40 CFR § 1039.125 - What maintenance instructions must I give to buyers?

§ 1039.125 What maintenance instructions must I give to buyers?

Give the ultimate purchaser of each new nonroad engine written instructions for properly maintaining and using the engine, including the emission-control system. The maintenance instructions also apply to service accumulation on your emission-data engines, as described in § 1039.245 and in 40 CFR part 1065.

(a) Critical emission-related maintenance. Critical emission-related maintenance includes any adjustment, cleaning, repair, or replacement of critical emission-related components. This may also include additional emission-related maintenance that you determine is critical if we approve it in advance. You may schedule critical emission-related maintenance on these components if you meet the following conditions:

(1) You demonstrate that the maintenance is reasonably likely to be done at the recommended intervals on in-use engines. We will accept scheduled maintenance as reasonably likely to occur if you satisfy any of the following conditions, with the exception that paragraphs (a)(1)(ii) and (iii) of this section do not apply for DEF replenishment:

(i) You present data showing that, if a lack of maintenance increases emissions, it also unacceptably degrades the engine's performance.

(ii) You present survey data showing that at least 80 percent of engines in the field get the maintenance you specify at the recommended intervals.

(iii) You provide the maintenance free of charge and clearly say so in your maintenance instructions.

(iv) You otherwise show us that the maintenance is reasonably likely to be done at the recommended intervals.

(2) For engines below 130 kW, you may not schedule critical emission-related maintenance more frequently than the following minimum intervals, except as specified in paragraphs (a)(4), (b), and (c) of this section:

(i) For EGR-related filters and coolers, DEF filters, crankcase ventilation valves and filters, and fuel injector tips (cleaning only), the minimum interval is 1,500 hours.

(ii) For the following components, including associated sensors and actuators, the minimum interval is 3,000 hours: Fuel injectors, turbochargers, catalytic converters, electronic control units, EGR systems (including related components, but excluding filters and coolers), and other add-on components.

(iii) For SCR systems, the minimum interval for replenishing the diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) is the number of engine operating hours necessary to consume a full tank of fuel based on normal usage starting from full fuel capacity for the equipment. Use good engineering judgment to ensure that equipment manufacturers will meet this requirement for worst-case operation by following your installation instructions. For example, if your highest rate of DEF consumption (relative to fuel consumption) will occur under a steady state operating conditions characterized by one of the modes of the applicable steady-state certification test (to the extent that continuous operation at such mode is representative of real-world conditions), the DEF tank should be large enough that a single tank of DEF would be enough to continue proper operation of the SCR system for the expected operating range with a single tank of fuel at that mode. For engine testing in a laboratory, any size DEF tank and fuel tank may be used; however, for our testing of engines, we may require you to provide us with a production-type DEF tank, including any associated sensors.

(3) For engines at or above 130 kW, you may not schedule critical emission-related maintenance more frequently than the following minimum intervals, except as specified in paragraphs (a)(4), (b), and (c) of this section:

(i) For EGR-related filters and coolers, DEF filters, crankcase ventilation valves and filters, and fuel injector tips (cleaning only), the minimum interval is 1,500 hours.

(ii) For the following components, including associated sensors and actuators, the minimum interval is 4,500 hours: Fuel injectors, turbochargers, catalytic converters, electronic control units, EGR systems (including related components, but excluding filters and coolers), and other add-on components.

(iii) The provisions of paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section apply for SCR systems.

(4) For particulate traps, trap oxidizers, and components related to either of these, scheduled maintenance may include cleaning or repair at the intervals specified in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) or (a)(3)(ii) of this section, as applicable. Scheduled maintenance may include a shorter interval for cleaning or repair and may also include adjustment or replacement, but only if we approve it. We will approve your request if you provide the maintenance free of charge and clearly state this in your maintenance instructions, and you provide us additional information as needed to convince us that the maintenance will occur.

(5) You may ask us to approve a maintenance interval shorter than that specified in paragraphs (a)(2) and (3) of this section under § 1039.210, including emission-related components that were not in widespread use with nonroad compression-ignition engines before 2011. In your request you must describe the proposed maintenance step, recommend the maximum feasible interval for this maintenance, include your rationale with supporting evidence to support the need for the maintenance at the recommended interval, and demonstrate that the maintenance will be done at the recommended interval on in-use engines. In considering your request, we will evaluate the information you provide and any other available information to establish alternate specifications for maintenance intervals, if appropriate. We will announce any decision we make under this paragraph (a)(5) in the Federal Register. Anyone may request a hearing regarding such a decision (see § 1039.820).

(6) If your engine family has an alternate useful life under § 1039.101(g) that is shorter than the period specified in paragraph (a)(2) or (a)(3) of this section, you may not schedule critical emission-related maintenance more frequently than the alternate useful life, except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section.

(b) Recommended additional maintenance. You may recommend any additional amount of maintenance on the components listed in paragraph (a) of this section, as long as you state clearly that these maintenance steps are not necessary to keep the emission-related warranty valid. If operators do the maintenance specified in paragraph (a) of this section, but not the recommended additional maintenance, this does not allow you to disqualify those engines from in-use testing or deny a warranty claim. Do not take these maintenance steps during service accumulation on your emission-data engines.

(c) Special maintenance. You may specify more frequent maintenance to address problems related to special situations, such as atypical engine operation. You must clearly state that this additional maintenance is associated with the special situation you are addressing. You may also address maintenance of low-use engines (such as recreational or stand-by engines) by specifying the maintenance interval in terms of calendar months or years in addition to your specifications in terms of engine operating hours. All special maintenance instructions must be consistent with good engineering judgment. We may disapprove your maintenance instructions if we determine that you have specified special maintenance steps to address maintenance that is unlikely to occur in use, or engine operation that is not atypical. For example, this paragraph (c) does not allow you to design engines that require special maintenance for a certain type of expected operation. If we determine that certain maintenance items do not qualify as special maintenance under this paragraph (c), you may identify this as recommended additional maintenance under paragraph (b) of this section.

(d) Noncritical emission-related maintenance. Subject to the provisions of this paragraph (d), you may schedule any amount of emission-related inspection or maintenance that is not covered by paragraph (a) of this section (that is, maintenance that is neither explicitly identified as critical emission-related maintenance, nor that we approve as critical emission-related maintenance). Noncritical emission-related maintenance generally includes maintenance on the components we specify in 40 CFR part 1068, appendix I, that is not covered in paragraph (a) of this section. You must state in the owners manual that these steps are not necessary to keep the emission-related warranty valid. If operators fail to do this maintenance, this does not allow you to disqualify those engines from in-use testing or deny a warranty claim. Do not take these inspection or maintenance steps during service accumulation on your emission-data engines.

(e) Maintenance that is not emission-related. For maintenance unrelated to emission controls, you may schedule any amount of inspection or maintenance. You may also take these inspection or maintenance steps during service accumulation on your emission-data engines, as long as they are reasonable and technologically necessary. This might include adding engine oil, changing air, fuel, or oil filters, servicing engine-cooling systems or fuel-water separator cartridges or elements, and adjusting idle speed, governor, engine bolt torque, valve lash, or injector lash. You may not perform this nonemission-related maintenance on emission-data engines more often than the least frequent intervals that you recommend to the ultimate purchaser.

(f) Source of parts and repairs. State clearly in your written maintenance instructions that a repair shop or person of the owner's choosing may maintain, replace, or repair emission-control devices and systems. Your instructions may not require components or service identified by brand, trade, or corporate name. Also, do not directly or indirectly condition your warranty on a requirement that the engine be serviced by your franchised dealers or any other service establishments with which you have a commercial relationship. You may disregard the requirements in this paragraph (f) if you do one of two things:

(1) Provide a component or service without charge under the purchase agreement.

(2) Get us to waive this prohibition in the public's interest by convincing us the engine will work properly only with the identified component or service.

(g) Payment for scheduled maintenance. Owners are responsible for properly maintaining their engines. This generally includes paying for scheduled maintenance. However, manufacturers must pay for scheduled maintenance during the useful life if the regulations require it or if it meets all the following criteria:

(1) Each affected component was not in general use on similar engines before the applicable dates shown in paragraph (6) of the definition of new nonroad engine in § 1039.801.

(2) The primary function of each affected component is to reduce emissions.

(3) The cost of the scheduled maintenance is more than 2 percent of the price of the engine.

(4) Failure to perform the maintenance would not cause clear problems that would significantly degrade the engine's performance.

(h) Owners manual. Explain the owner's responsibility for proper maintenance in the owners manual.

[69 FR 39213, June 29, 2004, as amended at 70 FR 40463, July 13, 2005; 72 FR 53130, Sept. 18, 2007; 73 FR 59191, Oct. 8, 2008; 75 FR 22989, Apr. 30, 2010; 79 FR 46373, Aug. 8, 2014; 81 FR 74134, Oct. 25, 2016]

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