40 CFR § 1065.546 - Verification of minimum dilution ratio for PM batch sampling.
Use continuous flows and/or tracer gas concentrations for transient and ramped-modal cycles to verify the minimum dilution ratios for PM batch sampling as specified in § 1065.140(e)(2) over the test interval. You may use mode-average values instead of continuous measurements for discrete mode steady-state duty cycles. Determine the minimum primary and minimum overall dilution ratios using one of the following methods (you may use a different method for each stage of dilution):
(a) Determine minimum dilution ratio based on molar flow data. This involves determination of at least two of the following three quantities: raw exhaust flow (or previously diluted flow), dilution air flow, and dilute exhaust flow. You may determine the raw exhaust flow rate based on the measured intake air or fuel flow rate and the raw exhaust chemical balance terms as given in § 1065.655(f). You may determine the raw exhaust flow rate based on the measured intake air and dilute exhaust molar flow rates and the dilute exhaust chemical balance terms as given in § 1065.655(g). You may alternatively estimate the molar raw exhaust flow rate based on intake air, fuel rate measurements, and fuel properties, consistent with good engineering judgment.
(b) Determine minimum dilution ratio based on tracer gas (e.g., CO2) concentrations in the raw (or previously diluted) and dilute exhaust corrected for any removed water.
(c) Use good engineering judgment to develop your own method of determining dilution ratios.