40 CFR § 1037.615 - Advanced technologies.

§ 1037.615 Advanced technologies.
Link to an amendment published at 89 FR 29787, Apr. 22, 2024.

(a) This section applies in Phase 1 for hybrid vehicles with regenerative braking, vehicles equipped with Rankine-cycle engines, electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles, and in Phase 2 through model year 2027 for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles. You may not generate credits for Phase 1 engine technologies for which the engines generate credits under 40 CFR part 1036.

(b) Generate Phase 1 advanced-technology credits for vehicles other than electric vehicles as follows:

(1) Measure the effectiveness of the advanced system by chassis-testing a vehicle equipped with the advanced system and an equivalent conventional vehicle, or by testing the hybrid systems and the equivalent non-hybrid systems as described in § 1037.555. Test the vehicles as specified in subpart F of this part. For purposes of this paragraph (b), a conventional vehicle is considered to be equivalent if it has the same footprint (as defined in 40 CFR 86.1803), vehicle service class, aerodynamic drag, and other relevant factors not directly related to the hybrid powertrain. If you use § 1037.540 to quantify the benefits of a hybrid system for PTO operation, the conventional vehicle must have the same number of PTO circuits and have equivalent PTO power. If you do not produce an equivalent vehicle, you may create and test a prototype equivalent vehicle. The conventional vehicle is considered Vehicle A and the advanced vehicle is considered Vehicle B. We may specify an alternate cycle if your vehicle includes a power take-off.

(2) Calculate an improvement factor and g/ton-mile benefit using the following equations and parameters:

(i) Improvement Factor = [(Emission Rate A)−(Emission Rate B)]/(Emission Rate A).

(ii) g/ton-mile benefit = Improvement Factor × (GEM Result B).

(iii) Emission Rates A and B are the g/ton-mile CO2 emission rates of the conventional and advanced vehicles, respectively, as measured under the test procedures specified in this section. GEM Result B is the g/ton-mile CO2 emission rate resulting from emission modeling of the advanced vehicle as specified in § 1037.520.

(3) If you apply an improvement factor to multiple vehicle configurations using the same advanced technology, use the vehicle configuration with the smallest potential reduction in greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the hybrid capability.

(4) Use the equations of § 1037.705 to convert the g/ton-mile benefit to emission credits (in Mg). Use the g/ton-mile benefit in place of the (Std-FEL) term.

(c) See § 1037.540 for special testing provisions related to Phase 1 vehicles equipped with hybrid power take-off units.

(d) For Phase 2 plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and for fuel cells powered by any fuel other than hydrogen, calculate CO2 credits using an FEL based on emission measurements from powertrain testing. Phase 2 advanced-technology credits do not apply for hybrid vehicles that have no plug-in capability.

(e) You may use an engineering analysis to calculate an improvement factor for fuel cell vehicles based on measured emissions from the fuel cell vehicle.

(f) For electric vehicles and for fuel cells powered by hydrogen, calculate CO2 credits using an FEL of 0 g/ton-mile. Note that these vehicles are subject to compression-ignition standards for CO2.

(g) As specified in subpart H of this part, advanced-technology credits generated from Phase 1 vehicles under this section may be used under this part 1037 outside of the averaging set in which they were generated, or they may be used under 40 CFR 86.1819 or 40 CFR part 1036. Advanced-technology credits generated from Phase 2 vehicles are subject to all the averaging-set restrictions that apply to other emission credits.

(h) You may certify using both provisions of this section and the off-cycle technology provisions of § 1037.610, provided you do not double count emission benefits.

[81 FR 74048, Oct. 25, 2016, as amended at 86 FR 34490, June 29, 2021; 88 FR 4652, Jan. 24, 2023 ]