31 CFR § 802.208 - Control.

§ 802.208 Control.

(a) The term control means the power, direct or indirect, whether or not exercised, through the ownership of a majority or a dominant minority of the total outstanding voting interest in an entity, board representation, proxy voting, a special share, contractual arrangements, formal or informal arrangements to act in concert, or other means, to determine, direct, or decide important matters affecting an entity; in particular, but without limitation, to determine, direct, take, reach, or cause decisions regarding the following matters, or any other similarly important matters affecting an entity:

(1) The sale, lease, mortgage, pledge, or other transfer of any of the tangible or intangible principal assets of the entity, whether or not in the ordinary course of business;

(2) The reorganization, merger, or dissolution of the entity;

(3) The closing, relocation, or substantial alteration of the production, operational, or research and development facilities of the entity;

(4) Major expenditures or investments, issuances of equity or debt, or dividend payments by the entity, or approval of the operating budget of the entity;

(5) The selection of new business lines or ventures that the entity will pursue;

(6) The entry into, termination, or non-fulfillment by the entity of significant contracts;

(7) The policies or procedures of the entity governing the treatment of non-public technical, financial, or other proprietary information of the entity;

(8) The appointment or dismissal of officers or senior managers or, in the case of a partnership, the general partner;

(9) The appointment or dismissal of employees with access to critical technology or other sensitive technology or classified U.S. Government information; or

(10) The amendment of the Articles of Incorporation, constituent agreement, or other organizational documents of the entity with respect to the matters described in paragraphs (a)(1) through (9) of this section.

(b) In examining questions of control in situations where more than one foreign person has an ownership interest in an entity, consideration will be given to factors such as whether the foreign persons are related or have formal or informal arrangements to act in concert, whether they are agencies or instrumentalities of the national or subnational governments of a single foreign state, and whether a given foreign person and another person that has an ownership interest in the entity are both controlled by any of the national or subnational governments of a single foreign state.

(c) The following minority shareholder protections shall not in themselves be deemed to confer control over an entity:

(1) The power to prevent the sale or pledge of all or substantially all of the assets of an entity or a voluntary filing for bankruptcy or liquidation;

(2) The power to prevent an entity from entering into contracts with majority investors or their affiliates;

(3) The power to prevent an entity from guaranteeing the obligations of majority investors or their affiliates;

(4) The right to purchase an additional interest in an entity to prevent the dilution of an investor's pro rata interest in that entity in the event that the entity issues additional instruments conveying interests in the entity;

(5) The power to prevent the change of existing legal rights or preferences of the particular class of stock held by minority investors, as provided in the relevant corporate documents governing such shares; and

(6) The power to prevent the amendment of the Articles of Incorporation, constituent agreement, or other organizational documents of an entity with respect to the matters described in paragraphs (c)(1) through (5) of this section.

(d) The Committee will consider, on a case-by-case basis, whether minority shareholder protections other than those listed in paragraph (c) of this section do not confer control over an entity.

Note 1 to § 802.208:

This definition is included herein for the purpose of determining whether a foreign person may be involved in a covered real estate transaction. For additional information, see the examples provided at § 800.208, as relevant.