40 CFR 1045.801 - What definitions apply to this part?
|Engine type||Initial model year of emission standards|
The following definitions apply to this part. The definitions apply to all subparts unless we note otherwise. All undefined terms have the meaning the Clean Air Act gives to them. The definitions follow:
Adjustable parameter means any device, system, or element of design that someone can adjust (including those which are difficult to access) and that, if adjusted, may affect emissions or engine performance during emission testing or normal in-use operation. This includes, but is not limited to, parameters related to injection timing and fueling rate. You may ask us to exclude a parameter that is difficult to access if it cannot be adjusted to affect emissions without significantly degrading engine performance, or if you otherwise show us that it will not be adjusted in a way that affects emissions during in-use operation.
Aftertreatment means relating to a catalytic converter, particulate filter, or any other system, component, or technology mounted downstream of the exhaust valve (or exhaust port) whose design function is to decrease emissions in the engine exhaust before it is exhausted to the environment. Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR), turbochargers, and oxygen sensors are not aftertreatment.
Alcohol-fueled engine means an engine that is designed to run using an alcohol fuel. For purposes of this definition, alcohol fuels do not include fuels with a nominal alcohol content below 25 percent by volume.
Amphibious vehicle means a vehicle with wheels or tracks that is designed primarily for operation on land and secondarily for operation in water.
Applicable emission standard or applicable standard means an emission standard to which an engine (or vessel) is subject. Additionally, if an engine (or vessel) has been or is being certified to another standard or FEL, applicable emission standard means the FEL or other standard to which the engine (or vessel) has been or is being certified. This definition does not apply to subpart H of this part.
Auxiliary emission control device means any element of design that senses temperature, motive speed, engine RPM, transmission gear, or any other parameter for the purpose of activating, modulating, delaying, or deactivating the operation of any part of the emission control system.
Brake power means the usable power output of the engine, not including power required to fuel, lubricate, or heat the engine, circulate coolant to the engine, or to operate aftertreatment devices.
Calibration means the set of specifications and tolerances specific to a particular design, version, or application of a component or assembly capable of functionally describing its operation over its working range.
Carryover means relating to certification based on emission data generated from an earlier model year, as described in § 1045.235(d).
Certification means relating to the process of obtaining a certificate of conformity for an engine family that complies with the emission standards and requirements in this part.
Certified emission level means the highest deteriorated emission level in an engine family for a given pollutant from either transient or steady-state testing.
Clean Air Act means the Clean Air Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q.
Conventional sterndrive/inboard engine means a sterndrive/inboard engine that is not a high-performance engine.
Crankcase emissions means airborne substances emitted to the atmosphere from any part of the engine crankcase's ventilation or lubrication systems. The crankcase is the housing for the crankshaft and other related internal parts.
Critical emission-related component means any of the following components:
(1) Electronic control units, aftertreatment devices, fuel-metering components, EGR-system components, crankcase-ventilation valves, all components related to charge-air compression and cooling, and all sensors and actuators associated with any of these components.
(2) Any other component whose primary purpose is to reduce emissions.
Date of manufacture has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30.
Days means calendar days unless otherwise specified. For example, when we specify working days we mean calendar days, excluding weekends and U.S. national holidays.
Designated Compliance Officer means the Manager, Heavy-Duty and Nonroad Engine Group (6405-J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460.
Designated Enforcement Officer means the Director, Air Enforcement Division (2242A), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW.,Washington, DC 20460.
Deteriorated emission level means the emission level that results from applying the appropriate deterioration factor to the official emission result of the emission-data engine.
Deterioration factor means the relationship between emissions at the end of useful life and emissions at the low-hour test point (see §§ 1045.240 and 1045.245), expressed in one of the following ways:
(1) For multiplicative deterioration factors, the ratio of emissions at the end of useful life to emissions at the low-hour test point.
(2) For additive deterioration factors, the difference between emissions at the end of useful life and emissions at the low-hour test point.
Discrete-mode means relating to the discrete-mode type of steady-state test described in § 1045.505.
Dual fuel means relating to an engine designed for operation on two different fuels but not on a continuous mixture of those fuels.
Emission control system means any device, system, or element of design that controls or reduces the emissions of regulated pollutants from an engine.
Emission-data engine means an engine that is tested for certification. This includes engines tested to establish deterioration factors.
Emission-related maintenance means maintenance that substantially affects emissions or is likely to substantially affect emission deterioration.
Engine has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. This includes complete and partially complete engines.
Engine configuration means a unique combination of engine hardware and calibration within an engine family. Engines within a single engine configuration differ only with respect to normal production variability.
Engine family has the meaning given in § 1045.230.
Engine manufacturer means the manufacturer of the engine. See the definition of “manufacturer” in this section.
Evaporative means relating to fuel emissions controlled by 40 CFR part 1060. This generally includes emissions that result from permeation of fuel through the fuel-system materials or from ventilation of the fuel system.
Excluded means relating to an engine that either:
(1) Has been determined not to be a nonroad engine, as specified in 40 CFR 1068.30; or
(2) Is a nonroad engine that, according to § 1045.5, is not subject to this part 1045.
Exempted has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30.
Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) means a technology that reduces emissions by routing exhaust gases that had been exhausted from the combustion chamber(s) back into the engine to be mixed with incoming air before or during combustion. The use of valve timing to increase the amount of residual exhaust gas in the combustion chamber(s) that is mixed with incoming air before or during combustion is not considered exhaust-gas recirculation for the purposes of this part.
Family emission limit (FEL) means an emission level declared by the manufacturer to serve in place of the emission standards specified in subpart B of this part under the ABT program in subpart H of this part. The family emission limit must be expressed to the same number of decimal places as the emission standard it replaces. The family emission limit serves as the emission standard for the engine family (exhaust) or emission family (evaporative) with respect to all required testing.
Flexible-fuel means relating to an engine designed for operation on any mixture of two or more different fuels.
Fuel line means hose, tubing, and primer bulbs containing or exposed to liquid fuel, including hose or tubing that delivers fuel to or from the engine, as follows:
(1) This includes flexible molded sections for transporting liquid fuel to or from the engine, but does not include inflexible components for connecting hose or tubing.
(2) This includes hose or tubing for the vent line or filler neck if fuel systems are designed such that any portion of the vent-line or filler-neck material continues to be exposed to liquid fuel after completion of a refueling event in which an operator fills the fuel tank using typical methods. For example, we would not consider a filler neck to be a fuel line if an operator stops refueling after an initial automatic shutoff that signals the fuel tank is full, where any liquid fuel in the filler neck during the refueling procedure drains into the fuel tank.
(3) This does not include primer bulbs that contain liquid fuel only for priming the engine before starting.
Fuel system means all components involved in transporting, metering, and mixing the fuel from the fuel tank to the combustion chamber(s), including the fuel tank, fuel tank cap, fuel pump, fuel filters, fuel lines, carburetor or fuel-injection components, and all fuel-system vents. In the case where the fuel tank cap or other components (excluding fuel lines) are directly mounted on the fuel tank, they are considered to be a part of the fuel tank.
Fuel type means a general category of fuels such as gasoline or natural gas. There can be multiple grades within a single fuel type, such as low-temperature or all-season gasoline.
High-performance means relating to a sterndrive/inboard engine with maximum engine power above 373 kW that has design features to enhance power output such that the expected operating time until rebuild is substantially shorter than 480 hours.
Hydrocarbon (HC) means the hydrocarbon group on which the emission standards are based for each fuel type, as described in subpart B of this part.
Identification number means a unique specification (for example, a model number/serial number combination) that allows someone to distinguish a particular engine from other similar engines.
Jet boat means a vessel that uses an installed internal combustion engine powering a water jet pump as its primary source of propulsion and is designed with open area for carrying passengers. Jet boat engines qualify as sterndrive/inboard engines.
Low-hour means relating to an engine that has stabilized emissions and represents the undeteriorated emission level. This would generally involve less than 30 hours of operation.
Manufacture means the physical and engineering process of designing, constructing, and assembling an engine or vessel.
Manufacturer has the meaning given in section 216(1) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7550(1)). In general, this term includes any person who manufactures an engine, or vessel for sale in the United States or otherwise introduces a new marine engine into U.S. commerce. This includes importers who import engines or vessels for resale, but not dealers. All manufacturing entities under the control of the same person are considered to be a single manufacturer.
Marine engine means a nonroad engine that is installed or intended to be installed on a vessel. This includes a portable auxiliary marine engine only if its fueling, cooling, or exhaust system is an integral part of the vessel. There are two kinds of marine engines:
(1) Propulsion marine engine means a marine engine that moves a vessel through the water or directs the vessel's movement.
(2) Auxiliary marine engine means a marine engine not used for propulsion.
Marine vessel has the meaning given in 1 U.S.C. 3, except that it does not include amphibious vehicles. The definition in 1 U.S.C. 3 very broadly includes every craft capable of being used as a means of transportation on water.
Maximum engine power has the meaning given in § 1045.140.
Maximum test speed has one of the following meanings:
(1) For all testing with two-stroke engines and for testing four-stroke engines on an engine dynamometer, maximum test speed has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001 and § 1045.501.
(2) For testing a four-stroke engine that remains installed in a vessel, maximum test speed means the engine speed during sustained operation with maximum operator demand.
Model year means one of the following things:
(1) For freshly manufactured vessels and engines (see definition of “new propulsion marine engine,” paragraph (1)), model year means one of the following:
(i) Calendar year.
(ii) Your annual new model production period if it is different than the calendar year. This must include January 1 of the calendar year for which the model year is named. It may not begin before January 2 of the previous calendar year and it must end by December 31 of the named calendar year. For seasonal production periods not including January 1, model year means the calendar year in which the production occurs, unless you choose to certify the applicable engine family with the following model year. For example, if your production period is June 1, 2010 through November 30, 2010, your model year would be 2010 unless you choose to certify the engine family for model year 2011.
(2) For an engine that is converted to a propulsion marine engine after being certified and placed into service as a motor vehicle engine, a nonroad engine that is not a propulsion marine engine, or a stationary engine, model year means the calendar year in which the engine was originally produced. For an engine that is converted to a propulsion marine engine after being placed into service as a motor vehicle engine, a nonroad engine that is not a propulsion marine engine, or a stationary engine without having been certified, model year means the calendar year in which the engine becomes a new propulsion marine engine. (See definition of “new propulsion marine engine,” paragraph (2).)
(4) For engines that are not freshly manufactured but are installed in new vessels, model year means the calendar year in which the engine is installed in the new vessel (see definition of “new propulsion marine engine,” paragraph (4)).
(5) For imported engines:
(i) For imported engines described in paragraph (5)(i) of the definition of “new propulsion marine engine,” model year has the meaning given in paragraphs (1) through (4) of this definition.
(ii) For imported engines described in paragraph (5)(ii) of the definition of “new propulsion marine engine,” model year means the calendar year in which the engine is modified.
(iii) For imported engines described in paragraph (5)(iii) of the definition of “new propulsion marine nonroad engine,” model year means the calendar year in which the engine is first assembled in its imported configuration, unless specified otherwise in this part or in 40 CFR part 1068.
New portable marine fuel tanks and fuel lines means portable marine fuel tanks and fuel lines that have not yet been placed into service, or which are otherwise offered for sales as new products.
New propulsion marine engine or new engine means any of the following things:
(1) A freshly manufactured propulsion marine engine for which the ultimate purchaser has never received the equitable or legal title. This kind of engine might commonly be thought of as “brand new.” In the case of this paragraph (1), the engine is new from the time it is produced until the ultimate purchaser receives the title or the product is placed into service, whichever comes first.
(2) An engine originally manufactured as a motor vehicle engine, a nonroad engine that is not a propulsion marine engine, or a stationary engine that is later used or intended to be used as a propulsion marine engine. In this case, the engine is no longer a motor vehicle, nonpropulsion, or stationary engine and becomes a “new propulsion marine engine.” The engine is no longer new when it is placed into service as a marine propulsion engine. This paragraph (2) applies for engines we exclude under § 1045.5, where that engine is later installed as a propulsion engine in a vessel that is covered by this part 1045.
(4) An engine not covered by paragraphs (1) through (3) of this definition that is intended to be installed in a new vessel. This generally includes installation of used engines in new vessels. The engine is no longer new when the ultimate purchaser receives a title for the vessel or the product is placed into service, whichever comes first.
(5) An imported marine engine, subject to the following provisions:
(i) An imported marine engine covered by a certificate of conformity issued under this part that meets the criteria of one or more of paragraphs (1) through (4) of this definition, where the original engine manufacturer holds the certificate, is new as defined by those applicable paragraphs.
(ii) An imported engine that will be covered by a certificate of conformity issued under this part, where someone other than the original engine manufacturer holds the certificate (such as when the engine is modified after its initial assembly), is a new propulsion marine engine when it is imported. It is no longer new when the ultimate purchaser receives a title for the engine or it is placed into service, whichever comes first.
(iii) An imported propulsion marine engine that is not covered by a certificate of conformity issued under this part at the time of importation is new. This addresses uncertified engines and vessels initially placed into service that someone seeks to import into the United States. Importation of this kind of engine (or vessel containing such an engine) is generally prohibited by 40 CFR part 1068. However, the importation of such an engine is not prohibited if the engine has an earlier model year than that identified in the following table, since it is not subject to standards:
Applicability of Emission Standards for Propulsion Marine Engines
|Engine type||Initial model year of emission standards|
New vessel means either of the following things:
(1) A vessel for which the ultimate purchaser has never received the equitable or legal title. The product is no longer new when the ultimate purchaser receives this title or it is placed into service, whichever comes first.
(2) An imported vessel that has already been placed into service, where it has an engine not covered by a certificate of conformity issued under this part at the time of importation that was manufactured after the requirements of this part start to apply (see § 1045.1).
Noncompliant engine means an engine that was originally covered by a certificate of conformity but is not in the certified configuration or otherwise does not comply with the conditions of the certificate.
Nonconforming engine means an engine not covered by a certificate of conformity that would otherwise be subject to emission standards.
Nonmethane hydrocarbon has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001. This generally means the difference between the emitted mass of total hydrocarbons and the emitted mass of methane.
Nonroad means relating to nonroad engines, or vessels, or equipment that include nonroad engines.
Nonroad engine has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. In general, this means all internal-combustion engines except motor vehicle engines, stationary engines, engines used solely for competition, or engines used in aircraft.
Official emission result means the measured emission rate for an emission-data engine on a given duty cycle before the application of any deterioration factor.
Outboard engine means an assembly of a spark-ignition engine and drive unit used to propel a vessel from a properly mounted position external to the hull of the vessel. An outboard drive unit is partially submerged during operation and can be tilted out of the water when not in use.
Owners manual means a document or collection of documents prepared by the engine manufacturer for the owner or operator to describe appropriate engine maintenance, applicable warranties, and any other information related to operating or keeping the engine. The owners manual is typically provided to the ultimate purchaser at the time of sale. The owners manual may be in paper or electronic format.
Oxides of nitrogen has the meaning given in 40 CFR part 1065.1001.
Personal watercraft means a vessel less than 4.0 meters (13 feet) in length that uses an installed spark-ignition engine powering a water jet pump as its primary source of propulsion and is designed with no open load carrying area that would retain water. The vessel is designed to be operated by a person or persons positioned on, rather than within the confines of the hull. A vessel using an outboard engine as its primary source of propulsion is not a personal watercraft.
Personal watercraft engine means a spark-ignition engine used to propel a personal watercraft.
Placed into service means put into initial use for its intended purpose.
Point of first retail sale means the location at which the initial retail sale occurs. This generally means an equipment dealership, but may also include an engine seller or distributor in cases where loose engines are sold to the general public for uses such as replacement engines.
Portable marine fuel tank has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1060.801.
Ramped-modal means relating to the ramped-modal type of steady-state test described in § 1045.505.
Revoke has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. In general this means to terminate the certificate or an exemption for an engine family.
Round has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.
Scheduled maintenance means adjusting, repairing, removing, disassembling, cleaning, or replacing components or systems periodically to keep a part or system from failing, malfunctioning, or wearing prematurely. It also may mean actions you expect are necessary to correct an overt indication of failure or malfunction for which periodic maintenance is not appropriate.
Small-volume engine manufacturer means an engine manufacturer with 250 or fewer employees. This includes any employees working for a parent company and all its subsidiaries.
Small-volume vessel manufacturer means a vessel manufacturer with 500 or fewer employees. This includes any employees working for a parent company and all its subsidiaries.
Spark-ignition means relating to a gasoline-fueled engine or any other type of engine with a spark plug (or other sparking device) and with operating characteristics significantly similar to the theoretical Otto combustion cycle. Spark-ignition engines usually use a throttle to regulate intake air flow to control power during normal operation.
Steady-state means relating to emission tests in which engine speed and load are held at a finite set of essentially constant values. Steady-state tests are either discrete-mode tests or ramped-modal tests.
Sterndrive/inboard engine means a spark-ignition engine that is used to propel a vessel, but is not an outboard engine or a personal watercraft engine. A sterndrive/inboard engine may be either a conventional sterndrive/inboard engine or a high-performance engine. Engines on propeller-driven vessels, jet boats, air boats, and hovercraft are all sterndrive/inboard engines.
Stoichiometric means relating to the particular ratio of air and fuel such that if the fuel were fully oxidized, there would be no remaining fuel or oxygen. For example, stoichiometric combustion in a gasoline-fueled engine typically occurs at an air-to-fuel mass ratio of about 14.7:1.
Suspend has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. In general this means to temporarily discontinue the certificate or an exemption for an engine family.
Test engine means an engine in a test sample.
Test sample means the collection of engines selected from the population of an engine family for emission testing. This may include testing for certification, production-line testing, or in-use testing.
Total hydrocarbon has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001. This generally means the combined mass of organic compounds measured by the specified procedure for measuring total hydrocarbon, expressed as a hydrocarbon with a hydrogen-to-carbon mass ratio of 1.85:1.
Total hydrocarbon equivalent has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001. This generally means the sum of the carbon mass contributions of non-oxygenated hydrocarbons, alcohols and aldehydes, or other organic compounds that are measured separately as contained in a gas sample, expressed as exhaust hydrocarbon from petroleum-fueled engines. The hydrogen-to-carbon ratio of the equivalent hydrocarbon is 1.85:1.
Ultimate purchaser means, with respect to any new vessel or new marine propulsion engine, the first person who in good faith purchases such new vessel or new engine for purposes other than resale.
Under-cowl fuel line means a fuel line that is entirely contained within the cowl of an outboard engine. This does not include a fuel line that crosses through the cowl housing.
United States has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30.
Upcoming model year for an engine family means the model year after the one currently in production.
U.S.-directed production volume means the number of engine units, subject to the requirements of this part, produced by a manufacturer for which the manufacturer has a reasonable assurance that sale was or will be made to ultimate purchasers in the United States.
Useful life means the period during which a vehicle is required to comply with all applicable emission standards, specified as a given number of hours of operation or calendar years, whichever comes first. It is the period during which an engine is required to comply with all applicable emission standards. See §§ 1045.103(e), 1045.105(e), and 1045.112. If an engine has no hour meter, the specified number of hours does not limit the period during which an in-use engine is required to comply with emission standards unless the degree of service accumulation can be verified separately.
Variable-speed engine means an engine that is not a constant-speed engine.
Vessel means marine vessel.
Void has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. In general this means to invalidate a certificate or an exemption both retroactively and prospectively.
Volatile liquid fuel means any fuel other than diesel or biodiesel that is a liquid at atmospheric pressure and has a Reid Vapor Pressure higher than 2.0 pounds per square inch.
We (us, our) means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and any authorized representatives.
Wide-open throttle means maximum throttle opening. Unless this is specified at a given speed, it refers to maximum throttle opening at maximum speed. For electronically controlled or other engines with multiple possible fueling rates, wide-open throttle also means the maximum fueling rate at maximum throttle opening under test conditions.