40 CFR § 1068.120 - Requirements for rebuilding engines.
(a) This section describes the steps to take when rebuilding engines to avoid violating the tampering prohibition in § 1068.101(b)(1). These requirements apply to anyone rebuilding an engine subject to this part, but the recordkeeping requirements in paragraphs (j) and (k) of this section apply only to businesses. For maintenance or service that is not rebuilding, including any maintenance related to evaporative emission controls, you may not make changes that might increase emissions of any regulated pollutant, but you do not need to keep any records.
(b) The term “rebuilding” refers to a rebuild of an engine or engine system, including a major overhaul in which you replace the engine's pistons or power assemblies or make other changes that significantly increase the service life of the engine. It also includes replacing or rebuilding an engine's turbocharger or aftercooler or the engine's systems for fuel metering or electronic control so that it significantly increases the service life of the engine. For these provisions, rebuilding may or may not involve removing the engine from the equipment. Rebuilding does not normally include the following:
(1) Scheduled emission-related maintenance that the standard-setting part allows during the useful life period (such as replacing fuel injectors).
(2) Unscheduled maintenance that occurs commonly within the useful life period. For example, replacing a water pump is not rebuilding an engine.
(d) If you rebuild an engine or engine system, you must have a reasonable technical basis for knowing that the rebuilt engine's emission control system performs as well as, or better than, it performs in its certified configuration. Identify the model year of the resulting engine configuration. You have a reasonable basis if you meet two main conditions:
(1) Install parts - new, used, or rebuilt - so a person familiar with engine design and function would reasonably believe that the engine with those parts will control emissions of all pollutants at least to the same degree as with the original parts. For example, it would be reasonable to believe that parts performing the same function as the original parts (and to the same degree) would control emissions to the same degree as the original parts.
(2) Adjust parameters or change design elements only according to the original engine manufacturer's instructions. Or, if you differ from these instructions, you must have data or some other technical basis to show you should not expect in-use emissions to increase.
(e) If the rebuilt engine remains installed or is reinstalled in the same piece of equipment, you must rebuild it to the original configuration, except as allowed by this paragraph (e). You may rebuild it to a different certified configuration of the same or later model year. You may also rebuild it to a certified configuration from an earlier model year as long as the earlier configuration is as clean or cleaner than the original configuration. For purposes of this paragraph (e), “as clean or cleaner” means one of the following:
(1) For engines not certified with a Family Emission Limit for calculating credits for a particular pollutant, this means that the same emission standard applied for both model years. This includes supplemental standards such as Not-to-Exceed standards.
(2) For engines certified with a Family Emission Limit for a particular pollutant, this means that the configuration to which the engine is being rebuilt has a Family Emission Limit for that pollutant that is at or below the standard that applied to the engine originally, and is at or below the original Family Emission Limit.
(f) A rebuilt engine or other used engine may replace a certified engine in a piece of equipment only if the engine was built and/or rebuilt to a certified configuration meeting equivalent or more stringent emission standards. Note that a certified configuration would generally include more than one model year. A rebuilt engine being installed that is from the same model year or a newer model year than the engine being replaced meets this requirement. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (f):
(2) You may use a rebuilt Tier 1 engine to replace a Tier 2 engine if the two engines differ only with respect to model year or other characteristics unrelated to emissions since such engines would be considered to be in the same configuration. This may occur if the Tier 1 engine had emission levels below the Tier 2 standards or if the Tier 2 engine was certified with a Family Emission Limit for calculating emission credits.
(3) You may use a rebuilt engine that originally met the Tier 1 standards without certification, as provided under § 1068.265, to replace a certified Tier 1 engine. This may occur for engines produced under a Transition Program for Equipment Manufacturers such as that described in 40 CFR 1039.625.
(4) You may never replace a certified engine with an engine rebuilt to a configuration that does not meet EPA emission standards. Note that, for purposes of this paragraph (f)(4), a configuration is considered to meet EPA emission standards if it was previously certified or was otherwise shown to meet emission standards (see § 1068.265).
(5) The standard-setting part may apply further restrictions to situations involving installation of used engines to repower equipment. For example, see 40 CFR part 1037 for provisions that apply for glider vehicles.
(g) Do not erase or reset emission-related codes or signals from onboard monitoring systems without diagnosing and responding appropriately to any diagnostic codes. This requirement applies regardless of the manufacturer's reason for installing the monitoring system and regardless of its form or interface. Clear any codes from diagnostic systems when you return the rebuilt engine to service. Do not disable a diagnostic signal without addressing its cause.
(h) When you rebuild an engine, check, clean, adjust, repair, or replace all emission-related components (listed in Appendix I of this part) as needed according to the original manufacturer's recommended practice. In particular, replace oxygen sensors, replace the catalyst if there is evidence of malfunction, clean gaseous fuel-system components, and replace fuel injectors (if applicable), unless you have a reasonable technical basis for believing any of these components do not need replacement.
(i) If you are installing an engine that someone else has rebuilt, check all emission-related components listed in Appendix I of this part as needed according to the original manufacturer's recommended practice.
(3) Describe any engine parameter adjustments.
(4) Identify any emission-related codes or signals you responded to and reset.
(1) You do not need to keep information that is not reasonably available through normal business practices. We do not expect you to have information that you cannot reasonably access.
(2) You do not need to keep records of what other companies do.
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