40 CFR § 1039.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?
(a) For purposes of certification, your engine family is considered in compliance with the emission standards in § 1039.101(a) and (b), § 1039.102(a) and (b), § 1039.104, and § 1039.105 if all emission-data engines representing that family have test results showing official emission results and deteriorated emission levels at or below these standards. This also applies for all test points for emission-data engines within the family used to establish deterioration factors. Note that your FELs are considered to be the applicable emission standards with which you must comply if you participate in the ABT program in subpart H of this part.
(b) Your engine family is deemed not to comply if any emission-data engine representing that family has test results showing an official emission result or a deteriorated emission level for any pollutant that is above an applicable emission standard. Similarly, your engine family is deemed not to comply if any emission-data engine representing that family has test results showing any emission level above the applicable not-to-exceed emission standard for any pollutant. This also applies for all test points for emission-data engines within the family used to establish deterioration factors.
(c) To compare emission levels from the emission-data engine with the applicable emission standards, apply deterioration factors to the measured emission levels for each pollutant. Section 1039.245 specifies how to test your engine to develop deterioration factors that represent the deterioration expected in emissions over your engines' full useful life. Your deterioration factors must take into account any available data from in-use testing with similar engines. Small-volume engine manufacturers may use assigned deterioration factors that we establish. Apply deterioration factors as follows:
(1) Additive deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. Except as specified in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, use an additive deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. An additive deterioration factor is the difference between exhaust emissions at the end of the useful life and exhaust emissions at the low-hour test point. In these cases, adjust the official emission results for each tested engine at the selected test point by adding the factor to the measured emissions. If the factor is less than zero, use zero. Additive deterioration factors must be specified to one more decimal place than the applicable standard.
(2) Multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. Use a multiplicative deterioration factor if good engineering judgment calls for the deterioration factor for a pollutant to be the ratio of exhaust emissions at the end of the useful life to exhaust emissions at the low-hour test point. For example, if you use aftertreatment technology that controls emissions of a pollutant proportionally to engine-out emissions, it is often appropriate to use a multiplicative deterioration factor. Adjust the official emission results for each tested engine at the selected test point by multiplying the measured emissions by the deterioration factor. If the factor is less than one, use one. A multiplicative deterioration factor may not be appropriate in cases where testing variability is significantly greater than engine-to-engine variability. Multiplicative deterioration factors must be specified to one more significant figure than the applicable standard.
(3) Sawtooth and other nonlinear deterioration patterns. The deterioration factors described in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section assume that the highest useful life emissions occur either at the end of useful life or at the low-hour test point. The provisions of this paragraph (c)(3) apply where good engineering judgment indicates that the highest emissions over the useful life will occur between these two points. For example, emissions may increase with service accumulation until a certain maintenance step is performed, then return to the low-hour emission levels and begin increasing again. Base deterioration factors for engines with such emission patterns on the difference between (or ratio of) the point at which the highest emissions occur and the low-hour test point. Note that this applies for maintenance-related deterioration only where we allow such critical emission-related maintenance.
(4) Deterioration factor for smoke. Deterioration factors for smoke are always additive, as described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section.
(5) Deterioration factor for crankcase emissions. If your engine vents crankcase emissions to the exhaust or to the atmosphere, you must account for crankcase emission deterioration, using good engineering judgment. You may use separate deterioration factors for crankcase emissions of each pollutant (either multiplicative or additive) or include the effects in combined deterioration factors that include exhaust and crankcase emissions together for each pollutant.
(6) Dual-fuel and flexible-fuel engines. In the case of dual-fuel and flexible-fuel engines, apply deterioration factors separately for each fuel type. You may accumulate service hours on a single emission-data engine using the type of fuel or the fuel mixture expected to have the highest combustion and exhaust temperatures; you may ask us to approve a different fuel mixture if you demonstrate that a different criterion is more appropriate.
(d) Determine the official emission result for each pollutant to at least one more decimal place than the applicable standard. Apply the deterioration factor to the official emission result, as described in paragraph (c) of this section, then round the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the emission standard. Compare the rounded emission levels to the emission standard for each emission-data engine. In the case of NOX+NMHC standards, apply the deterioration factor to each pollutant and then add the results before rounding.