40 CFR 1045.505 - How do I test engines using discrete-mode or ramped-modal duty cycles?
(a) This section describes how to test engines under steady-state conditions. We allow you to perform tests with either discrete-mode or ramped-modal sampling. You must use the modal testing method for certification and all other testing you perform for an engine family. If we test your engines to confirm that they meet emission standards, we will use the modal testing method you select for your own testing. If you submit certification test data collected with both discrete-mode and ramped-modal testing (either in your original application or in an amendment to your application), either method may be used for subsequent testing. We may also perform other testing as allowed by the Clean Air Act. Conduct duty-cycle testing as follows:
(1) For discrete-mode testing, sample emissions separately for each mode, then calculate an average emission level for the whole cycle using the weighting factors specified for each mode. In each mode, operate the engine for at least 5 minutes, then sample emissions for at least 1 minute. Calculate cycle statistics and compare with the established criteria as specified in 40 CFR 1065.514 to confirm that the test is valid.
(2) For ramped-modal testing, start sampling at the beginning of the first mode and continue sampling until the end of the last mode. Calculate emissions and cycle statistics the same as for transient testing as specified in 40 CFR part 1065.
(b) Measure emissions by testing the engine on a dynamometer to determine whether it meets the emission standards in §§ 1045.103(a) and 1045.105(a). Use the 5-mode duty cycle or the corresponding ramped-modal cycle described in Appendix I of this part.
(c) During idle mode, operate the engine at its warm idle speed as described in 40 CFR 1065.510; this may involve a nonzero torque setting if that represents in-use operation.
(d) For full-load operating modes, operate the engine at wide-open throttle.
(e) See 40 CFR part 1065 for detailed specifications of tolerances and calculations.