40 CFR § 1037.530 - Wind-tunnel procedures for calculating drag area (CdA).
The wind-tunnel procedure specified in this section is considered to be the primary procedure for trailers, but is an alternate procedure for tractors.
(a) You may measure drag areas consistent with published SAE procedures as described in this section using any wind tunnel recognized by the Subsonic Aerodynamic Testing Association, subject to the provisions of §§ 1037.525 through 1037.527. If your wind tunnel does not meet the specifications described in this section, you may ask us to approve it as an alternate method under § 1037.525(d) or § 1037.526(d). All wind tunnels and wind tunnel tests must meet the specifications described in SAE J1252 (incorporated by reference in § 1037.810), with the following exceptions and additional provisions:
(2) For full-scale wind tunnel tractor testing, use good engineering judgment to select a trailer that is a reasonable representation of the trailer used for reference coastdown testing. For example, where your wind tunnel is not long enough to test the tractor with a standard 53 foot box van, it may be appropriate to use a shorter box van. In such a case, the correlation developed using the shorter trailer would only be valid for testing with the shorter trailer.
(3) For reduced-scale wind tunnel testing, use a one-eighth or larger scale model of a tractor and trailer that is sufficient to simulate airflow through the radiator inlet grill and across an engine geometry that represents engines commonly used in your test vehicle.
(b) Open-throat wind tunnels must also meet the specifications of SAE J2071 (incorporated by reference in § 1037.810).
(c) To determine CdA values for certifying tractors, perform wind-tunnel testing with a tractor-trailer combination using the manufacturer's tractor and a standard trailer. To determine CdA values for certifying trailers, perform wind-tunnel testing with a tractor-trailer combination using a standard tractor. Use a moving/rolling floor if the facility has one. For Phase 1 tractors, conduct the wind tunnel tests at a zero yaw angle. For Phase 2 vehicles, conduct the wind tunnel tests by measuring the drag area at yaw angles of +4.5° and −4.5° and calculating the average of those two values.
(d) In your request to use wind-tunnel testing for tractors, or in your application for certification for trailers, describe how you meet all the specifications that apply under this section, using terminology consistent with SAE J1594 (incorporated by reference in § 1037.810). If you request our approval to use wind-tunnel testing even though you do not meet all the specifications of this section, describe how your method nevertheless qualifies as an alternate method under § 1037.525(d) or 1037.526(d) and include all the following information:
(1) Identify the name and location of the test facility for your wind-tunnel method.
(2) Background and history of the wind tunnel.
(3) The wind tunnel's layout (with diagram), type, and construction (structural and material).
(4) The wind tunnel's design details: The type and material for corner turning vanes, air settling specification, mesh screen specification, air straightening method, tunnel volume, surface area, average duct area, and circuit length.
(5) Specifications related to the wind tunnel's flow quality: Temperature control and uniformity, airflow quality, minimum airflow velocity, flow uniformity, angularity and stability, static pressure variation, turbulence intensity, airflow acceleration and deceleration times, test duration flow quality, and overall airflow quality achievement.
(6) Test/working section information: Test section type (e.g., open, closed, adaptive wall) and shape (e.g., circular, square, oval), length, contraction ratio, maximum air velocity, maximum dynamic pressure, nozzle width and height, plenum dimensions and net volume, maximum allowed model scale, maximum model height above road, strut movement rate (if applicable), model support, primary boundary layer slot, boundary layer elimination method, and photos and diagrams of the test section.
(7) Fan section description: fan type, diameter, power, maximum angular speed, maximum speed, support type, mechanical drive, and sectional total weight.
(8) Data acquisition and control (where applicable): Acquisition type, motor control, tunnel control, model balance, model pressure measurement, wheel drag balances, wing/body panel balances, and model exhaust simulation.
(9) Moving ground plane or rolling road (if applicable): Construction and material, yaw table and range, moving ground length and width, belt type, maximum belt speed, belt suction mechanism, platen instrumentation, temperature control, and steering.
(10) Facility correction factors and purpose.
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