40 CFR § 1054.505 - How do I test engines?

§ 1054.505 How do I test engines?
Link to an amendment published at 88 FR 4667, Jan. 24, 2023.

(a) This section describes how to test engines under steady-state conditions. For handheld engines you must perform tests with discrete-mode sampling. For nonhandheld engines we allow you to perform tests with either discrete-mode or ramped-modal testing methods, as described in 40 CFR Part 1065. You must use the same modal testing method for certification and all other testing you perform for an engine family. If we test your engines to confirm that they meet emission standards, we will use the modal testing method you select for your own testing. If you submit certification test data collected with both discrete-mode and ramped-modal testing (either in your original application or in an amendment to your application), either method may be used for subsequent testing. We may also perform other testing as allowed by the Clean Air Act. Conduct duty-cycle testing as follows:

(1) For discrete-mode testing, sample emissions separately for each mode, then calculate an average emission level for the whole cycle using the weighting factors specified for each mode. Control engine speed as specified in this section. Use one of the following methods for confirming torque values for nonhandheld engines:

(i) Calculate torque-related cycle statistics and compare with the established criteria as specified in 40 CFR 1065.514 to confirm that the test is valid.

(ii) Evaluate each mode separately to validate the duty cycle. All torque feedback values recorded during non-idle sampling periods must be within ±2 percent of the reference value or within ±0.27 N·m of the reference value, whichever is greater. Also, the mean torque value during non-idle sampling periods must be within ±1 percent of the reference value or ±0.12 N·m of the reference value, whichever is greater. Control torque during idle as specified in paragraph (c) of this section.

(2) Unless we specify otherwise, you may simulate the governor for ramped-modal testing consistent with good engineering judgment.

(b) Measure emissions by testing the engine on a dynamometer with the test procedures for constant-speed engines in 40 CFR part 1065 while using one of the steady-state duty cycles identified in this paragraph (b) to determine whether it meets the exhaust emission standards specified in § 1054.101(a). This requirement applies for all engines, including those not meeting the definition of “constant-speed engine” in 40 CFR 1065.1001.

(1) For handheld engines, use the two-mode duty cycle described in paragraph (a) of Appendix II of this part. Establish an engine's rated speed as follows:

(i) For ungoverned handheld engines used in fixed-speed applications all having approximately the same nominal in-use operating speed, hold engine speed within 350 rpm of the nominal speed for testing. We may allow you to include in your engine family without additional testing a small number engines that will be installed such that they have a different nominal speed. If your engine family includes a majority of engines with approximately the same nominal in-use operating speed and a substantial number of engines with different nominal speeds, you must test engines as specified in this paragraph (b)(1)(i) and paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section.

(ii) For ungoverned handheld engines for which there is not a dominant value for nominal in-use operating speeds, hold engine speed within 350 rpm of the point at which the engine generates maximum power.

(iii) For governed handheld engines, hold engine speed at maximum test speed, as defined in 40 CFR 1065.1001.

(2) For nonhandheld engines, use the six-mode duty cycle or the corresponding ramped-modal cycle described in paragraph (b) of appendix II of this part. Control engine speeds and torques during idle mode as specified in paragraph (c) of this section. Control engine speed during the full-load operating mode as specified in paragraph (d) of this section. For all other modes, control engine speed to within 5 percent of the nominal speed specified in paragraph (d) of this section or let the installed governor (in the production configuration) control engine speed. For all modes except idle, control torque as needed to meet the cycle-validation criteria in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. The governor may be adjusted before emission sampling to target the nominal speed identified in paragraph (d) of this section, but the installed governor must control engine speed throughout the emission-sampling period whether the governor is adjusted or not. Note that ramped-modal testing involves continuous sampling, so governor adjustments may not occur during such a test. Note also that our testing may involve running the engine with the governor in the standard configuration even if you adjust the governor as described in this paragraph (b)(2) for certification or production-line testing.

(c) During idle mode for nonhandheld engines, operate the engine with the following parameters:

(1) Allow the engine to operate at the idle speed determined by the installed governor. If any production engines from the engine family have a user-selectable idle speed, operate the engine with an installed governor that controls engine speed to the lowest available speed setting.

(2) Keep engine torque under 5 percent of the nominal torque value for Mode 1.

(3) You must conduct testing at the idle mode even if the allowable torque values overlap with those for another specified mode.

(d) During full-load operation for nonhandheld engines, operate the engine with the following parameters:

(1) In normal circumstances, select a test speed of either 3060 rpm or 3600 rpm that is most appropriate for the engine family. If all the engines in the engine family are used in intermediate-speed equipment, select a test speed of 3060 rpm. The test associated with intermediate-speed operation is referred to as the A Cycle. If all the engines in the engine family are used in rated-speed equipment, select a test speed of 3600 rpm. The test associated with rated-speed operation is referred to as the B Cycle. If an engine family includes engines used in both intermediate-speed equipment and rated-speed equipment, select the test speed for emission-data engines that will result in worst-case emissions. In unusual circumstances, you may ask to use a test speed different than that specified in this paragraph (d)(1) if it better represents in-use operation.

(2) Operate the engine ungoverned at wide-open throttle at the test speed established in paragraph (d)(1) of this section until the engine reaches thermal stability as described in 40 CFR 1065.530(a)(2)(ii). Record the torque value after stabilization. Use this value for the full-load torque setting and for denormalizing the rest of the duty cycle.

(3) Control engine speed during emission sampling to stay within 5 percent of the nominal speed identified in paragraph (d)(1) of this section.

(4) The provisions of this paragraph (d) apply instead of the engine mapping procedures in 40 CFR 1065.510.

[73 FR 59259, Oct. 8, 2008, as amended at 79 FR 23751, Apr. 28, 2014; 86 FR 34522, June 29, 2021]