32 CFR 286.23 - Initial determinations.
(a) Initial denial authority. (1) Components shall limit the number of IDAs appointed. In designating its IDAs, a DoD Component shall balance the goals of centralization of authority to promote uniform decisions and decentralization to facilitate responding the each request within the time limitations of the FOIA.
(2) The initial determination whether to make a record available upon request may be made by any suitable official designated by the DoD Component in published regulations. The presence of the marking “For Official Use Only” does not relieve the designated official of the responsibility to review the requested record for the purpose of determining whether an exemption under the FOIA is applicable.
(3) The officials designated by DoD Components to make initial determinations should consult with public affairs officers (PAOs) to become familiar with subject matter that is considered to be newsworthy, and advise PAOs of all requests from news media representatives. In addition, the officials should inform PAOs in advance when they intend to withhold or partially withhold a record, if it appears that the withholding action may be challenged in the media.
(b) Reasons for not releasing a record. The following are reasons for not complying with a request for a record under 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(3):
(1) No records. A reasonable search of files failed to identify responsive records.
(2) Referrals. The request is transferred to another DoD Component, or to another Federal Agency.
(3) Request withdrawn. The request is withdrawn by the requester.
(4) Fee-related reason. The requester is unwilling to pay fees associated with a request; the requester is past due in the payment of fees from a previous FOIA request; or the requester disagrees with the fee estimate.
(5) Records not reasonably described. A record has not been described with sufficient particularity to enable the DoD Component to locate it by conducting a reasonable search.
(6) Not a proper FOIA request for some other reason. The requester has failed unreasonably to comply with procedural requirements, other than fee-related, imposed by this part or DoD Component supplementing regulations.
(7) Not an agency record. The information requested is not a record within the meaning of the FOIA and this part.
(8) Duplicate request. The request is a duplicate request (e.g., a requester asks for the same information more than once). This includes identical requests received via different means (e.g., electronic mail, facsimile, mail, courier) at the same or different times.
(9) Other (specify). Any other reason a requester does not comply with published rules other than those outlined paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(8) of this section.
(10) Partial or total denial. The record is denied in whole or in part in accordance with procedures set forth in the FOIA.
(c) Denial tests. To deny a requested record that is in the possession and control of a DoD Component, it must be determined that disclosure of the record would result in a foreseeable harm to an interest protected by a FOIA exemption, and the record is exempt under one or more of the exemptions of the FOIA. An outline of the FOIA's exemptions is contained in subpart C of this part.
(d) Reasonably segregable portions. Although portions of some records may be denied, the remaining reasonably segregable portions must be released to the requester when it reasonably can be assumed that a skillful and knowledgeable person could not reconstruct the excised information. Unless indicating the extent of the deletion would harm an interest protected by an exemption, the amount of deleted information shall be indicated on the released portion of paper records by use of brackets or darkened areas indicating removal of information. In no case shall the deleted areas be left “white” without the use of brackets to show the bounds of deleted information. In the case of electronic deletion, or deletion in audiovisual or microfiche records, if technically feasible, the amount of redacted information shall be indicated at the place in the record such deletion was made, unless including the indication would harm an interest protected by the exemption under which the deletion is made. This may be done by use of brackets, shaded areas, or some other identifiable technique that will clearly show the limits of the deleted information. When a record is denied in whole, the responsive advising the requester of that determination will specifically state that it is not reasonable to segregate portions of the record for release.
(e) Response to requester. (1) Whenever possible, initial determinations to release or deny a record normally shall be made and the decision reported to the requester within 20 working days after receipt of the request by the official designated to respond. When a DoD Component has a significant number of pending requests which prevent a response determination within the 20 working day period, the requester shall be so notified in an interim response, and advised whether their request qualifies for the fast track or slow track within the DoD Components' multitrack processing system. Requesters who do not meet the criteria for fast track processing shall be given the opportunity to limit the scope of their request in order to qualify for fast track processing. See also § 286.4(d)(2), for greater detail on multitrack processing and compelling need meriting expedited processing.
(2) When a decision is made to release a record, a copy should be made available promptly to the requester once he has complied with preliminary procedural requirements.
(3) When a request for a record is denied in whole or in part, the official designated to respond shall inform the requester in writing of the name and title or position of the official who made the determination, and shall explain to the requester the basis for the determination in sufficient detail to permit the requester to make a decision concerning appeal. The requester specifically shall be informed of the exemptions on which the denial is based, inclusive of a brief statement describing what the exemption(s) cover. When the initial denial is based in whole or in part on a security classification, the explanation should include a summary of the applicable Executive Order criteria for classification, as well as an explanation, to the extent reasonably feasible, of how those criteria apply to the particular record in question. The requester shall also be advised of the opportunity and procedures for appealing an unfavorable determination to a higher final authority within the DoD Component.
(4) The final response to the requester should contain information concerning the fee status of the request, consistent with the provisions of subpart F of this part. When a requester is assessed fees for processing a request, the requester's fee category shall be specified in the response letter. Components also shall provide the requester with a complete cost breakdown (e.g., 15 pages of office reproduction at $0.15 per page; 5 minutes of computer search time at $43.50 per minute, 2 hours of professional level search at $25 per hour, etc.) in the response letter.
(5) The explanation of the substantive basis for a denial shall include specific citation of the statutory exemption applied under provisions of this part; e.g., 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(1). Merely referring to a classification; to a “For Official Use Only” marking on the requested record; or to this part or a DoD Component's regulation does not constitute a proper citation or explanation of the basis for invoking an exemption.
(6) When the time for response becomes an issue, the official responsible for replying shall acknowledge to the requester the date of the receipt of the request.
(7) When denying a request for records, in whole or in a part, a DoD Component shall make a reasonable effort to estimate the volume of the records denied and provide this estimate to the requester, unless providing such an estimate would harm an interest protected by an exemption of the FOIA. This estimate should be in number of pages or in some other reasonable form of estimation, unless the volume is otherwise indicated through deletions on records disclosed in part.
(8) When denying a request for records in accordance with a statute qualifying as a FOIA exemption 3 statute, DoD Components shall, in addition to sitting the particular statute relied upon to deny the information, also state whether a court has upheld the decision to withhold the information under the particular statute, and a concise description of the scope of the information being withheld.
(f) Extension of time. (1) In unusual circumstances, when additional time is needed to respond to the initial request, the DoD Component shall acknowledge the request in writing the 20 day period, describe the circumstances requiring the delay, and indicate the anticipated date for a substantive response that may not exceed 10 additional working days, except as follows:
(2) With respect to a request for which a written notice has extended the time limits by 10 additional working days, and the Component determines that it cannot make a response determination within that additional 10 working day period, the requester shall be notified and provided an opportunity to limit the scope of the request so that it may be processed within the extended time limit, or an opportunity to arrange an alternative time frame for processing the request or a modified request. Refusal by the requester to reasonably modify the request or arrange for an alternative time frame shall be considered a factor in determining whether exceptional circumstances exist with respect to DoD Components' request backlogs. Exceptional circumstances do not include a delay that results from predictable component backlogs, unless the DoD Component demonstrates reasonable progress in reducing its backlog.
(3) Unusual circumstances that may justify delay are:
(i) The need to search for and collect the requested records from other facilities that are separate from the office determined responsible for a release or denial decision on the requested information.
(ii) The need to search for, collect, and appropriately examine a voluminous amount of separate and distinct records which are requested in a single request.
(iii) The need for consultation, which shall be conducted with all practicable speed, with other agencies having a substantial interest in the determination of the request, or among two or more DoD Components having a substantial subject-matter interest in the request.
(4) DoD Components may aggregate certain requests by the same requester, or by a group of requesters acting in concert, if the DoD Component reasonably believes that such requests actually constitute a single request, which would otherwise satisfy the unusual circumstances set forth in paragraph (f)(3) of this section, and the requests involve clearly related matters. Multiple requests involving unrelated matters shall not be aggregated. If the requests are aggregated under these conditions, the requester or requesters shall be so notified.
(5) In cases where the statutory time limits cannot be met and no informal extension of time has been agreed to, the inability to process any part of the request within the specified time should be explained to the requester with a request that he agree to await a substantive response by an anticipated date. If should be made clear that any such agreement does not prejudice the right of the requester to appeal the initial decision after it is made. DoD Components are reminded that the requester still retains the right to treat this delay as a de facto denial with full administrative remedies.
(6) As an alternative to the taking of formal extensions of time as described in § 286.23(f), the negotiation by the cognizant FOIA coordinating office of informal extensions in time with requesters is encouraged where appropriate.
(g) Misdirected requests. Misdirected requests shall be forwarded promptly to the DoD Component or other Federal Agency with the responsibility for the records requested. The period allowed for responding to the request misdirected by the requester shall not begin until the request is received by the DoD Component that manages the records requested.
(h) Records of non-U.S. government source. (1) When a request is received for a record that falls under exemption 4 (see § 286.12(d)), that was obtained from a non-U.S. Government source, or for a record containing information clearly identified as having been provided by a non-U.S. Government source, the source of the record or information (also known as “the submitter” for matters pertaining to proprietary data under 5 U.S.C. 552, Exemption (b)(4)) (§ 286.12(d), this part and E.O. 12600 (3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p. 235)) shall be notified promptly of that request and afforded reasonable time (e.g., 30 calendar days) to present any objections concerning the release, unless it is clear that there can be no valid basis for objection. This practice is required for those FOIA requests for data not deemed clearly exempt from disclosure under exemption (b)(4) of 5 U.S.C. 552. If, for example, the record or information was provided with actual or presumptive knowledge of the non-U.S. Government source and established that it would be made available to the public upon request, there is no obligation to notify the source. Any objections shall be evaluated. The final decision to disclose information claimed to be exempt under exemption (b)(4) shall be made by an official equivalent in rank to the official who would make the decision to withhold that information under the FOIA. When a substantial issue has been raised, the DoD Component may seek additional information from the source of the information and afford the source and requester reasonable opportunities to present their arguments on the legal and substantive issues involved prior to making an agency determination. When the source advises it will seek a restraining order or take court action to prevent release of the record or information, the requester shall be notified, and action on the request normally shall not be taken until after the outcome of that court action is known. When the requester brings court action to compel disclosure, the submitter shall be promptly notified of this action.
(2) If the submitted information is a proposal in response to a solicitation for a competitive proposal, and the proposal is in the possession and control of DoD, and meets the requirements of 10 U.S.C. 2305(g), the proposal shall not be disclosed, and no submitter notification and subsequent analysis is required. The proposal shall be withheld from public disclosure pursuant to 10 U.S.C. 2305(g) and exemption (b)(3) of 5 U.S.C. 552. This statute does not apply to bids, unsolicited proposals, or any proposal that is set forth or incorporated by reference in a contract between a DoD Component and the offeror that submitted the proposal. In such situations, normal submitter notice shall be conducted in accordance with paragraph (h)(1) of this section, except for sealed bids that are opened and read to the public. The term proposal means information contained in or originating from any proposal, including a technical, management, or cost proposal submitted by an offeror in response to solicitation for a competitive proposal, but does not include an offeror's name or total price or unit prices when set forth in a record other than the proposal itself. Submitter notice, and analysis as appropriate, are required for exemption (b)(4) matters that are not specifically incorporated in 10 U.S.C. 2305(g).
(3) If the record or information was submitted on a strictly voluntary basis, absent any exercised authority that prescribes criteria for submission, and after consultation with the submitter, it is absolutely clear that the record or information would customarily not be released to the public, the submitter need not be notified. Examples of exercised authorities prescribing criteria for submission are statutes, Executive Orders, regulations, invitations for bids, requests for proposals, and contracts. Records or information submitted under these authorities are not voluntary in nature. When it is not clear whether the information was submitted on a voluntary basis, absent any exercised authority, and whether it would customarily be released to the public by the submitter, notify the submitter and ask that it describe its treatment of the information, and render an objective evaluation. If the decision is made to release the information over the objection of the submitter, notify the submitter and afford the necessary time to allow the submitter to seek a restraining order, or take court action to prevent release of the record or information.
(4) The coordination provisions of this paragraph also apply to any non-U.S. Government record in the possession and control of the DoD from multi-national organizations, such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), United Nations Commands, the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), the Inter-American Defense Board, or foreign governments. Coordination with foreign governments under the provisions of this paragraph may be made through Department of State, or the specific foreign embassy.
(i) File of initial denials. Copies of all initial denials shall be maintained by each DoD Component in a form suitable for rapid retrieval, periodic statistical compilation, and management evaluation. Records denied for any of the reasons contained in paragraph (b) of this section shall be maintained for a period of six years to meet the statute of limitations requirement.
(j) Special mail services. Components are authorized to use registered mail, certified mail, certificates of mailing and return receipts. However, their use should be limited to instances where it appears advisable to establish proof of dispatch or receipt of FOIA correspondence. The requester shall be notified that they are responsible for the full costs of special services.
(k) Receipt accounts. The Treasurer of the United States has established two accounts for FOIA receipts, and all money orders or checks remitting FOIA fees should be made payable to the U.S. Treasurer. These accounts, which are described in paragraphs (k)(1) and (k)(2) of this section shall be used for depositing all FOIA receipts, except receipts for Working Capital and non appropriated funded activities. Components are reminded that the below account numbers must be preceded by the appropriate disbursing office two digit prefix. Working Capital and non appropriated funded activity FOIA receipts shall be deposited to the applicable fund.
(1) Receipt account 3210 sale of publications and reproductions, Freedom of Information Act. This account shall be used when depositing funds received from providing existing publications and forms that meet the Receipt Account Series description found in Federal Account Symbols and Titles.
(2) Receipt account 3210 fees and other charges for services, Freedom of Information Act. This account is used to deposit search fees, fees for duplicating and reviewing (in the case of commercial requesters) records to satisfy requests that could not be filled with existing publications or forms.