40 CFR § 1066.15 - Overview of test procedures.
This section outlines the procedures to test vehicles that are subject to emission standards.
(a) The standard-setting part describes the emission standards that apply. Evaporative and refueling emissions are generally in the form of grams total hydrocarbon equivalent per test. We set exhaust emission standards in g/mile (or g/km), for the following constituents:
(1) Total oxides of nitrogen, NOX.
(2) Hydrocarbons, HC, which may be expressed in the following ways:
(i) Total hydrocarbons, THC.
(ii) Nonmethane hydrocarbons, NMHC, which results from subtracting methane, CH4, from THC.
(iii) Total hydrocarbon-equivalent, THCE, which results from adjusting THC mathematically to be equivalent on a carbon-mass basis.
(iv) Nonmethane hydrocarbon-equivalent, NMHCE, which results from adjusting NMHC mathematically to be equivalent on a carbon-mass basis.
(v) Nonmethane organic gases, NMOG, which are calculated either from fully or partially speciated measurement of hydrocarbons including oxygenates, or by adjusting measured NMHC values based on fuel oxygenate properties.
(3) Particulate matter, PM.
(4) Carbon monoxide, CO.
(5) Carbon dioxide, CO2.
(6) Methane, CH4.
(7) Nitrous oxide, N2O.
(b) Note that some vehicles may not be subject to standards for all the exhaust emission constituents identified in paragraph (a) of this section. Note also that the standard-setting part may include standards for pollutants not listed in paragraph (a) of this section.
(c) The provisions of this part apply for chassis dynamometer testing where vehicle speed is controlled to follow a prescribed duty cycle while simulating vehicle driving through the dynamometer's road-load settings. We generally set exhaust emission standards over test intervals and/or drive schedules, as follows:
(1)Vehicle operation. Testing involves measuring emissions and miles travelled while operating the vehicle on a chassis dynamometer. Refer to the definitions of “duty cycle” and “test interval” in § 1066.1001. Note that a single drive schedule may have multiple test intervals and require weighting of results from multiple test intervals to calculate a composite distance-based emission value to compare to the standard.
(2)Constituent determination. Determine the total mass of each exhaust constituent over a test interval by selecting from the following methods:
(i)Continuous sampling. In continuous sampling, measure the exhaust constituent's concentration continuously from raw or dilute exhaust. Multiply this concentration by the continuous (raw or dilute) flow rate at the emission sampling location to determine the constituent's flow rate. Sum the constituent's flow rate continuously over the test interval. This sum is the total mass of the emitted constituent.
(ii)Batch sampling. In batch sampling, continuously extract and store a sample of raw or dilute exhaust for later measurement. Extract a sample proportional to the raw or dilute exhaust flow rate, as applicable. You may extract and store a proportional sample of exhaust in an appropriate container, such as a bag, and then measure NOX, HC, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, and CH2O concentrations in the container after the test interval. You may deposit PM from proportionally extracted exhaust onto an appropriate substrate, such as a filter. In this case, divide the PM by the amount of filtered exhaust to calculate the PM concentration. Multiply batch sampled concentrations by the total (raw or dilute) flow from which it was extracted during the test interval. This product is the total mass of the emitted constituent.
(iii)Combined sampling. You may use continuous and batch sampling simultaneously during a test interval, as follows:
(A) You may use continuous sampling for some constituents and batch sampling for others.
(B) You may use continuous and batch sampling for a single constituent, with one being a redundant measurement, subject to the provisions of 40 CFR 1065.201.
(e) You must use good engineering judgment for all aspects of testing under this part. While this part highlights several specific cases where good engineering judgment is especially relevant, the requirement to use good engineering judgment is not limited to those provisions where we specifically re-state this requirement.