29 CFR 1926.1436 - Derricks.
(a) This section contains supplemental requirements for derricks, whether temporarily or permanently mounted; all sections of this subpart apply to derricks unless specified otherwise. A derrick is powered equipment consisting of a mast or equivalent member that is held at or near the end by guys or braces, with or without a boom, and its hoisting mechanism. The mast/equivalent member and/or the load is moved by the hoisting mechanism (typically base-mounted) and operating ropes. Derricks include: A-frame, basket, breast, Chicago boom, gin pole (except gin poles used for erection of communication towers), guy, shearleg, stiffleg, and variations of such equipment.
(b) Operation - procedures. (1) Section 1926.1417 (Operation) applies except for § 1926.1417(c) (Accessibility of procedures).
(2) Load chart contents. Load charts must contain at least the following information:
(i) Rated capacity at corresponding ranges of boom angle or operating radii.
(ii) Specific lengths of components to which the rated capacities apply.
(iii) Required parts for hoist reeving.
(iv) Size and construction of rope must be included on the load chart or in the operating manual.
(3) Load chart location - (i) Permanent installations. For permanently installed derricks with fixed lengths of boom, guy, and mast, a load chart must be posted where it is visible to personnel responsible for the operation of the equipment.
(ii) Non-permanent installations. For derricks that are not permanently installed, the load chart must be readily available at the job site to personnel responsible for the operation of the equipment.
(c) Construction - (1) General requirements. (i) Derricks must be constructed to meet all stresses imposed on members and components when installed and operated in accordance with the manufacturer's/builder's procedures and within its rated capacity.
(ii) Welding of load sustaining members must conform to recommended practices in ANSI/AWS D14.3-94 (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6) or AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2002 (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6).
(2) Guy derricks. (i) The minimum number of guys must be 6, with equal spacing, except where a qualified person or derrick manufacturer approves variations from these requirements and revises the rated capacity to compensate for such variations.
(ii) Guy derricks must not be used unless the employer has the following guy information from the manufacturer or a qualified person, when not available from the manufacturer:
(A) The number of guys.
(B) The spacing around the mast.
(C) The size, grade, and construction of rope to be used for each guy.
(iii) For guy derricks manufactured after December 18, 1970, in addition to the information required in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, the employer must have the following guy information from the manufacturer or a qualified person, when not available from the manufacturer:
(A) The amount of initial sag or tension.
(B) The amount of tension in guy line rope at anchor.
(iv) The mast base must permit the mast to rotate freely with allowance for slight tilting of the mast caused by guy slack.
(v) The mast cap must:
(A) Permit the mast to rotate freely.
(B) Withstand tilting and cramping caused by the guy loads.
(C) Be secured to the mast to prevent disengagement during erection.
(D) Be provided with means for attaching guy ropes.
(3) Stiffleg derricks. (i) The mast must be supported in the vertical position by at least two stifflegs; one end of each must be connected to the top of the mast and the other end securely anchored.
(ii) The stifflegs must be capable of withstanding the loads imposed at any point of operation within the load chart range.
(iii) The mast base must:
(A) Permit the mast to rotate freely (when necessary).
(B) Permit deflection of the mast without binding.
(iv) The mast must be prevented from lifting out of its socket when the mast is in tension.
(v) The stiffleg connecting member at the top of the mast must:
(A) Permit the mast to rotate freely (when necessary).
(B) Withstand the loads imposed by the action of the stifflegs.
(C) Be secured so as to oppose separating forces.
(4) Gin pole derricks. (i) Guy lines must be sized and spaced so as to make the gin pole stable in both boomed and vertical positions. Exception: Where the size and/or spacing of guy lines do not result in the gin pole being stable in both boomed and vertical positions, the employer must ensure that the derrick is not used in an unstable position.
(ii) The base of the gin pole must permit movement of the pole (when necessary).
(iii) The gin pole must be anchored at the base against horizontal forces (when such forces are present).
(5) Chicago boom derricks. The fittings for stepping the boom and for attaching the topping lift must be arranged to:
(i) Permit the derrick to swing at all permitted operating radii and mounting heights between fittings.
(ii) Accommodate attachment to the upright member of the host structure.
(iii) Withstand the forces applied when configured and operated in accordance with the manufacturer's/builder's procedures and within its rated capacity.
(iv) Prevent the boom or topping lift from lifting out under tensile forces.
(d) Anchoring and guying. (1) Load anchoring data developed by the manufacturer or a qualified person must be used.
(2) Guy derricks. (i) The mast base must be anchored.
(ii) The guys must be secured to the ground or other firm anchorage.
(iii) The anchorage and guying must be designed to withstand maximum horizontal and vertical forces encountered when operating within rated capacity with the particular guy slope and spacing specified for the application.
(3) Stiffleg derricks. (i) The mast base and stifflegs must be anchored.
(ii) The mast base and stifflegs must be designed to withstand maximum horizontal and vertical forces encountered when operating within rated capacity with the particular stiffleg spacing and slope specified for the application.
(e) Swingers and hoists. (1) The boom, swinger mechanisms and hoists must be suitable for the derrick work intended and must be anchored to prevent displacement from the imposed loads.
(2) Hoists. (i) Base mounted drum hoists must meet the requirements in the following sections of ASME B30.7-2001 (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6):
(A) Sections 7-1.1 (“Load ratings and markings”).
(B) Section 7-1.2 (“Construction”), except: 7-1.2.13 (“Operator's cab”); 7-1.2.15 (“Fire extinguishers”).
(C) Section 7-1.3 (“Installation”).
(D) Applicable terms in section 7-0.2 (“Definitions”).
(ii) Load tests for new hoists. The employer must ensure that new hoists are load tested to a minimum of 110% of rated capacity, but not more than 125% of rated capacity, unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer. This requirement is met where the manufacturer has conducted this testing.
(iii) Repaired or modified hoists. Hoists that have had repairs, modifications or additions affecting their capacity or safe operation must be evaluated by a qualified person to determine if a load test is necessary. If it is, load testing must be conducted in accordance with paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (iv) of this section.
(iv) Load test procedure. Load tests required by paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) or (e)(2)(iii) of this section must be conducted as follows:
(A) The test load must be hoisted a vertical distance to assure that the load is supported by the hoist and held by the hoist brake(s).
(B) The test load must be lowered, stopped and held with the brake(s).
(C) The hoist must not be used unless a competent person determines that the test has been passed.
(f) Operational aids. (1) Section 1926.1416 (Operational aids) applies, except for § 1926.1416(d)(1) (Boom hoist limiting device), § 1926.1416(e)(1) (Boom angle or radius indicator), and § 1926.1416(e)(4) (Load weighing and similar devices).
(2) Boom angle aid. A boom angle indicator is not required but if the derrick is not equipped with a functioning one, the employer must ensure that either:
(i) The boom hoist cable must be marked with caution and stop marks. The stop marks must correspond to maximum and minimum allowable boom angles. The caution and stop marks must be in view of the operator, or a spotter who is in direct communication with the operator; or
(ii) An electronic or other device that signals the operator in time to prevent the boom from moving past its maximum and minimum angles, or automatically prevents such movement, is used.
(3) Load weight/capacity devices. (i) Derricks manufactured more than one year after November 8, 2010 with a maximum rated capacity over 6,000 pounds must have at least one of the following: load weighing device, load moment indicator, rated capacity indicator, or rated capacity limiter. Temporary alternative measures: The weight of the load must be determined from a source recognized by the industry (such as the load's manufacturer), or by a calculation method recognized by the industry (such as calculating a steel beam from measured dimensions and a known per foot weight), or by other equally reliable means. This information must be provided to the operator prior to the lift. See § 1926.1417(j) for additional requirements.
(ii) A load weight/capacity device that is not working properly must be repaired no later than 30 days after the deficiency occurs. Exception: If the employer documents that it has ordered the necessary parts within 7 days of the occurrence of the deficiency, and the part is not received in time to complete the repair in 30 days, the repair must be completed within 7 days of receipt of the parts.
(g) Post-assembly approval and testing - new or reinstalled derricks - (1) Anchorages. (i) Anchorages, including the structure to which the derrick is attached (if applicable), must be approved by a qualified person.
(ii) If using a rock or hairpin anchorage, the qualified person must determine if any special testing of the anchorage is needed. If so, it must be tested accordingly.
(2) Functional test. Prior to initial use, new or reinstalled derricks must be tested by a competent person with no hook load to verify proper operation. This test must include:
(i) Lifting and lowering the hook(s) through the full range of hook travel.
(ii) Raising and lowering the boom through the full range of boom travel.
(iii) Swinging in each direction through the full range of swing.
(iv) Actuating the anti two-block and boom hoist limit devices (if provided).
(v) Actuating locking, limiting and indicating devices (if provided).
(3) Load test. Prior to initial use, new or reinstalled derricks must be load tested by a competent person. The test load must meet the following requirements:
(i) Test loads must be at least 100% and no more than 110% of the rated capacity, unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer or qualified person, but in no event must the test load be less than the maximum anticipated load.
(ii) The test must consist of:
(A) Hoisting the test load a few inches and holding to verify that the load is supported by the derrick and held by the hoist brake(s).
(B) Swinging the derrick, if applicable, the full range of its swing, at the maximum allowable working radius for the test load.
(C) Booming the derrick up and down within the allowable working radius for the test load.
(D) Lowering, stopping and holding the load with the brake(s).
(iii) The derrick must not be used unless the competent person determines that the test has been passed.
(4) Documentation. Tests conducted under this paragraph must be documented. The document must contain the date, test results and the name of the tester. The document must be retained until the derrick is re-tested or dismantled, whichever occurs first. All such documents must be available, during the applicable document retention period, to all persons who conduct inspections in accordance with § 1926.1412.
(h) Load testing repaired or modified derricks. Derricks that have had repairs, modifications or additions affecting the derrick's capacity or safe operation must be evaluated by a qualified person to determine if a load test is necessary. If it is, load testing must be conducted and documented in accordance with paragraph (g) of this section.
(j) Power failure procedures. If power fails during operations, the derrick operator must safely stop operations. This must include:
(1) Setting all brakes or locking devices.
(2) Moving all clutch and other power controls to the off position.
(k) Use of winch heads. (1) Ropes must not be handled on a winch head without the knowledge of the operator.
(2) While a winch head is being used, the operator must be within reach of the power unit control lever.
(m) Securing the boom. (1) When the boom is being held in a fixed position, dogs, pawls, or other positive holding mechanisms on the boom hoist must be engaged.
(2) When taken out of service for 30 days or more, the boom must be secured by one of the following methods:
(i) Laid down.
(ii) Secured to a stationary member, as nearly under the head as possible, by attachment of a sling to the load block.
(iii) For guy derricks, lifted to a vertical position and secured to the mast.
(iv) For stiffleg derricks, secured against the stiffleg.
(n) The process of jumping the derrick must be supervised by the A/D director.
(o) Derrick operations must be supervised by a competent person.
(p) Inspections. In addition to the requirements in § 1926.1412, the following additional items must be included in the inspections:
(1) Daily: Guys for proper tension.
(2) Annual. (i) Gudgeon pin for cracks, wear, and distortion.
(ii) Foundation supports for continued ability to sustain the imposed loads.
(q) Qualification and Training. The employer must train each operator of a derrick on the safe operation of equipment the individual will operate. Section 1926.1427 of this subpart (Operator qualification and certification) does not apply.