29 CFR 32.15 - Preemployment inquiries.
(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, a recipient may not conduct preemployment medical examinations or make preemployment inquiry of an applicant for employment or training as to whether the applicant is a handicapped person or as to the nature or the severity of a handicap. A recipient may, however, make preemployment inquiry into an applicant's ability to perform job-related functions.
(b) When a recipient is taking remedial action to correct the effects of past discrimination, when a recipient is taking voluntary action to overcome the effects of conditions that resulted in limited paticipation in its federally-assisted program or activity, or when a recipient is taking affirmative action pursuant to section 503 of the Act, the recipient may invite applicants for employment or training to indicate whether and to what extent they are handicapped if:
(1) The recipient states clearly on any written questionnaire used for this purpose or makes clear orally, if no written questionnaire is used, that the information requested is intended for use solely in connection with its remedial action obligations or its voluntary or affirmative action efforts.
(2) The recipient states clearly that the information is being requested on a voluntary basis, that it will be kept confidential as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, that refusal to provide it will not subject the applicant, employee or participant to any adverse treatment, and that it will be used only in accordance with this part.
(c) An employer who routinely requires medical examinations as part of the employment selection process must demonstrate that each of the requirements of this subsection are met:
(1) The medical examination shall be performed by a physician qualified to make functional assessments of individuals in a form which will express residual capacity for work or training. Such an assessment does not require clinical determinations of disease or disability, but shall provide selecting or referring officials sufficient information regarding any functional limitations relevant to proper job placement or referral to appropriate training. Factors which may be assessed may include, for example, use of limbs and extremities, mobility and posture, endurance and energy expenditure, ability to withstand various working conditions and environments, use of senses and mental capacity;
(2) The results of the medical examination shall be specific and objective so as to be susceptible to review by independent medical evaluators and shall be transmitted to the applicant or employee at the same time as the employing official;
(3) The results of the medical examination shall not be used to screen out qualified applicants and employees but to determine proper placement and reasonable accommodation. The employing official using physical or mental information obtained pursuant to this section should be familiar with physical or mental activities involved in performing the job, and the working conditions and environment in which it is carried out. If the applicant is being considered for a variety of jobs having different requirements or skills, the employing official should make a functional assessment of the physical or mental demands of the jobs in order to match the applicant with the most suitable vacancy;
(4) All of potential employees for the jobs are subjected to the medical examination;
(5) The procedures for using medical examinations or the medical information shall be constructed in such a manner that:
(i) A conditional job offer was made or the individual was conditionally placed in a job pool or conditionally placed on an eligibility list prior to the medical examination being performed; or
(ii) The results of the medical examination were considered by the employing official only after a conditional decision to make a job offer or the individual had been placed conditionally in a job pool or conditionally placed on an eligibility list; that is the medical results were the last factor evaluated by the employing officials before a final decision to make an offer of employment was made.
(6) Unless a conditional job offer is made prior to the medical examination, all potential employees for the job shall be informed at the time of the medical examination that:
(i) The results of the medical examination are the last factor evaluated by the employing official before a final decision to make an offer of employment is made, and
(ii) The medical examination results shall be transmitted to the employing official and the applicant only after a conditional decision to make a job offer has been made.
(d) Information obtained in accordance with this section as to the medical condition or history of the applicant shall be collected and maintained on separate forms that shall be accorded confidentiality as medical records, except that:
(1) Employing officials may obtain the information after making a conditional decision to make a job offer to the applicant or the applicant was placed conditionally in a job pool or placed conditionally on an eligibility list.
(2) Supervisors and managers may be informed regarding restricions on the work or duties of qualified handicapped persons and regarding necessary accommodations;
(3) First aid and safety personnel may be informed, where appropriate, if the condition might require emergency treatment; and