40 CFR § 122.29 - New sources and new dischargers.
(1) New source and new discharger are defined in § 122.2. [See Note 2.]
(2) Source means any building, structure, facility, or installation from which there is or may be a discharge of pollutants.
(3) Existing source means any source which is not a new source or a new discharger.
(4) Site is defined in § 122.2;
(5) Facilities or equipment means buildings, structures, process or production equipment or machinery which form a permanent part of the new source and which will be used in its operation, if these facilities or equipment are of such value as to represent a substantial commitment to construct. It excludes facilities or equipment used in connection with feasibility, engineering, and design studies regarding the source or water pollution treatment for the source.
(b) Criteria for new source determination.
(1) Except as otherwise provided in an applicable new source performance standard, a source is a “new source” if it meets the definition of “new source” in § 122.2, and
(i) It is constructed at a site at which no other source is located; or
(ii) It totally replaces the process or production equipment that causes the discharge of pollutants at an existing source; or
(iii) Its processes are substantially independent of an existing source at the same site. In determining whether these processes are substantially independent, the Director shall consider such factors as the extent to which the new facility is integrated with the existing plant; and the extent to which the new facility is engaged in the same general type of activity as the existing source.
(2) A source meeting the requirements of paragraphs (b)(1) (i), (ii), or (iii) of this section is a new source only if a new source performance standard is independently applicable to it. If there is no such independently applicable standard, the source is a new discharger. See § 122.2.
(3) Construction on a site at which an existing source is located results in a modification subject to § 122.62 rather than a new source (or a new discharger) if the construction does not create a new building, structure, facility, or installation meeting the criteria of paragraph (b)(1) (ii) or (iii) of this section but otherwise alters, replaces, or adds to existing process or production equipment.
(4) Construction of a new source as defined under § 122.2 has commenced if the owner or operator has:
(i) Begun, or caused to begin as part of a continuous on-site construction program:
(A) Any placement, assembly, or installation of facilities or equipment; or
(B) Significant site preparation work including clearing, excavation or removal of existing buildings, structures, or facilities which is necessary for the placement, assembly, or installation of new source facilities or equipment; or
(ii) Entered into a binding contractual obligation for the purchase of facilities or equipment which are intended to be used in its operation with a reasonable time. Options to purchase or contracts which can be terminated or modified without substantial loss, and contracts for feasibility engineering, and design studies do not constitute a contractual obligation under the paragraph.
(c) Requirement for an environmental impact statement.
(1) The issuance of an NPDES permit to new source:
(i) By EPA may be a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 33 U.S.C. 4321 et seq. and is subject to the environmental review provisions of NEPA as set out in 40 CFR part 6, subpart F. EPA will determine whether an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is required under § 122.21(l) (special provisions for applications from new sources) and 40 CFR part 6, subpart F;
(ii) By an NPDES approved State is not a Federal action and therefore does not require EPA to conduct an environmental review.
(2) An EIS prepared under this paragraph shall include a recommendation either to issue or deny the permit.
(i) If the recommendation is to deny the permit, the final EIS shall contain the reasons for the recommendation and list those measures, if any, which the applicant could take to cause the recommendation to be changed;
(ii) If the recommendation is to issue the permit, the final EIS shall recommend the actions, if any, which the permittee should take to prevent or minimize any adverse environmental impacts;
(3) The Regional Administrator, to the extent allowed by law, shall issue, condition (other than imposing effluent limitations), or deny the new source NPDES permit following a complete evaluation of any significant beneficial and adverse impacts of the proposed action and a review of the recommendations contained in the EIS or finding of no significant impact.
(d) Effect of compliance with new source performance standards. (The provisions of this paragraph do not apply to existing sources which modify their pollution control facilities or construct new pollution control facilities and achieve performance standards, but which are neither new sources or new dischargers or otherwise do not meet the requirements of this paragraph.)
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, any new discharger, the construction of which commenced after October 18, 1972, or new source which meets the applicable promulgated new source performance standards before the commencement of discharge, may not be subject to any more stringent new source performance standards or to any more stringent technology-based standards under section 301(b)(2) of CWA for the soonest ending of the following periods:
(i) Ten years from the date that construction is completed;
(ii) Ten years from the date the source begins to discharge process or other nonconstruction related wastewater; or
(iii) The period of depreciation or amortization of the facility for the purposes of section 167 or 169 (or both) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.
(2) The protection from more stringent standards of performance afforded by paragraph (d)(1) of this section does not apply to:
(i) Additional or more stringent permit conditions which are not technology based; for example, conditions based on water quality standards, or toxic effluent standards or prohibitions under section 307(a) of CWA; or
(ii) Additional permit conditions in accordance with § 125.3 controlling toxic pollutants or hazardous substances which are not controlled by new source performance standards. This includes permit conditions controlling pollutants other than those identified as toxic pollutants or hazardous substances when control of these pollutants has been specifically identified as the method to control the toxic pollutants or hazardous substances.
(3) When an NPDES permit issued to a source with a “protection period” under paragraph (d)(1) of this section will expire on or after the expiration of the protection period, that permit shall require the owner or operator of the source to comply with the requirements of section 301 and any other then applicable requirements of CWA immediately upon the expiration of the protection period. No additional period for achieving compliance with these requirements may be allowed except when necessary to achieve compliance with requirements promulgated less than 3 years before the expiration of the protection period.
(4) The owner or operator of a new source, a new discharger which commenced discharge after August 13, 1979, or a recommencing discharger shall install and have in operating condition, and shall “start-up” all pollution control equipment required to meet the conditions of its permits before beginning to discharge. Within the shortest feasible time (not to exceed 90 days), the owner or operator must meet all permit conditions. The requirements of this paragraph do not apply if the owner or operator is issued a permit containing a compliance schedule under § 122.47(a)(2).
(5) After the effective date of new source performance standards, it shall be unlawful for any owner or operator of any new source to operate the source in violation of those standards applicable to the source.