37 CFR 262.2 - Definitions.
For purposes of this part, the following definitions shall apply:
(a) Aggregate Tuning Hours means the total hours of programming that the Licensee has transmitted during the relevant period to all Listeners within the United States from all channels and stations that provide audio programming consisting, in whole or in part, of eligible nonsubscription transmissions or noninteractive digital audio transmissions as part of a new subscription service, less the actual running time of any sound recordings for which the Licensee has obtained direct licenses apart from 17 U.S.C. 114(d)(2) or which do not require a license under United States copyright law. By way of example, if a service transmitted one hour of programming to 10 simultaneous Listeners, the service's Aggregate Tuning Hours would equal 10. If 3 minutes of that hour consisted of transmission of a directly licensed recording, the service's Aggregate Tuning Hours would equal 9 hours and 30 minutes. As an additional example, if one Listener listened to a service for 10 hours (and none of the recordings transmitted during that time was directly licensed), the service's Aggregate Tuning Hours would equal 10.
(b) Broadcast Simulcast means
(1) A simultaneous Internet transmission or retransmission of an over-the-air terrestrial AM or FM radio broadcast, including one with previously broadcast programming substituted for programming for which requisite licenses or clearances to transmit over the Internet have not been obtained and one with substitute advertisements, and
(2) An Internet transmission in accordance with 17 U.S.C. 114(d)(2)(C)(iii) of an archived program, which program was previously broadcast over-the-air by a terrestrial AM or FM broadcast radio station, in either case whether such Internet transmission or retransmission is made by the owner and operator of the AM or FM radio station that makes the broadcast or by a third party.
(c) Business Establishment Service means a service making transmissions of sound recordings under the limitation on exclusive rights specified by 17 U.S.C. 114(d)(1)(C)(iv).
(e) Designated Agent is the agent designated by the Librarian of Congress as provided in § 262.4(b).
(f) Ephemeral Recording is a phonorecord created for the purpose of facilitating a transmission of a public performance of a sound recording under the limitations on exclusive rights specified by 17 U.S.C. 114(d)(1)(C)(iv) or for the purpose of facilitating a transmission of a public performance of a sound recording under a statutory license in accordance with 17 U.S.C. 114(f), and subject to the limitations specified in 17 U.S.C. 112(e).
(g) Licensee is a person or entity that
(1) Has obtained a compulsory license under 17 U.S.C. 114 and the implementing regulations therefor to make eligible nonsubscription transmissions, or noninteractive digital audio transmissions as part of a new subscription service (as defined in 17 U.S.C. 114(j)(8)), or that has obtained a compulsory license under 17 U.S.C. 112(e) and the implementing regulations therefor to make Ephemeral Recordings for use in facilitating such transmissions, or
(2) Is a Business Establishment Service that has obtained a compulsory license under 17 U.S.C. 112(e) and the implementing regulations therefor to make Ephemeral Recordings, but not a person or entity that:
(i) Is exempt from taxation under section 501 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 501);
(ii) Has applied in good faith to the Internal Revenue Service for exemption from taxation under section 501 of the Internal Revenue Code and has a commercially reasonable expectation that such exemption shall be granted; or
(iii) Is a State or possession or any governmental entity or subordinate thereof, or the United States or District of Columbia, making transmissions for exclusively public purposes.
(h) Listener is a player, receiving device or other point receiving and rendering a transmission of a public performance of a sound recording made by a Licensee, irrespective of the number of individuals present to hear the transmission.
(i) Nonsubscription Service means a service making eligible nonsubscription transmissions.
(j) Performance is each instance in which any portion of a sound recording is publicly performed to a Listener by means of a digital audio transmission or retransmission (e.g., the delivery of any portion of a single track from a compact disc to one Listener) but excluding the following:
(1) A performance of a sound recording that does not require a license (e.g., the sound recording is not copyrighted);
(2) A performance of a sound recording for which the service has previously obtained a license from the Copyright Owner of such sound recording; and
(3) An incidental performance that both:
(i) Makes no more than incidental use of sound recordings including, but not limited to, brief musical transitions in and out of commercials or program segments, brief performances during news, talk and sports programming, brief background performances during disk jockey announcements, brief performances during commercials of sixty seconds or less in duration, or brief performances during sporting or other public events and
(ii) Other than ambient music that is background at a public event, does not contain an entire sound recording and does not feature a particular sound recording of more than thirty seconds (as in the case of a sound recording used as a theme song).
(l) Subscription Service means a new subscription service (as defined in 17 U.S.C. 114(j)(8)) making noninteractive digital audio transmissions.
(m) Subscription Service Revenues shall mean all monies and other consideration paid or payable, including the fair market value of non-cash or in-kind consideration paid or payable by third parties, from the operation of a Subscription Service, as comprised of the following:
(1) Subscription fees and other monies and consideration paid for access to the Subscription Service by or on behalf of subscribers receiving within the United States transmissions made as part of the Subscription Service;
(2) Monies and other consideration (including without limitation customer acquisition fees) from audio or visual advertising, promotions, sponsorships, time or space exclusively or predominantly targeted to subscribers of the Subscription Service, whether
(i) On or through the Subscription Service media player, or on pages accessible only by subscribers or that are predominantly targeted to subscribers, or
(ii) In e-mails addressed exclusively or predominantly to subscribers of the Subscription Service, or
(iii) Delivered exclusively or predominantly to subscribers of the Subscription Service in some other manner, in each case less advertising agency commissions (not to exceed 15% of those monies and other consideration) actually paid to a recognized advertising agency not owned or controlled by Licensee;
(3) Monies and other consideration (including without limitation the proceeds of any revenue-sharing or commission arrangements with any fulfillment company or other third party, and any charge for shipping or handling) from the sale of any product or service directly through the Subscription Service media player or through pages or advertisements accessible only by subscribers or that are predominantly targeted to subscribers (but not pages or advertisements that are not predominantly targeted to subscribers), less
(i) Monies and other consideration from the sale of phonorecords and digital phonorecord deliveries of sound recordings,
(ii) The Licensee's actual, out-of-pocket cost to purchase for resale the products or services (except phonorecords and digital phonorecord deliveries of sound recordings) from third parties, or in the case of products produced or services provided by the Licensee, the Licensee's actual cost to produce the product or provide the service (but not more than the fair market wholesale value of the product or service), and
(iii) Sales and use taxes, shipping, and credit card and fulfillment service fees actually paid to unrelated third parties; provided that:
(A) The fact that a transaction is consummated on a different page than the page/location where a potential customer responds to a “buy button” or other purchase opportunity for a product or service advertised directly through such player, pages or advertisements shall not render such purchase outside the scope of Subscription Service Revenues hereunder, and
(B) Monies and other consideration paid by or on behalf of subscribers for software or any other access device owned by Licensee (or any subsidiary or other affiliate of the Licensee, but excluding, for the avoidance of doubt, any entity that sells a third-party product, whether or not bearing the Licensee's brand) to access the Licensee's Subscription Service shall not be deemed part of Subscription Service Revenues, unless such software or access device is required as a condition to access the Subscription Service and either is purchased by a subscriber contemporaneously with or after subscribing or has no independent function other than to access the Subscription Service;
(4) Monies and other consideration for the use or exploitation of data specifically and separately concerning subscribers or the Subscription Service, but not monies and other consideration for the use or exploitation of data wherein information concerning subscribers or the Subscription Service is commingled with and not separated or distinguished from data that predominantly concern nonsubscribers or other services; and
(5) Bad debts recovered with respect to paragraphs (m)(1) through (4) of this section; provided that the Subscription Service shall be permitted to deduct bad debts actually written off during a reporting period.