40 CFR § 1065.245 - Sample flow meter for batch sampling.
(a) Application. Use a sample flow meter to determine sample flow rates or total flow sampled into a batch sampling system over a test interval. You may use the difference between a diluted exhaust sample flow meter and a dilution air meter to calculate raw exhaust flow rates or total raw exhaust flow over a test interval.
(b) Component requirements. We recommend that you use a sample flow meter that meets the specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. This may involve a laminar flow element, an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi, a critical-flow venturi or multiple critical-flow venturis arranged in parallel, a positive-displacement meter, a thermal-mass meter, an averaging Pitot tube, or a hot-wire anemometer. Note that your overall system for measuring sample flow must meet the linearity verification in § 1065.307. For the special case where CFVs are used for both the diluted exhaust and sample-flow measurements and their upstream pressures and temperatures remain similar during testing, you do not have to quantify the flow rate of the sample-flow CFV. In this special case, the sample-flow CFV inherently flow-weights the batch sample relative to the diluted exhaust CFV.
(c) Flow conditioning. For any type of sample flow meter, condition the flow as needed to prevent wakes, eddies, circulating flows, or flow pulsations from affecting the accuracy or repeatability of the meter. For some meters, you may accomplish this by using a sufficient length of straight tubing (such as a length equal to at least 10 pipe diameters) or by using specially designed tubing bends, orifice plates or straightening fins to establish a predictable velocity profile upstream of the meter.