (d) and (e), either the governor, both chambers of the legislature or any popularly elected official of the State who is designated for this purpose by the governor or by State law must approve the issue after the public notice and public hearing requirements are satisfied.
(ii) County Y has no elected officials or legislature. County Y derives its authority from State X which is the next higher governmental unit with an applicable elected representative. The laws of State X designate the attorney general, who is an official of State X elected at-large, as the official who must approve any issue of industrial development bonds for the State. Under this section, State X's attorney general is an applicable elected representative who may approve the issue after the public notice and public hearing requirements are satisfied.
(ii) Mayor A, the chief elected executive officer of City X, has designated, for purposes of this section, Deputy Mayor B, an official of City X elected at-large, to approve industrial development bond issues for the city. Under the provisions of paragraph (e), Deputy Mayor B may approve the issue, since he is an applicable elected representative, after the public notice and public hearing requirements are satisfied.
(ii) Counties M and N will approve the issue, but neither has any officials who are elected at-large by the voters of the respective governmental units. Both governmental units derive their authority from State X which is the next higher governmental unit with an applicable elected representative. Under the provisions of paragraph (e), an applicable elected representative of State X must approve the issue for Counties M and N after the public notice and public hearing requirements are satisfied.
(ii) Counties M and N will approve the issue. Each has a chief elected executive officer. Under the provisions of paragraphs (d) and (e), the chief elected executive officer of each county may approve the issue, after the public notice and public hearing requirements are satisfied.
(ii) Under the provisions of paragraphs (d) and (e), the governor of State X may approve the issue, after the public notice and public hearing requirements are satisfied. City Z (assuming that it give host approval for the bond) has a city council and a school board, both of which are elected legislative bodies with independent jurisdiction. The authority of the school board is limited under State law to matters directly concerning the provision of public education. Under paragraph (e), the school board is not an applicable elected representative of City Z but the city council is an applicable elected representative of City Z. The city council may approve the issue after the public hearing and public notice requirements are satisfied.
(ii) M, which has no elected officials or legislature, was created by both Counties N and O pursuant to a special statute of State Q permitting such a joint undertaking. Both Counties N and O have an applicable elected representative. Under the provisions of paragraph (e)(2), either County N, County O, or State Q is deemed to be the next higher governmental unit with an applicable elected representative, and an applicable elected representative from any of these units may give the issuer approval for Authority M. Therefore, either the applicable representative of County N, County O, or State Q can give the issuer approval for Authority M.
(iii) For purposes of the host approval, the issuer approval by M will satisfy the host approval requirement only if the applicable elected representative of County N or State Q gives issuer approval for M. Under the provisions of paragraph (e)(2), the host approval requirement is satisfied only if qualified persons residing at the site of the facility are entitled to vote for the applicable elected representative who gave the approval (i.e., the representative of State Q or County N). However, if the applicable elected representative of O gave issuer approval for Authority M, a separate host approval would be required because the residents of the sites where the projects are located (i.e., County N) could not note for the applicable elected representative of County O.
(iv) Public Housing Authority M conducts a public hearing concerning prospective housing projects following notice thereof published in a newspaper of general circulation in County N. Additionally, M provides notice to the residents of O (which are also within M's jurisdiction) in the manner required for notice of public hearing for other purposes under State Q law. Following the public hearing, the chief elected executive officer of County N approves for Authority M prospective issues for the project. M issues two $7 million issues, one for each project. One issue is issued six months after the date of approval; the second issue is issued thirteen months thereafter. On these facts, only the first issue satisfied the public approval requirement of this section.