# 40 CFR § 1065.310 - Torque calibration.

(a) Scope and frequency. Calibrate all torque-measurement systems including dynamometer torque measurement transducers and systems upon initial installation and after major maintenance. Use good engineering judgment to repeat the calibration. Follow the torque transducer manufacturer's instructions for linearizing your torque sensor's output. We recommend that you calibrate the torque-measurement system with a reference force and a lever arm.

(b) Recommended procedure to quantify lever-arm length. Quantify the lever-arm length, NIST-traceable within ±0.5% uncertainty. The lever arm's length must be measured from the centerline of the dynamometer to the point at which the reference force is measured. The lever arm must be perpendicular to gravity (i.e., horizontal), and it must be perpendicular to the dynamometer's rotational axis. Balance the lever arm's torque or quantify its net hanging torque, NIST-traceable within ±1% uncertainty, and account for it as part of the reference torque.

(c) Recommended procedure to quantify reference force. We recommend dead-weight calibration, but you may use either of the following procedures to quantify the reference force, NIST-traceable within ±0.5% uncertainty.

(1) Dead-weight calibration. This technique applies a known force by hanging known weights at a known distance along a lever arm. Make sure the weights' lever arm is perpendicular to gravity (i.e., horizontal) and perpendicular to the dynamometer's rotational axis. Apply at least six calibration-weight combinations for each applicable torque-measuring range, spacing the weight quantities about equally over the range. Oscillate or rotate the dynamometer during calibration to reduce frictional static hysteresis. Determine each weight's reference force by multiplying its NIST-traceable mass by the local acceleration of Earth's gravity, as described in § 1065.630. Calculate the reference torque as the weights' reference force multiplied by the lever arm reference length.

(2) Strain gage, load transducer, or proving ring calibration. This technique applies force either by hanging weights on a lever arm (these weights and their lever arm length are not used as part of the reference torque determination) or by operating the dynamometer at different torques. Apply at least six force combinations for each applicable torque-measuring range, spacing the force quantities about equally over the range. Oscillate or rotate the dynamometer during calibration to reduce frictional static hysteresis. In this case, the reference torque is determined by multiplying the force output from the reference meter (such as a strain gage, load transducer, or proving ring) by its effective lever-arm length, which you measure from the point where the force measurement is made to the dynamometer's rotational axis. Make sure you measure this length perpendicular to the reference meter's measurement axis and perpendicular to the dynamometer's rotational axis.