40 CFR § 1054.125 - What maintenance instructions must I give to buyers?
Give the ultimate purchaser of each new engine written instructions for properly maintaining and using the engine, including the emission control system as described in this section. The maintenance instructions also apply to service accumulation on your emission-data engines as described in § 1054.245 and in 40 CFR part 1065.
(a) Critical emission-related maintenance. Critical emission-related maintenance includes any adjustment, cleaning, repair, or replacement of critical emission-related components. This may also include additional emission-related maintenance that you determine is critical if we approve it in advance. You may schedule critical emission-related maintenance on these components if you meet the following conditions:
(1) You demonstrate that the maintenance is reasonably likely to be done at the recommended intervals on in-use engines. We will accept scheduled maintenance as reasonably likely to occur if you satisfy any of the following conditions:
(i) You present data showing that any lack of maintenance that increases emissions also unacceptably degrades the engine's performance.
(ii) You present survey data showing that at least 80 percent of engines in the field get the maintenance you specify at the recommended intervals. If the survey data show that 60 to 80 percent of engines in the field get the maintenance you specify at the recommended intervals, you may ask us to consider additional factors such as the effect on performance and emissions. For example, we may allow you to schedule fuel-injector replacement as critical emission-related maintenance if you have survey data showing this is done at the recommended interval for 65 percent of engines and you demonstrate that performance degradation is roughly proportional to the degradation in emission control for engines that do not have their fuel injectors replaced.
(iii) You provide the maintenance free of charge and clearly say so in your maintenance instructions.
(iv) You otherwise show us that the maintenance is reasonably likely to be done at the recommended intervals.
(2) You may schedule cleaning or changing air filters or changing spark plugs at the least frequent interval described in the owners manual. See § 1054.245 for testing requirements related to these maintenance steps.
(3) You may not schedule critical emission-related maintenance within the useful life period for aftertreatment devices, pulse-air valves, fuel injectors, oxygen sensors, electronic control units, superchargers, or turbochargers, except as specified in paragraph (b) or (c) of this section.
(4) You may ask us to approve a maintenance interval shorter than that specified in paragraph (a)(3) of this section. In your request you must describe the proposed maintenance step, recommend the maximum feasible interval for this maintenance, include your rationale with supporting evidence to support the need for the maintenance at the recommended interval, and demonstrate that the maintenance will be done at the recommended interval on in-use engines. In considering your request, we will evaluate the information you provide and any other available information to establish alternate specifications for maintenance intervals, if appropriate.
(b) Recommended additional maintenance. You may recommend any additional amount of maintenance on the components listed in paragraph (a) of this section, as long as you state clearly that these maintenance steps are not necessary to keep the emission-related warranty valid. If operators do the maintenance specified in paragraph (a) of this section, but not the recommended additional maintenance, this does not allow you to disqualify those engines from in-use testing or deny a warranty claim. Do not take these maintenance steps during service accumulation on your emission-data engines.
(c) Special maintenance. You may specify more frequent maintenance to address problems related to special situations, such as atypical engine operation. You must clearly state that this additional maintenance is associated with the special situation you are addressing. You may also address maintenance of low-use engines (such as recreational or stand-by engines) by specifying the maintenance interval in terms of calendar months or years in addition to your specifications in terms of engine operating hours. All special maintenance instructions must be consistent with good engineering judgment. We may disapprove your maintenance instructions if we determine that you have specified special maintenance steps to address engine operation that is not atypical, or that the maintenance is unlikely to occur in use. For example, this paragraph (c) does not allow you to design engines that require special maintenance for a certain type of expected operation. If we determine that certain maintenance items do not qualify as special maintenance under this paragraph (c), you may identify this as recommended additional maintenance under paragraph (b) of this section.
(d) Noncritical emission-related maintenance. Subject to the provisions of this paragraph (d), you may schedule any amount of emission-related inspection or maintenance that is not covered by paragraph (a) of this section (i.e., maintenance that is neither explicitly identified as critical emission-related maintenance, nor that we approve as critical emission-related maintenance). Noncritical emission-related maintenance generally includes re-seating valves, removing combustion chamber deposits, or any other emission-related maintenance on the components we specify in 40 CFR part 1068, Appendix I that is not covered in paragraph (a) of this section. You must state in the owners manual that these steps are not necessary to keep the emission-related warranty valid. If operators fail to do this maintenance, this does not allow you to disqualify those engines from in-use testing or deny a warranty claim. Do not take these inspection or maintenance steps during service accumulation on your emission-data engines.
(e) Maintenance that is not emission-related. For maintenance unrelated to emission controls, you may schedule any amount of inspection or maintenance. You may also take these inspection or maintenance steps during service accumulation on your emission-data engines, as long as they are reasonable and technologically necessary. This might include adding engine oil, changing fuel or oil filters, servicing engine-cooling systems, and adjusting idle speed, governor, engine bolt torque, valve lash, or injector lash. You may not perform this nonemission-related maintenance on emission-data engines more often than the least frequent intervals that you recommend to the ultimate purchaser.
(f) Source of parts and repairs. State clearly on the first page of your written maintenance instructions that a repair shop or person of the owner's choosing may maintain, replace, or repair emission control devices and systems. Your instructions may not require components or service identified by brand, trade, or corporate name. Also, do not directly or indirectly condition your warranty on a requirement that the engine be serviced by your franchised dealers or any other service establishments with which you have a commercial relationship. You may disregard the requirements in this paragraph (f) if you do one of two things:
(1) Provide a component or service without charge under the purchase agreement.
(g) Payment for scheduled maintenance. Owners are responsible for properly maintaining their engines. This generally includes paying for scheduled maintenance. However, manufacturers must pay for scheduled maintenance during the useful life if it meets all the following criteria:
(2) The primary function of each affected component is to reduce emissions.
(3) Failure to perform the maintenance would not cause clear problems that would significantly degrade the engine's performance.