(a)General. For all emission measurements, use test fuels that meet the specifications in this subpart, unless the standard-setting part directs otherwise. Section 1065.10(c)(1) does not apply with respect to test fuels. Note that the standard-setting parts generally require that you design your emission controls to function properly when using commercially available fuels, even if they differ from the test fuel. Where we specify multiple grades of a certain fuel type (such as diesel fuel with different sulfur concentrations), see the standard-setting part to determine which grade to use.
(b)Fuels meeting alternate specifications. We may allow you to use a different test fuel (such as California Phase 2 gasoline) if it does not affect your ability to show that your engines would comply with all applicable emission standards using the fuel specified in this subpart.
(c)Fuels not specified in this subpart. If you produce engines that run on a type of fuel (or mixture of fuels) that we do not specify in this subpart, you must get our written approval to establish the appropriate test fuel. See the standard-setting part for provisions related to fuels and fuel mixtures not specified in this subpart.
(1) For engines designed to operate on a single fuel, we will generally allow you to use the fuel if you show us all the following things are true:
(i) Show that your engines will use only the designated fuel in service.
(ii) Show that this type of fuel is commercially available.
(iii) Show that operating the engines on the fuel we specify would be inappropriate, as in the following examples:
(A) The engine will not run on the specified fuel.
(B) The engine or emission controls will not be durable or work properly when operating with the specified fuel.
(C) The measured emission results would otherwise be substantially unrepresentative of in-use emissions.
(2) For engines that are designed to operate on different fuel types, the provisions of paragraphs (c)(1)(ii) and (iii) of this section apply with respect to each fuel type.
(3) For engines that are designed to operate on different fuel types as well as continuous mixtures of those fuels, we may require you to test with either the worst-case fuel mixture or the most representative fuel mixture, unless the standard-setting part specifies otherwise.
(d)Fuel specifications. Specifications in this section apply as follows:
(1) Measure and calculate values as described in the appropriate reference procedure. Record and report final values expressed to at least the same number of decimal places as the applicable limit value. The right-most digit for each limit value is significant unless specified otherwise. For example, for a specified distillation temperature of 60 °C, determine the test fuel's value to at least the nearest whole number.
(2) The fuel parameters specified in this subpart depend on measurement procedures that are incorporated by reference. For any of these procedures, you may instead rely upon the procedures identified in40 CFR part 80 for measuring the same parameter. For example, we may identify different reference procedures for measuring gasoline parameters in 40 CFR 80.46.
(e) Two-stroke fuel/oil mixing. For two-stroke engines, use a fuel/oil mixture meeting the manufacturer's specifications.
(f)Service accumulation and field testing fuels. If we do not specify a service-accumulation or field-testing fuel in the standard-setting part, use an appropriate commercially available fuel such as those meeting minimum specifications from the following table:
Table 1 of § 1065.701—Examples of Service-Accumulation and Field-Testing Fuels
Reference procedure 1
1 ASTM specifications are incorporated by reference in § 1065.1010.