32 CFR 80.3 - Definitions.
(a) Assistive technology device. Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially or off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities.
(b) Assistive technology service. Any service that directly assists an individual with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device. This term includes:
(1) Evaluating the needs of an individual with a disability, including a functional evaluation of the individual in the individual's customary environment.
(3) Selecting designing, fitting, customizing, adapting, applying, maintaining, repairing, or replacing of assistive technology devices.
(4) Coordinating and using other therapies, interventions, or services with assistive technology devices, such as those associated with existing educational and rehabilitative plans and programs.
(5) Training or technical assistance for an individual with disabilities, or, where appropriate, the family of an individual with disabilities.
(6) Training or technical assistance for professionals (including individuals providing educational rehabilitative services), employers, or other individuals who provide services to, employ, or are otherwise substantially involved in the major life functions of an individual with a disability.
(c) Attention deficit disorder (ADD). As used to define students, encompasses attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity. The essential features of this disorder are developmentally inappropriate degrees of inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity.
(2) A diagnosis of ADD, in and of itself, does not mean that a child requires special education; it is possible that a child diagnosed with ADD, as the only finding, can have his or her educational needs met within the regular education setting.
(3) For a child with ADD to be eligible for special education, the Case Study Committee, with assistance from the medical personnel conducting the evaluation, must then make a determination that the ADD is a chronic or acute health problem that results in limited alertness, which adversely affects educational performance. Children with ADD who are eligible for special education and medically related services will qualify for services under “Other Health Impaired” as described in Criterion A, paragraph (h)(1) of this section.
(d) Autism. A developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and non-verbal communication and social interaction generally evident before age 3 that adversely affects educational performance. Characteristics of autism include irregularities and impairments in communication, engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. The term does not include children with characteristics of the disability of serious emotional disturbance.
(e) Case Study Committee (CSC). A school-based committee that determines a child's eligibility for special education, develops and reviews a child's individualized education program (IEP), and determines appropriate placement in the least restrictive environment. A CSC is uniquely composed for each child. Participants on a CSC must include:
(1) The designated representative of the Section 6 School Arrangement, who is qualified to supervise the provision of special education. Such representative may not be the child's special education teacher.
(2) One, or more, of the child's regular education teachers, if appropriate.
(3) A special education teacher.
(4) One, or both, of the child's parents.
(5) The child, if appropriate.
(7) Other individuals, at the discretion of the parent or the Section 6 School Arrangement, who may have pertinent information.
(f) Child-find. The ongoing process used by the Military Services and a Section 6 School Arrangement to seek and identify children (from birth to 21 years of age) who show indications that they might be in need of early intervention services or special education and related services. Child-find activities include the dissemination of information to the public and identification, screening, and referral procedures.
(g) Children with disabilities ages 5-21 (inclusive). Those children ages 5-21 years (inclusive), evaluated in accordance with this part, who are in need of special education as determined by a CSC and who have not been graduated from a high school or who have not completed the requirements for a General Education Diploma. The terms “child” and “student” may also be used to refer to this population. The student must be determined eligible under one of the following four categories:
(1) Criterion A. The educational performance of the student is adversely affected, as determined by the CSC, by a physical impairment; visual impairment including blindness; hearing impairment including deafness; orthopedic impairment; or other health impairment, including ADD, when the condition is a chronic or acute health problem that results in limited alertness; autism; and traumatic brain injury requiring environmental and/or academic modifications.
(2) Criterion B. A student who manifests a psychoemotional condition that is the primary cause of educational difficulties; a student who exhibits maladaptive behavior to a marked degree and over a long period of time that interferes with skill attainment, classroom functioning or performance, social-emotional condition, and who as a result requires special education. The term does not usually include a student whose difficulties are primarily the result of:
(i) Intellectual deficit;
(ii) Sensory or physical impairment;
(iii) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder;
(iv) Antisocial behavior;
(v) Parent-child or family problems;
(vi) Disruptive behavior disorders;
(vii) Adjustment disorders;
(viii) Interpersonal or life circumstance problems; or
(ix) Other problems that are not the result of a severe emotional disorder.
(3) Criterion C. The educational performance of the student is adversely affected, as determined by the CSC, by a speech and/or language impairment.
(4) Criterion D. The measured academic achievement of the student in math, reading, or language is determined by the CSC to be adversely affected by underlying disabilities (including mental retardation and specific learning disability) including either an intellectual deficit or an information processing deficit.
(5) Criterion E. A child, 0-5 inclusive, whose functioning level as determined by the CSC, is developmentally delayed and would qualify for special education and related services as determined by this regulation.
(h) Consent. This term means that:
(1) The parent of an infant, toddler, child, or preschool child with a disability has been fully informed, in his or her native language, or in another mode of communication, of all information relevant to the activity for which permission is sought.
(2) The parent understands and agrees in writing to the implementation of the activity for which his or her permission is sought. The writing must describe that activity, list the child's records that will be released and to whom, and acknowledge that the parent understands consent is voluntary and may be prospectively revoked at any time.
(3) The parent of an infant, toddler, preschool child or child must consent to the release of records. The request for permission must describe that activity, list each individual's records that will be released and to whom, and acknowledge that the parent understands that consent is voluntary and may be prospectively revoked at any time.
(4) The written consent of a parent of an infant or toddler with a disability is necessary for implementation of early intervention services described in the individualized family service plan (IFSP). If such parent does not provide consent with respect to a particular early intervention service, then the early intervention services for which consent is obtained shall be provided.
(i) Deaf. A hearing loss or deficit so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, to the extent that his or her educational performance is adversely affected.
(j) Deaf-blind. Concomitant hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational problems that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.
(k) Developmental delay. A significant discrepancy in the actual functioning of an infant or toddler when compared with the functioning of a nondisabled infant or toddler of the same chronological age in any of the following areas of development: Physical development, cognitive development, communication development, social or emotional development, and adaptive development as measured using standardized evaluation instruments and confirmed by clinical observation and judgment. A significant discrepancy exists when the one area of development is delayed by 25 percent or 2 standard deviations or more below the mean or when two areas of development are each delayed by 20 percent or 1 1/2 standard deviations or more below the mean. (Chronological age should be corrected for prematurity until 24 months of age.)
(l) Early intervention service coordination services. Case management services that include integration and oversight of the scheduling and accomplishment of evaluation and delivery of early intervention services to an infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family.
(m) Early intervention services. Developmental services that:
(1) Are provided under the supervision of a military medical department.
(2) Are provided using Military Health Service System and community resources.
(ii) Incidental fees (e.g., child care fees) that are normally charged to infants, toddlers, and children without disabilities or their parents may be charged.
(3) Are designed to meet the developmental needs of an infant or toddler with a disability in any one or more of the following areas: Physical development, cognitive development, communication development, social or emotional development, or adaptive development.
(4) Meet the standards developed by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs (ASD(HA)).
(5) Include the following services: Family training, counseling, and home visits; special instruction; speech pathology and audiology; occupational therapy; physical therapy; psychological services; early intervention program coordination services; medical services only for diagnostic or evaluation purposes; early identification, screening, and assessment services; vision services; and social work services. Also included are assistive technology devices and assistive technology services; health services necessary to enable the infant or toddler to benefit from the above early intervention services; and transportation and related costs that are necessary to enable an infant or toddler and the infant's or toddler's family to receive early intervention services.
(6) Are provided by qualified personnel, including: Special educators; speech and language pathologists and audiologists; occupational therapists; physical therapists; psychologists; social workers; nurses' nutritionists; family therapists; orientation and mobility specialists; and pediatricians and other physicians.
(7) To the maximum extent appropriate, are provided in natural environments, including the home and community settings in which infants and toddlers without disabilities participate.
(8) Are provided in conformity with an IFSP.
(n) Evaluation. Procedures used to determine whether an individual (birth through 21 inclusive) has a disability under this part and the nature and extent of the early intervention services and special education and related services that the individual needs. These procedures must be used selectively with an individual and may not include basic tests administered to, or used with, all infants, toddlers, preschool children or children in a school, grade, class, program, or other grouping.
(o) Family training, counseling, and home visits. Services provided, as appropriate, by social workers, psychologists, and other qualified personnel to assist the family of an infant or toddler eligible for early intervention services in understanding the special needs of the child and enhancing the infant or toddler's development.
(1) Are provided at no cost (except as provided in paragraph (xx)(1) of this section, to parents or child with a disability and are under the general supervision and direction of a Section 6 School Arrangement.
(2) Are provided at an appropriate preschool, elementary, or secondary school.
(3) Are provided in conformity with an Individualized Education Program.
(4) Meet the requirements of this part.
(q) Frequency and intensity. The number of days or sessions that a service will be provided, the length of time that the service is provided during each session, whether the service is provided during each session, and whether the service is provided on an individual or group basis.
(r) Health services. Services necessary to enable an infant or toddler, to benefit from the other early intervention services under this part during the time that the infant or toddler is receiving the other early intervention services. The term includes:
(1) Such services as clean intermittent catheterization, tracheostomy care, tube feeding, the changing of dressings or osteotomy collection bags, and other health services.
(2) Consultation by physicians with other service providers on the special health care needs of infants and toddlers with disabilities that will need to be addressed in the course of providing other early intervention services.
(3) The term does not include the following:
(i) Services that are surgical in nature or purely medical in nature.
(ii) Devices necessary to control or treat a medical condition.
(iii) Medical or health services that are routinely recommended for all infants or toddlers.
(s) Hearing impairment. A hearing loss, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects an infant's, toddler's, preschool child's, or child's educational performance.
(t) High probability for developmental delay. An infant or toddler with a medical condition that places him or her at substantial risk of evidencing a developmental delay before the age of 5 years without the benefit of early intervention services.
(u) Include; such as. Not all the possible items are covered, whether like or unlike the ones named.
(w) Individualized education program (IEP). A written statement for a preschool child or child with a disability (ages 3-21 years inclusive) developed and implemented in accordance with this part (appendix B to this part).
(x) Individualized family service plan (IFSP). A written statement for an infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family that is based on a multidisciplinary assessment of the unique needs of the infant or toddler and concerns and the priorities of the family, and an identification of the services appropriate to meet such needs, concerns, and priorities.
(y) Individuals with disabilities. Infants and toddlers with disabilities, preschool children with disabilities, and children with disabilities, collectively, ages birth to 21 years (inclusive) who are either entitled to enroll in a Section 6 School Arrangement or would, but for their age, be so entitled.
(z) Infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individuals from birth to age 2 years (inclusive), who need early intervention services because they:
(1) Are experiencing a developmental delay, as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments and procedures, of 25 percent (or 2 standard deviations below the mean), in one or more areas, or 20 percent (or 1 1/2 standard deviations below the mean), in two or more of the following areas of development: Cognitive, physical, communication, social or emotional, or adaptive development.
(2) Are at-risk for a developmental delay; i.e., have a diagnosed physical or mental condition that has a high probability of resulting in developmental delay; e.g., chromosomal disorders and genetic syndromes.
(aa) Intercomponent. Cooperation among the DoD Components and programs so that coordination and integration of services to individuals with disabilities and their families occur.
(bb) Medically related services.
(1) Medical services (as defined in paragraph (cc) of this section) and those services provided under professional medical supervision that are required by a CSC either to determine a student's eligibility for special education or, if the student is eligible, the special education and related services required by the student under this part in accordance with 32 CFR part 345.
(2) Provision of either direct or indirect services listed on an IEP as necessary for the student to benefit from the educational curriculum. These services may include: Medical; social work; community health nursing; dietary; psychiatric diagnosis; evaluation, and follow up; occupational therapy; physical therapy; audiology; ophthalmology; and psychological testing and therapy.
(cc) Medical services. Those evaluative, diagnostic, and supervisory services provided by a licensed and credentialed physician to assist CSCs and to implement IEPs. Medical services include diagnosis, evaluation, and medical supervision of related services that by statute, regulation, or professional tradition are the responsibility of a licensed and credentialed physician.
(dd) Mental retardation. Significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a preschool child's or child's educational performance.
(ee) Multidisciplinary. The involvement of two or more disciplines or professions in the provision of integrated and coordinated services, including evaluation and assessment activities, and development of an IFSP or IEP.
(ff) Native language. When used with reference to an individual of limited English proficiency, the language normally used by such individuals, or in the case of an infant, toddler, preschool child or child, the language normally used by the parent of the infant, toddler, preschool child or child.
(gg) Natural environments. Settings that are natural or normal for the infant or toddler's same age peers who have no disability.
(hh) Non-section 6 school arrangement or facility. A public or private school or other institution not operated in accordance with 32 CFR part 345. This term includes Section 6 special contractual arrangements.
(ii) Nutrition services. These services include:
(1) Conducting individual assessments in nutritional history and dietary intake; anthropometric, biochemical and clinical variables; feeding skills and feeding problems; and food habits and food preferences.
(2) Developing and monitoring appropriate plans to address the nutritional needs of infants and toddlers eligible for early intervention services.
(3) Making referrals to appropriate community resources to carry out nutrition goals.
(jj) Orthopedic impairment. A severe physical impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes congenital impairments (such as club foot and absence of some member), impairments caused by disease (such as poliomyelitis and bone tuberculosis), and impairments from other causes such as cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns causing contracture.
(kk) Other health impairment. Having an autistic condition that is manifested by severe communication and other developmental and educational problems; or having limited strength, vitality, or alertness due to chronic or acute health problems that adversely affect a child's educational performance as determined by the CSC, such as: ADD, heart condition, tuberculosis, rheumatic fever, nephritis, asthma, sickle cell anemia, hemophilia, epilepsy, lead poisoning, leukemia, and diabetes.
(ll) Parent. The biological father or mother of a child; a person who, by order of a court of competent jurisdiction, has been declared the father or mother of a child by adoption; the legal guardian of a child; or a person in whose household a child resides, provided that such person stands in loco parentis to that child and contributes at least one-half of the child's support.
(mm) Personally identifiable information. Information that includes the name of the infant, toddler, preschool child, child, parent or other family member; the home address of the infant, toddler, preschool child, child, parent or other family member; another personal identifier, such as the infant's, toddler's, preschool child's, child's, parent's or other family member's social security number; or a list of personal characteristics or other information that would make it possible to identify the infant, toddler, preschool child, child, parent, or other family member with reasonable certainty.
(nn) Preschool children with disabilities. These are students, ages 3-5 years (inclusive), who need special education services because they:
(1) Are experiencing developmental delays, as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments and procedures in one or more of the following areas: Cognitive development, physical development, communication development, social or emotional development, and adaptive development; and
(oo) Primary referral source. The DoD Components, including child care centers, pediatric clinics, and parents that suspect an infant, toddler, preschool child or child has a disability and bring that infant, toddler, preschool child or child to the attention of the Early Intervention Program or school CSC.
(pp) Public awareness program. Activities focusing on early identification of infants and toddlers with disabilities, including the preparation and dissemination by the military medical department to all primary referral sources of information materials for parents on the availability of early intervention services. Also includes procedures for determining the extent to which primary referral sources within the Department of Defense, especially within DoD medical treatment facilities, and physicians disseminate information on the availability of early intervention services to parents of infants or toddlers with disabilities.
(qq) Qualified. With respect to instructional personnel, a person who holds at a minimum a current and applicable teaching certificate from any of the 50 States, Puerto Rico, or the District of Columbia, or has met other pertinent requirements in the areas in which he or she is providing special education or related services not of a medical nature to children with disabilities. Providers of early intervention services and medically related services must meet standards established by the ASD(HA).
(rr) Related services. This includes transportation, and such developmental, corrective, and other supportive services (including speech pathology and audiology; psychological services; physical and occupational therapy; recreation, including therapeutic recreation and social work services; and medical and counseling services), including rehabilitation counseling (except that such medical services shall be for diagnostic and evaluative purposes only) as may be required to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education, and includes the early identification and assessment of disabling conditions in preschool children or children. The following list of related services is not exhaustive and may include other developmental, corrective, or supportive services (such as clean intermittent catheterization), if they are required to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education, as determined by a CSC.
(1) Audiology. This term includes:
(i) Audiological, diagnostic, and prescriptive services provided by audiologists who have a Certificate of Clinical Competence - Audiology (CCC-A) and pediatric experience. Audiology shall not include speech therapy.
(ii) Identification of children with hearing loss.
(iii) Determination of the range, nature, and degree of hearing loss, including referral for medical or other professional attention designed to ameliorate or correct that loss.
(iv) Provision of ameliorative and corrective activities, including language and auditory training, speech-reading (lip-reading), hearing evaluation, speech conservation, the recommendation of amplification devices, and other aural rehabilitation services.
(v) Counseling and guidance of children, parents, and service providers regarding hearing loss.
(vi) Determination of the child's need for group and individual amplification, selecting and fitting an appropriate aid, and evaluating the effectiveness of amplification.
(2) Counseling services. Services provided by qualified social workers, psychologists, guidance counselors, or other qualified personnel to help a preschool child or child with a disability to benefit from special education.
(3) Early identification. The implementation of a formal plan for identifying a disability as early as possible in the individual's life.
(4) Medical services. Those evaluative, diagnostic, and supervisory services provided by a licensed and credentialed physician to assist CSCs in determining whether a child has a medically related disability condition that results in the child's need for special education and related services and to implement IEPs. Medical services include diagnosis, evaluation, and medical supervision of related services that, by statute, regulation, or professional tradition, are the responsibility of a licensed and credentialed physician.
(5) Occupational therapy. Therapy that provides developmental evaluations and treatment programs using selected tasks to restore, reinforce, or enhance functional performance. It addresses the quality and level of functions in areas such as behavior, motor coordination, spatial orientation; visual motor and sensory integration; and general activities of daily living. This therapy, which is conducted or supervised by a qualified occupational therapist, provides training and guidance in using special equipment to improve the patient's functioning in skills of daily living, work, and study.
(6) Parent counseling and training. Assisting parents in understanding the special needs of their preschool child or child and providing parents with information about child development and special education.
(7) Physical therapy. Therapy that provides evaluations and treatment programs using exercise, modalities, and adaptive equipment to restore, reinforce, or enhance motor performance. It focuses on the quality of movement, reflex development, range of motion, muscle strength, gait, and gross motor development, seeking to decrease abnormal movement and posture while facilitating normal movement and equilibrium reactions. The therapy, which is conducted by a qualified physical therapist, provides for measurement and training in the use of adaptive equipment and prosthetic and orthotic appliances. Therapy may be conducted by a qualified physical therapist assistant under the clinical supervision of a qualified physical therapist.
(8) Psychological services. Services listed in paragraphs (rr) (8) (i) through (rr) (8) (iv) of this section that are provided by a qualified psychologist:
(i) Administering psychological and educational tests and other assessment procedures.
(ii) Interpreting test and assessment results.
(iii) Obtaining, integrating, and interpreting information about a preschool child's or child's behavior and conditions relating to his or her learning.
(iv) Consulting with other staff members in planning school programs to meet the special needs of preschool children and children, as indicated by psychological tests, interviews, and behavioral evaluations.
(v) Planning and managing a program of psychological services, including psychological counseling for preschool children, children, and parents. For the purpose of these activities, a qualified psychologist is a psychologist licensed in a State of the United States who has a degree in clinical or school psychology and additional pediatric training and/or experience.
(9) Recreation. This term includes:
(i) Assessment of leisure activities.
(ii) Therapeutic recreational activities.
(iii) Recreational programs in schools and community agencies.
(iv) Leisure education.
(10) School health services. Services provided, pursuant to an IEP, by a qualified school health nurse, or other qualified person, that are required for a preschool child or child with a disability to benefit from special education.
(11) Social work counseling services in schools. This term includes:
(i) Preparing a social and developmental history on a preschool child or child identified as having a disability.
(ii) Counseling the preschool child or child with a disability and his or her family on a group or individual basis, pursuant to an IEP.
(iii) Working with problems in a preschool child's or child's living situation (home, school, and community) that adversely affect his or her adjustment in school.
(iv) Using school and community resources to enable the preschool child or child to receive maximum benefit from his or her educational program.
(12) Speech pathology. This term includes the:
(i) Identification of preschool children and children with speech or language disorders.
(ii) Diagnosis and appraisal of specific speech or language disorders.
(iii) Referral for medical or other professional attention to correct or ameliorate speech or language disorders.
(iv) Provision of speech and language services for the correction, amelioration, and prevention of communicative disorders.
(v) Counseling and guidance of preschool children, children, parents, and teachers regarding speech and language disorders.
(13) Transportation. This term includes transporting the individual with a disability and, when necessary, an attendant or family member or reimbursing the cost of travel ((e.g., mileage, or travel by taxi, common carrier or other means) and related costs (e.g., tolls and parking expenses)) when such travel is necessary to enable a preschool child or child to receive special education (including related services) or an infant or toddler and the infant's or toddler's family to receive early intervention services. Transportation services include:
(i) Travel to and from school and between schools, including travel necessary to permit participation in educational and recreational activities and related services.
(ii) Travel from school to a medically related service site and return.
(iii) Travel in and around school buildings.
(iv) Travel to and from early intervention services.
(v) Specialized equipment (including special or adapted buses, lifts, and ramps) if required to provide special transportation for an individual with a disability.
(vi) If necessary, attendants assigned to vehicles transporting an individual with a disability when that individual requires assistance to be safely transported.
(ss) Section 6 School Arrangement. The schools (pre-kindergarten through grade 12) operated by the Department of Defense within the CONUS, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Wake Island, Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands. Section 6 School Arrangements are operated under DoD Directive 1342.21. 4
4 See footnote 1 to § 80.1(c).
(tt) Separate facility. A school or a portion of a school, regardless of whether it is used by the Section 6 School Arrangement, that is only attended by children with disabilities.
(uu) Serious emotional disturbance. The term includes:
(1) A condition that has been confirmed by clinical evaluation and diagnosis and that, over a long period of time and to a marked degree, adversely affects educational performance and that exhibits one or more of the following characteristics:
(i) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.
(ii) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.
(iii) Inappropriate types of behavior under normal circumstances.
(iv) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.
(v) A general, pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.
(2) Schizophrenia, but does not include children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they are otherwise seriously emotionally disturbed.
(ww) Social work services. This term includes:
(1) Preparing a social or developmental history on an infant, toddler, preschool child or child with a disability.
(2) Counseling with the infant, toddler, preschool child or child and family in a group or individual capacity.
(3) Working with individuals with disabilities (0-21 inclusive) in the home school, and/or community environment to ameliorate those conditions that adversely affect development or educational performance.
(4) Using school and community resources to enable the child to receive maximum benefit from his or her educational program or for the infant, toddler, and family to receive maximum benefit from early intervention services.
(xx) Special education. Specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parent, to meet the unique needs of a preschool child or child with a disability, including instruction conducted in the classroom, in the home, in hospitals and institutions, and in other settings, and instruction in physical education. The term includes speech pathology or any other related service, if the service consists of specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a preschool child or child with a disability, and is considered “special education” rather than a “related service.” The term also includes vocational education if it consists of specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability.
(1) At no cost. With regard to a preschool child or child eligible to attend Section 6 School Arrangements, specially designed instruction and related services are provided without charge, but incidental fees that are normally charged to nondisabled students, or their parents, as a part of the regular educational program may be imposed.
(2) Physical education. The development of:
(i) Physical and motor fitness.
(ii) Fundamental motor skills and patterns.
(iii) Skills in aquatics, dance, and individual and group games and sports (including intramural and lifetime sports).
(3) Vocational education. This term means organized educational programs that are directly related to the preparation of individuals for paid or unpaid employment, or for additional preparation for a career requiring other than a baccalaureate or advanced degree.
(yy) Special instruction. This term includes:
(1) Designing learning environments and activities that promote the infant's, toddler's, preschool child's or child's acquisition of skills in a variety of developmental areas, including cognitive processes and social interaction.
(2) Planning curriculum, including the planned interaction of personnel, materials, and time and space, that leads to achieving the outcomes in the infant's, toddler's, preschool child's or child's IEP or IFSP.
(3) Providing families with information, skills, and support related to enhancing the skill development of the infant, toddler, or preschool child or child.
(4) Working with the infant, toddler, preschool child, or child to enhance the infant's, toddler's, preschool child's or child's development and cognitive processes.
(zz) Specific learning disability. A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using spoken or written language that may manifest itself as an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include preschool children or children who have learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, mental retardation, emotional disturbance, or environmental, cultural, or economic differences.
(aaa) Speech and language impairments. A communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, voice impairment, or a disorder in the receptive or expressive areas of language that adversely affects a preschool child's or child's educational performance.
(bbb) Superintendent. The chief official of a Section 6 School Arrangement responsible for the implementation of this part on his or her installation.
(ccc) Transition services. A coordinated set of activities for a toddler that may be required to promote movement from early intervention, preschool, and other educational programs into different programs or educational settings. For a student 14 years of age and older, transition services are designed within an outcome-oriented process, which promotes movement from school to post-school activities, including post-secondary education, vocational training, integrated employment (including supported employment), continuing and adult education, adult services, independent living, or community participation. The coordinated set of activities shall be based upon the individual student's needs, taking into account the student's preferences and interests, and shall include instruction, community experiences, the development of employment and other post-school adult living objectives, and when appropriate, acquisition of daily living skills and functional vocational evaluation.
(ddd) Traumatic brain injury. An injury to the brain caused by an external physical force or by an internal occurrence, such as stroke or aneurysm, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial maladjustment that adversely affects educational performance. The term includes open or closed head injuries resulting in mild, moderate, or severe impairments in one or more areas, including cognition; language, memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem solving; sensory; perceptual and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical function; and information processing and speech. The term does not include brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative or brain injuries that are induced by birth trauma.
(eee) Vision services. Services necessary to ameliorate the effects of sensory impairment resulting from a loss of vision.
(fff) Visual impairment. A sensory impairment including blindness that, even with correction, adversely affects a preschool child's or child's educational performance. The term includes both partially seeing and blind preschool children and children.