40 CFR § 1065.390 - PM balance verifications and weighing process verification.
(a) Scope and frequency. This section describes three verifications.
(1) Independent verification of PM balance performance within 370 days before weighing any filter.
(3) Verify that the mass determination of reference filters before and after a filter weighing session are less than a specified tolerance.
(b) Independent verification. Have the balance manufacturer (or a representative approved by the balance manufacturer) verify the balance performance within 370 days of testing. Balances have internal weights that compensate for drift due to environmental changes. These internal weights must be verified as part of this independent verification with external, certified calibration weights that meet the specifications in § 1065.790.
(c) Zeroing and spanning. You must verify balance performance by zeroing and spanning it with at least one calibration weight. Also, any external weights you use must meet the specifications in § 1065.790. Any weights internal to the PM balance used for this verification must be verified as described in paragraph (b) of this section.
(1) Use a manual procedure in which you zero the balance and span the balance with at least one calibration weight. If you normally use mean values by repeating the weighing process to improve the accuracy and precision of PM measurements, use the same process to verify balance performance.
(2) You may use an automated procedure to verify balance performance. For example most balances have internal weights for automatically verifying balance performance.
(d) Reference sample weighing. Verify all mass readings during a weighing session by weighing reference PM sample media (e.g., filters) before and after a weighing session. A weighing session may be as short as desired, but no longer than 80 hours, and may include both pre-test and post-test mass readings. We recommend that weighing sessions be eight hours or less. Successive mass determinations of each reference PM sample media (e.g., filter) must return the same value within ±10 µg or ±10% of the net PM mass expected at the standard (if known), whichever is higher. If successive reference PM sample media (e.g., filter) weighing events fail this criterion, invalidate all individual test media (e.g., filter) mass readings occurring between the successive reference media (e.g., filter) mass determinations. You may reweigh these media (e.g., filter) in another weighing session. If you invalidate a pre-test media (e.g., filter) mass determination, that test interval is void. Perform this verification as follows:
(1) Keep at least two samples of unused PM sample media (e.g., filters) in the PM-stabilization environment. Use these as references. If you collect PM with filters, select unused filters of the same material and size for use as references. You may periodically replace references, using good engineering judgment.
(2) Stabilize references in the PM stabilization environment. Consider references stabilized if they have been in the PM-stabilization environment for a minimum of 30 min, and the PM-stabilization environment has been within the specifications of § 1065.190(d) for at least the preceding 60 min.
(3) Exercise the balance several times with a reference sample. We recommend weighing ten samples without recording the values.
(4) Zero and span the balance. Using good engineering judgment, place a test mass such as a calibration weight on the balance, then remove it. After spanning, confirm that the balance returns to a zero reading within the normal stabilization time.
(5) Weigh each of the reference media (e.g., filters) and record their masses. We recommend using substitution weighing as described in § 1065.590(j). If you normally use mean values by repeating the weighing process to improve the accuracy and precision of the reference media (e.g., filter) mass, you must use mean values of sample media (e.g., filter) masses.
(7) Use the recorded ambient conditions to correct results for buoyancy as described in § 1065.690. Record the buoyancy-corrected mass of each of the references.
(8) Subtract each reference media's (e.g., filter's) buoyancy-corrected reference mass from its previously measured and recorded buoyancy-corrected mass.
(9) If any of the reference filters' observed mass changes by more than that allowed under this paragraph, you must invalidate all PM mass determinations made since the last successful reference media (e.g. filter) mass validation. You may discard reference PM media (e.g. filters) if only one of the filter's mass changes by more than the allowable amount and you can positively identify a special cause for that filter's mass change that would not have affected other in-process filters. Thus, the validation can be considered a success. In this case, you do not have to include the contaminated reference media when determining compliance with paragraph (d)(10) of this section, but the affected reference filter must be immediately discarded and replaced prior to the next weighing session.
(10) If any of the reference masses change by more than that allowed under this paragraph (d), invalidate all PM results that were determined between the two times that the reference masses were determined. If you discarded reference PM sample media according to paragraph (d)(9) of this section, you must still have at least one reference mass difference that meets the criteria in this paragraph (d). Otherwise, you must invalidate all PM results that were determined between the two times that the reference media (e.g., filters) masses were determined.