29 CFR 1926.1433 - Design, construction and testing.
The following requirements apply to equipment that has a manufacturer-rated hoisting/lifting capacity of more than 2,000 pounds.
(a) Crawler, truck and locomotive cranes manufactured prior to November 8, 2010 must meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, and testing as prescribed in ANSI B30.5-1968 (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6), PCSA Std. No. 2 (1968) (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6), the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section, or the applicable DIN standards that were in effect at the time of manufacture.
(b) Mobile (including crawler and truck) and locomotive cranes manufactured on or after November 8, 2010 must meet the following portions of ASME B30.5-2004 (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6) as applicable:
(1) In section 5-1.1.1 (“Load Ratings - Where Stability Governs Lifting Performance”), paragraphs (a)-(d) (including subparagraphs).
(2) In section 5-1.1.2 (“Load Ratings - Where Structural Competence Governs Lifting Performance”), paragraph (b).
(3) Section 5-1.2 (“Stability (Backward and Forward)”).
(4) In section 5-1.3.1 (“Boom Hoist Mechanism”), paragraphs (a), (b)(1) and (b)(2), except that when using rotation resistant rope, § 1926.1414(c)(4)(ii)(A) applies.
(5) In section 5-1.3.2 (“Load Hoist Mechanism”), paragraphs (a)(2) through (a)(4) (including subparagraphs), (b) (including subparagraphs), (c) (first sentence only) and (d).
(6) Section 5-1.3.3 (“Telescoping Boom”).
(7) Section 5-1.4 (“Swing Mechanism”).
(8) In section 5-1.5 (“Crane Travel”), all provisions except 5-1.5.3(d).
(9) In section 5-1.6 (“Controls”), all provisions except 5-1.6.1 (c).
(10) Section 5-1.7.4 (“Sheaves”).
(11) Section 5-1.7.5 (“Sheave sizes”).
(12) In section 5-1.9.1 (“Booms”), paragraph (f).
(13) Section 5-1.9.3 (“Outriggers”).
(14) Section 5-1.9.4 (“Locomotive Crane Equipment”).
(15) Section 5-1.9.7 (“Clutch and Brake Protection”).
(16) In section 5-1.9.11 (“Miscellaneous equipment”), paragraphs (a), (c), (e), and (f).
(c) Prototype testing: mobile (including crawler and truck) and locomotive cranes manufactured on or after November 8, 2010 must meet the prototype testing requirements in Test Option A or Test Option B of this section. Tower cranes manufactured on or after November 8, 2010 must meet the prototype testing requirements in BS EN 14439:2006 (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6).
Prototype testing of crawler, locomotive and truck cranes manufactured prior to November 8, 2010 must conform to paragraph (a) of this section.
(1) Test Option A. (i) The following applies to equipment with cantilevered booms (such as hydraulic boom cranes): All the tests listed in SAE J1063 (Nov. 1993) Table 1 (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6) must be performed to load all critical structural elements to their respective limits. All the strength margins listed in SAE J1063 (Nov. 1993) Table 2 (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6) must be met.
(ii) The following applies to equipment with pendant supported lattice booms: All the tests listed in SAE J987 (Jun. 2003) Table 1 (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6) must be performed to load all critical structural elements to their respective limits. All the strength margins listed in SAE J987 (Jun. 2003) Table 2 (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6) must be met.
(2) Test Option B. The testing and verification requirements of BS EN 13000:2004 (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6) must be met. In applying BS EN 13000:2004, the following additional requirements must be met:
(i) The following applies to equipment with cantilevered booms (such as hydraulic boom cranes): The analysis methodology (computer modeling) must demonstrate that all load cases listed in SAE J1063 (Nov. 1993) (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6) meet the strength margins listed in SAE J1063 (Nov. 1993) Table 2.
(ii) The following applies to equipment with pendant supported lattice booms: The analysis methodology (computer modeling) must demonstrate that all load cases listed in SAE J987 (Jun. 2003) (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6) meet the strength margins listed in SAE J987 (Jun. 2003) Table 2.
(iii) Analysis verification. The physical testing requirements under SAE J1063 (Nov. 1993) (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6) and SAE J987 (Jun. 2003) (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6) must be met unless the reliability of the analysis methodology (computer modeling) has been demonstrated by a documented history of verification through strain gauge measuring or strain gauge measuring in combination with other physical testing.
(d) All equipment covered by this subpart must meet the following requirements:
(1) Rated capacity and related information. The information available in the cab (see § 1926.1417(c)) regarding “rated capacity” and related information must include, at a minimum, the following information:
(i) A complete range of the manufacturer's equipment rated capacities, as follows:
(A) At all manufacturer approved operating radii, boom angles, work areas, boom lengths and configurations, jib lengths and angles (or offset).
(B) Alternate ratings for use and nonuse of option equipment which affects rated capacities, such as outriggers, stabilizers, and extra counterweights.
(ii) A work area chart for which capacities are listed in the load chart. (Note: An example of this type of chart is in ASME B30.5-2004, section 5-1.1.3, Figure 11).
(iii) The work area figure and load chart must clearly indicate the areas where no load is to be handled.
(iv) Recommended reeving for the hoist lines must be shown.
(v) Recommended parts of hoist reeving, size, and type of wire rope for various equipment loads.
(vi) Recommended boom hoist reeving diagram, where applicable; size, type and length of wire rope.
(vii) Tire pressure (where applicable).
(viii) Caution or warnings relative to limitations on equipment and operating procedures, including an indication of the least stable direction.
(ix) Position of the gantry and requirements for intermediate boom suspension (where applicable).
(x) Instructions for boom erection and conditions under which the boom, or boom and jib combinations, may be raised or lowered.
(xi) Whether the hoist holding mechanism is automatically or manually controlled, whether free fall is available, or any combination of these.
(xii) The maximum telescopic travel length of each boom telescopic section.
(xiii) Whether sections are telescoped manually or with power.
(xiv) The sequence and procedure for extending and retracting the telescopic boom section.
(xv) Maximum loads permitted during the boom extending operation, and any limiting conditions or cautions.
(xvi) Hydraulic relief valve settings specified by the manufacturer.
(2) Load hooks (including latched and unlatched types), ball assemblies and load blocks must be of sufficient weight to overhaul the line from the highest hook position for boom or boom and jib lengths and the number of parts of the line in use.
(3) Hook and ball assemblies and load blocks must be marked with their rated capacity and weight.
(4) Latching hooks. (i) Hooks must be equipped with latches, except where the requirements of paragraph (d)(4)(ii) of this section are met.
(ii) Hooks without latches, or with latches removed or disabled, must not be used unless:
(A) A qualified person has determined that it is safer to hoist and place the load without latches (or with the latches removed/tied-back).
(B) Routes for the loads are pre-planned to ensure that no employee is required to work in the fall zone except for employees necessary for the hooking or unhooking of the load.
(iii) The latch must close the throat opening and be designed to retain slings or other lifting devices/accessories in the hook when the rigging apparatus is slack.
(5) Posted warnings. Posted warnings required by this subpart as well as those originally supplied with the equipment by the manufacturer must be maintained in legible condition.
(6) An accessible fire extinguisher must be on the equipment.
(7) Cabs. Equipment with cabs must meet the following requirements:
(i) Cabs must be designed with a form of adjustable ventilation and method for clearing the windshield for maintaining visibility and air circulation. Examples of means for adjustable ventilation include air conditioner or window that can be opened (for ventilation and air circulation); examples of means for maintaining visibility include heater (for preventing windshield icing), defroster, fan, windshield wiper.
(ii) Cab doors (swinging, sliding) must be designed to prevent inadvertent opening or closing while traveling or operating the machine. Swinging doors adjacent to the operator must open outward. Sliding operator doors must open rearward.
(A) The cab must have windows in front and on both sides of the operator. Forward vertical visibility must be sufficient to give the operator a view of the boom point at all times.
(B) Windows may have sections designed to be opened or readily removed. Windows with sections designed to be opened must be designed so that they can be secured to prevent inadvertent closure.
(C) Windows must be of safety glass or material with similar optical and safety properties, that introduce no visible distortion or otherwise obscure visibility that interferes with the safe operation of the equipment.
(iv) A clear passageway must be provided from the operator's station to an exit door on the operator's side.
(v) Areas of the cab roof that serve as a workstation for rigging, maintenance or other equipment-related tasks must be capable of supporting 250 pounds without permanent distortion.
(8) Belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, drums, fly wheels, chains, and other parts or components that reciprocate, rotate or otherwise move must be guarded where contact by employees (except for maintenance and repair employees) is possible in the performance of normal duties.
(9) All exhaust pipes, turbochargers, and charge air coolers must be insulated or guarded where contact by employees (except for maintenance and repair employees) is possible in the performance of normal duties.
(10) Hydraulic and pneumatic lines must be protected from damage to the extent feasible.
(11) The equipment must be designed so that exhaust fumes are not discharged in the cab and are discharged in a direction away from the operator.
(12) Friction mechanisms. Where friction mechanisms (such as brakes and clutches) are used to control the boom hoist or load line hoist, they must be:
(i) Of a size and thermal capacity sufficient to control all rated loads with the minimum recommended reeving.
(ii) Adjustable to permit compensation for lining wear to maintain proper operation.
(13) Hydraulic load hoists. Hydraulic drums must have an integrally mounted holding device or internal static brake to prevent load hoist movement in the event of hydraulic failure.
(e) The employer's obligations under paragraphs (a) through (c) and (d)(7) through (13) of this section are met where the equipment has not changed (except in accordance with § 1926.1434 (Equipment modifications)) and it can refer to documentation from the manufacturer showing that the equipment has been designed, constructed and tested in accordance with those paragraphs.